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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That surface water is water obtained from surface supplies [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for zonation (Keyword) returned 20 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 20
Zonation and succession in brackish environments of the Eastern Adriatic, 1974, Lovri'_ Andrija,

Cave Arrhopalites: New to Science, 1996, Christiansen, K. , Bellinger, P.
The Chiquibul Cave System is the longest and largest known network of caves in Central America. Most biological collections and observations in the system were conducted in 1986 in the Cebada Cave segment. Other collections were made in 1984 and 1988. At least 70 invertebrate species are known from the system. Many species await study, and of these, two aquatic and five terrestrial species are apparent troglobites. A zonation survey in the entrance of Cebada Cave showed typical forest litter species in all areas. The fauna of the deep zones of the system included only troglophiles and troglobites. Troglobites were rare and present only in the area farthest from the entrance

Controls on the evolution of the Namurian paralic basin, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, 1997, Kumpera O. ,
The Namurian A paralic molasse deposits of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin form erosion remnants of an extensive foreland basin located in the eastern part of the Bohemian Massif. This basin represents the latest stage of development of the Moravian-Silesian Paleozoic Basin (Devonian-Westphalian). The paralic molasse stage of the foreland basin evolved from foreland basins with flysch and with marine molasse. The deposition of the thick paralic molasse (Ostrava Formation) started in the Namurian A. In comparison with other coal-bearing foreland basins situated along the Variscan margin in Europe, this is characterized not only by earlier deposition, but also by a different tectonic setting. It is located in the Moravian-Silesian branch of the Variscan orocline striking NNE-SSW, i.e. perpendicularly to the strikes of more western European foreland basins. In the Visean and Namurian, the foreland basin developed rapidly under the influence of the western thrustfold belt in the collision zone. The deposition was influenced by contrasting subsidence activities of the youngest and most external trough -- Variscan foredeep -- and the platform. The Upper Silesian Basin shows therefore a distinct W-E lithological and structural polarity and zonation

Habitat zonation in Bahamian blue holes, 1998, Palmer R. J. , Warner G. F. , Chapman P. , Trott R. J.

Habitat zonation in Bahamian blue holes, 1998,

Agriculture and nature conservation in the Moravian karst (Czech Republic), 1999, Balk Ivan, Bosk Pavel, Jano Jozef, Stefka Leos
Moravian Karst is a narrow strip of limestone with long history of settlement, agricultural use and man impact to karst. It is naturally divided into smaller units; karst plateaus; separated by deep valleys (glens). Each plateau has different proportion of land use, i.e. the percentage of agricultural land, forests, etc. The agricultural land constitutes now up to 70% in the north and max. 30% in the centre and south of the total area of plateaus. Intensive agricultural use of the arable land since 60ties of this Century caused great impact to quality of soils and groundwater by overdoses of fertilisers and other artificial chemical substances. Detailed research in 1980 to 1997 resulted in a plan of care based on the zonation of land. There were defined zones with different degree of restriction of land use, agricultural activities and application of fertilisers and biocides. Arable lands has been gradually changed to meadows and pastures by introduction of grass since 1987 in the most strictly protected zone to protect especially subsurface karst forms.

Vertical zonation of the speleogenetic space, 1999, Š, Uš, Terš, Ič, France

The point of this paper is to demonstrate that not only the spatial domain where underground karst phenomena are being systematically transformed exist but also that this knowledge makes the role of caves within the geospeleological space/time more consistent. A true cave is any underground karst feature resulting from mass removal, regardless of its dimensions provided that the trajectory of the formative water passes through the cave and that the mass is removed in liquid phase (solution). Speleogenetic space is defined as that portion of the Earth's crust within which karst caverns may be formed. Thus, a karstified rock mass is defined as activated speleogenetic space. Due to the effects of denudation and watertable lowering, as the time passes a single cave seems to move upwards through speleogentic space, until it reaches the surface. The denudational logic of the karst surface is vertical, and the rock suffers disintegration throughout the thickness of its outermost layers. The same argument applies also to in-rock features. Consequently, the idea of the speleothanatic zone is introduced. Within it all of the rock is attacked, on any possible surface, and the final result is its complete annihilation. It may be expected that all structures, of any origin, that expose the rock surface to contact with aggressive water, will evolve via some "speleothanatic" progression. It is demonstrated that three vertical zones of specific formative/de-formative processes exist within speleogenetic space.


New rare cave minerals from the Perolas-Santana karst system (So Paulo State, Brazil), 2000, Forti Paolo, Galli Ermanno, Rossi Antonio
The Perolas-Santana karst system (So Paulo State, Brazil) has been partially studied from the mineralogical point of view. The present paper will contribute to the knowledge of the minerals in these caves, describing the occurrence of euhedral celestite crystals and of a rather rare mineral for a cavern environment: lithiophorite. Thanks to these new discoveries the Perolas-Santana karst system becomes one of the most important in Brazil from a mineralogical point of view. Finally, the result of the chemical analyses carried out on this newly discovered Monoxyhydroxide put in evidence a zonation in the distribution of the different elements which may be related to several subsequent depositional events characterized by solutions with a chemical content variable in time.

Diagenetic History of Pipe Creek Jr. Reef, Silurian, North-Central Indiana, U.S.A, 2000, Simo J. A. , Lehmann Patrick J. ,
Calcite cements in the Silurian (Ludlovian) Pipe Creek Jr. Reef, north-central Indiana, are compositionally zoned with characteristic minor-element concentrations and stable-isotope signatures, and were precipitated in different diagenetic environments. Superposition and crosscutting relationships allow us to group cement zones and to relate them to the sequence stratigraphic evolution of the reef. Pipe Creek Jr. Reef grew in normal marine waters, with the reef top high (greater than 50 m) above the platform floor. Flank facies are volumetrically important and are preserved largely as limestone, in contrast to most dolomitized Silurian reefs in the midcontinent. Syndepositional marine cements fill primary porosity and synsedimentary fractures and are interlayered with marine internal sediment. Now low-magnesium calcite, their isotopic compositions are similar to those of depositional grains and cements estimated to have precipitated from Ludlovian sea waters. Depositional porosity was reduced by 75% by the precipitation of these syndepositional cements, which stabilized the steeply dipping flank slope. Postdepositional, clear calcite cements are interpreted as shallow-phreatic and burial cements on the basis of their relationship to periods of karstification and fracturing. Shallow-phreatic cements, with concentric cathodoluminescent (CL) zonation, precipitated in primary pores and are postdated by fractures and caves filled with Middle Devonian sandstone. CL zonal boundaries are sharp, and some, near a major stratigraphic unconformity, show evidence of dissolution. The volumetric abundance of the individual CL zones varies in the reef, indicating a complex superposition of waters of varying chemistry and rock-water interaction that are probably related to relative sea-level changes. This important aspect of the reef stratigraphy is recorded only by the diagenetic succession, because evidence of earlier sea-level changes is removed by a major later regional unconformity. Burial cements are the youngest diagenetic feature recognized, and they rest conformably or unconformably over older cements. They exhibit both concentric CL zonation and sectoral zoning, they are ferroan to nonferroan, and they contain thin sulfide zones along growth-band boundaries. Their isotopic compositions do not overlap with shallow-phreatic or marine cement values. Degraded oil postdates burial cements, and is composed of the same sterane class as the Devonian-age Antrim Shale, the probable source rock. This source contrasts with that of reef reservoirs in the Michigan Basin, where Silurian strata are commonly the hydrocarbon source

Mineralogy and geochemistry of trace elements in bauxites: the Devonian Schugorsk deposit, Russia, 2001, Mordberg L. E. , Stanley C. J. , Germann K. ,
Processes of mineral alteration involving the mobilization and deposition of more than 30 chemical elements during bauxite formation and epigenesis have been studied on specimens from the Devonian Schugorsk bauxite deposit, Timan, Russia. Chemical analyses of the minerals were obtained by electron microprobe and element distribution in the minerals was studied by element mapping. Interpretation of these data also utilized high-resolution BSE and SE images. The main rock-forming minerals of the Vendian parent rock are calcite, dolomite, feldspar, aegirine, riebeckite, mica, chlorite and quartz; accessory minerals are pyrite, galena, apatite, ilmenite, monazite, xenotime, zircon, columbite, pyrochlore, chromite, bastnaesite and some others. Typically, the grain-size of the accessory minerals in both parent rock and bauxite is from 1 to 40 {micro}m. However, even within these rather small grains, the processes of crystal growth and alteration during weathering can be determined from the zonal distribution of the elements. The most widespread processes observed are: (1) Decomposition of Ti-bearing minerals such as ilmenite, aegirine and riebeckite with the formation of leucoxene', which is the main concentrator of Nb, Cr, V and W. Crystal growth can be traced from the zonal distribution of Nb (up to 16 wt.%). Vein-like leucoxene' is also observed in association with organics. (2) Weathering of columbite and pyrochlore: the source of Nb in leucoxene' is now strongly weathered columbite, while the alteration of pyrochlore is expressed in the growth of plumbopyrochlore rims around Ca-rich cores. (3) Dissolution of sulphide minerals and apatite and the formation of crandallite group minerals: crandallite' crystals of up to 40 {micro}m size show a very clear zonation. From the core to the rim of a crystal, the following sequence of elements is observed: Ca [->] Ba [->] Ce [->] Pb [->] Sr [->] Nd. Sulphur also shows a zoned but more complicated distribution, while the distribution of Fe is rather variable. A possible source of REE is bastnaesite from the parent rock. More than twelve crandallite type cells can be identified in a single crandallite' grain. (4) Alteration of stoichiometric zircon and xenotime with the formation of metamict solid solution of zircon and xenotime: altered zircon rims also bear large amounts of Sc (up to 3.5 wt.%), Fe, Ca and Al in the form of as yet unidentified inclusions of 1-2 {micro}m. Monazite seems to be the least altered mineral of the profile. In the parent rock, an unknown mineral of the composition (wt.%): ThO2 - 54.8; FeO - 14.6; Y2O5 -2.3; CaO - 2.0; REE - 1.8; SiO2 - 12.2; P2O5 - 2.8; total - 94.2 (average from ten analyses) was determined. In bauxite, another mineral was found, which has the composition (wt.%): ThO2 - 24.9; FeO - 20.5; Y2O5 - 6.7; CaO - 2.0; ZrO - 17.6; SiO2 - 8.8; P2O5 - 5.4; total - 89.3 (F was not analysed; average from nine analyses). Presumably, the second mineral is the result of weathering of the first one. Although the Th content is very high, the mineral is almost free of Pb. However, intergrowths of galena and pyrite are observed around the partially decomposed crystals of the mineral. Another generation of galena is enriched in chalcophile elements such as Cu, Cd, Bi etc., and is related to epigenetic alteration of the profile, as are secondary apatite and muscovite

The sponge community in a semi-submerged temperate sea cave: Density, diversity and richness, 2002, Bell Jj,
The sponge communities inhabiting a temperate semi-submerged sea cave were investigated at Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve, Co. Cork, Ireland. Thirty-one species of sponge were reported, the majority of which exhibited either an encrusting or massive morphology. Sponge density (averaged over depth) increased with horizontal distance (5 m intervals) into the cave until approximately 30 m, corresponding to the maximum algal intrusion (algal information from Norton et al., 1971). Species diversity and richness (averaged over depth) were highest at 10 m horizontal distance from the cave entrance. Variability in sponge density, diversity and richness was observed with increasing vertical depth (0.5 m intervals) at most horizontal intervals sampled (5 m apart). These three variables increased initially with depth, but then decreased towards the seabed. Bray-Curtis Similarity Analysis and Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) showed cave sponge community composition to have greater similarity (50%) with local loose rock habitats than the nearby cliffs. Similar processes structuring cave and loose rock sponge communities may account for this situation. Information collected from this and previous studies on the biotic (algal communities, other fauna and competition) and abiotic factors (water flow rate, depth, aerial exposure, light, cave morphology, nutrient depletion and humidity) affecting this and other caves is discussed with respect to its influence on the sponges inhabiting different parts of the cave. Although horizontal zonation patterns have been considered analogous to vertical distribution patterns for algal communities (due to similar decreases in light), this was not the case for the studied sponge communities

Mineralogical and Stable Isotope Studies of Kaolin Deposits: Shallow Epithermal Systems of Western Sardinia, Italy, 2005, Simeone R. , Dilles J. H. , Padalino G. , Palomba M. ,
Large kaolin deposits hosted by Miocene silicic pyroclastic rocks in northwestern Sardinia represent hydrothermal alteration formed within 200 m of the Miocene paleosurface. Boiling hydrothermal fluids ascended steeply dipping faults that are enveloped by altered rock. The broadly stratiform kaolin deposits constitute advanced argillic alteration that was produced in a steam-heated zone near the paleosurface overlying the deeper hydrothermal systems. The deeper zones represent two distinct types of epithermal systems: weakly acidic (inferred low-sulfidation) systems at Tresnuraghes and acidic (high-sulfidation) systems at Romana. Tresnuraghes is characterized at depth by chalcedony {} quartz {} barite veins within a 50-m-wide zone of K-feldspar-quartz-illite alteration and overlying local occurrences of chalcedony sinter, which define the paleosurface. Kaolin deposits near the paleosurface are characterized by zonation outward and downward from an inner shallow zone of kaolinite 1T-opal {} dickite {} alunite (<20-{micro}m-diam grains) to an outer deeper kaolinite 1M-montmorillonite-cristobalite. This zonation indicates formation by descending acidic fluids. The system evolved from ascending weakly acidic or neutral fluids that boiled to produce H2S-rich vapor, which condensed and oxidized within the near-surface vadose zone to form steam-heated acid-sulfate waters and kaolin alteration. At Romana, veins at depth contain chalcedony or quartz and minor pyrite and are enclosed in up to 20-m-wide zones of kaolinite 1T-quartz alteration. Near hydrothermal vents along the paleosurface, chalcedonic silica is enclosed within a zone of kaolinite 1T-alunite (<50-{micro}m-diam grains)-quartz-opal {} dickite {} cristobalite. Kaolin quarries near the paleosurface display outward and downward zoning to kaolinite 1T-opal {} cristobalite and then to montmorillonite-kaolinite 1T {} opal, consistent with formation by descending low pH fluid. The siliceous and advanced argillic alteration along steep conduits formed from acidic ascending magmatic-hydrothermal fluids, whereas the near-surface kaolin formed from steam-heated meteoric waters. Alteration mineral assemblages and stable isotope data provide evidence of the temperature and source of hydrothermal fluids. Barite from Tresnuraghes (average{delta} 18O = 17.1{per thousand},{delta} 34S = 18.8{per thousand}), one alunite sample from Romana ({delta}18O = 12.0{per thousand},{delta} D = -3{per thousand},{delta} 34S = 16.7{per thousand}), and quartz from both localities ({delta}18O = 15.9-22.0{per thousand}) formed in hydrothermal feeders. Source fluids were likely mixtures of meteoric water and minor magmatic fluid, similar to other epithermal systems. Kaolinite-dickite minerals from the kaolin deposits ({delta}18O = 16.6-21.4{per thousand},{delta} D = -43 to -53{per thousand}) formed from steam-heated meteoric water having{delta} D = - 20 per mil, consistent with the presence of anomalous Hg and fine-grained Na- and Fe-poor alunite. The laterally extensive kaolin deposits in Sardinia, and possibly similar deposits elsewhere in the world, appear to represent the uppermost parts of large hydrothermal systems that may be prospects for gold at depth

Spatial distribution, morphometry and activity of La Puebla de Alfind_cn sinkhole field in the Ebro river valley (NE Spain): applied aspects for hazard zonation, 2005, Guti Crrez, Guti Crrez, Mar_n C. , Desir G. , Maldonado C. ,

Spatial distribution, morphometry and activity of La Puebla de Alfinden sinkhole field in the Ebro river valley (NE Spain): applied aspects for hazard zonation, 2005, Gutierrezsantolalla F. , Gutierrezelorza M. , Marin C. , Desir G. , Maldonado C. ,
A highly active collapse sinkhole field in the evaporitic mantled karst of the Ebro river valley is studied (NE Spain). The subsidence is controlled by a NW-SE trending joint system and accelerated by the discharge of waste water from a nearby industrial state. The morphometry, spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the sinkholes have been analysed. The volume of the sinkholes yields a minimum estimate of average lowering of the surface by collapse subsidence of 46 cm. The clustering of the sinkholes and the tendency to form elongated uvalas and linear belts, in a NW-SE direction have a predictive utility and allow the establishment of criteria for a hazard zonation. With the precipitation record supplied by a pluviograph and periodic cartographic and photographic surveys the influence of heavy rainfall events on the triggering of collapses has been studied

Chaotic breccia along the Dent Fault, NW England: implosion or collapse of a fault void?, 2006, Woodcock N. H. , Omma J. E. , Dickson J. A. D. ,
A body of chaotic breccia along the reverse-oblique Dent Fault zone is ascribed to hanging-wall collapse into persistent voids created by geometric mismatch of fault walls, although some implosion into transient voids is a possibility. The breccia comprises a 20 m wide body of hanging-wall lithologies, with a chaotic clast-supported fabric that contrasts with the fitted-fabric breccias typical of the Dent Fault damage zone. The breccia body has crude bedding defined by clast shape and size contrasts. The void fill is cut by Variscan fault strands, which, together with its ferroan calcite and barite cement, prove its late Carboniferous rather than recent age. It is shown that any fault void, transient or persistent, had a smaller aperture than the final width of the breccia body, and no more than 5 m; a span that can be supported to depths of 2 or 3 km. However, cement zonation in the breccia fill suggests that the void opened in multiple increments, each of an aperture compatible with the maximum displacement in any one event along the Dent Fault. The Dent Fault example highlights the possible general importance of fault-void collapse but also the problems in distinguishing it from implosion processes

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