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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That bottomland is a lowland along an alluvial river plain [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for croatia (Keyword) returned 105 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 105
Geochemical patterns in soils of the karst region, Croatia, 1997, Prohic E. , Hausberger G. , Davis J. C. ,
Soil samples were collected at 420 locations in a 5-km grid pattern in the Istria and Gorski Kotar areas of Croatia, and on the Croatian islands of Cres, Rab and Krk, in order to relate geochemical variation in the soils to underlying differences in geology, bedrock lithology, soil type, environment and natural versus anthropogenic influences. Specific objectives included assessment of possible agricultural and industrial sources of contamination, especially from airborne effluent emitted by a local power plant. The study also tested the adequacy of a fixed-depth soil sampling procedure developed for meager karstic soils. Although 40 geochemical variables were analyzed, only 15 elements and 5 radionuclides are common to all the sample locations. These elements can be divided into three groups: (1) those of mostly anthropogenic origin - Pb, V, Cu and Cr; (2) those of mixed origin - radionuclides and Zn; and (3) those of mostly geogene origin - Ba, Sr, Ti, Al, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ni and Co. Variation in Pb shows a strong correlation with the pattern of road traffic in Istria. The distributions of Ca, Na and Mg in the flysch basins of southern Istria and Slovenia are clearly distinguishable from the distributions of these elements in the surrounding carbonate terrains, a consequence of differences in bedrock permeability, type of drainage and pH. The spatial pattern of Cs-137 from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident reflects almost exclusively the precipitation in Istria during the days immediately after the explosion. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V

Protection of karst aquifers in the Dinarides in Croatia, 1998, Biondi'_ B, Biondi'_ R, Dukari'_ F,

Geochemical characterization of a karst polje - an example from Sinjsko polje, Croatia, 1998, Prohic E. , Peh Z. , Miko S. ,

Ecologically acceptable flows definition for the Zrnovnica River (Croatia), 1998, Bonacci O, Kerovec M, Rojebonacci T, Mrakovcic M, Plenkovicmoraj A,
The paper defines an ecologically acceptable flow regime for the River Zrnovnica, Croatia. This is a small and relatively short karst river with high flows and high quality water, convenient for use for public water supply. Because the water from the river will be taken from the karst spring zone, the entire river channel could suffer negative ecological consequences. The main goal of setting minimum acceptable flows is to protect the Zrnovnica river food webs and to sustain the rare and endangered fish species Salmothymus obtusirostris. This paper presents results obtained from hydrological, morphological and biological investigations. (C) 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Speleomorphology of dry passage in Provala cave (Croatia), 1998, Boč, Ič, Neven, Buzjak Nenad

Provala cave is located in the fluviokarst area of Žumberačka gora mountain (NW Croatia). This two-level cave is 1687 m long and 55 m deep. In the lower level there is a permanent water stream. The upper level, according to its hydrological characteristics, can be divided into three parts: 1. the southern part with permanent water stream, 2. the part with periodical water stream, and 3. dry part. The last two parts called "Dry passage" were speleomorphologically observed.


Diagenetic concretions from the cave clastic sediment, Cave in Tounj quarry, Croatia, 1998, Lackovič, Damir

Diagenetic concretions from Cave in Tounj quarry (central Croatia) are studied. Concretions are found in non-cemented unsorted clastic cave deposit. They consist of particles of different size (clay to pebble) and from different provenance. One part of calcite and clay minerals are coming from speleothems and cave walls limestone. Detrital particles: chert, quartz, muscovite, chlorite, ilmenite, magnetite and most of clay, are probable transported into the cave from Triassic and Pleistocene clastic sediments from the surface. Autochthonous constituents of concretions are limonitic pizoids and some calcite cement. Composition of concretion is similar to the composition of surrounding non-cemented sediment.


Water circulation in karst and determination of catchment areas: example of the River Zrmanja, 1999, Bonacci O,
Karst hydrological investigation of the sinking stream problem of the River Zrmanja is presented. The aim of this analysis is to assess the feasibility of constructing three hydroelectric power plants (HEPP) along the River Zrmanja course. This paper presents a suitable and simple hydrological methodology that can be applied to scarce available data obtained on complex karat terranes. The paper presents a complex but common case of water circulation in a karst system. The primary objectives of the investigations were: (a) to analyse the underground karst connections, (b) to analyse discharge conditions along the River Zrmanja, and (c) to define variations in the catchment area along the River Zrmanja. The fact that the hydrological regime of the River Zrmanja is highly variable, due to the water losses along the open streamflow, strongly influenced the selection of the locations and heights of the HEPP dams. In spite of many hydrological, meteorological and hydrogeological measurements, the River Zrmanja catchment is insufficiently gauged. This dictates the use of a simple, empirically-based hydrological methodology. The Turc (1954) and Coutagne (1954) formulas were used in determination of annual total runoff. Using these simple hydrological methods, some important engineering answers were obtained. This is a first step towards application of sophisticated hydrological models, needing large amounts of reliable data

Evaluation of terra rossa geochemical baselines from Croatian karst regions, 1999, Miko S. , Durn G. , Prohic E. ,
In karst regions of Croatia, regolith is the only favourable medium for geochemical mapping. Mediterranean climate and good drainage due to hard, fissured, permeable limestones and dolomites result in a spacious distribution of terra rossa (FAO-luvisols and cambisols) - a polygenetic type of soil. Samples of terra rossa from coastal and inland Croatian Dinaric karst terrains were collected during the initial studies for the Geochemical Map of Croatia at a density of 1 site/25 km(2). A total of 87 terra rossa soil samples taken from a depth of 5-25 cm together with 27 samples from deeper profiles (down to 850 cm) were analysed for total Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, La, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Na, Sr, Ti, V and Zn concentrations. A stoichiometric approach was applied by modeling of terra rossa baselines on the basis of Linear regressions of metals on Al and the calculation of enrichment factors (EF and CEFs) on the basis of soil standards. A noticeable enrichment of Pb was found in surface samples compared to the terra rossa deeper in the soil profile. Using these baseline relationships, an attempt is made to partition terra rossa metal concentrations into natural and anthropogenic fractions. Also, the models from both polluted and less polluted (uninhabited) karstic terrains improve the comparability of element contents through correction of variable background concentrations. A comparison of elemental concentrations revealed that due to contributions of bauxite debris, a number of studied samples is enriched in Cr and Ni (also with variable amounts of boehmite). The corrections will serve to reduce data variability and to increase the detection of spatial and temporal differences presented on the geochemical maps. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Impact of the sea on the Perilo abstraction site in Bakar Bay ? Croatia, 1999, Biondic A. , Dukaric F. , Biondic R.

Speleological Features in the Mountainous Karst of Risnjak Mountain (Croatia), 1999, Buzjak Nenad, Fiedler Suzana

Risnjak mountain is located in western Croatia. Its central area is, together with the nearby Snjećnik mountain and the upper part of the Kupa river valley, a part of Risnjak National Park. Since it is mostly built of heavy broken Jurassic carbonate rocks (limestones predominate), all kinds of karst features are well developed. Among exokarst forms dolines predominate. Among speleological features shafts are the most frequent forms. There are several morphological types of these in the altitude range between 680 and 1520 m. Although the deepest shaft explored to date is 180 m deep, the rest of the shafts are mostly up to 50 m deep. Consistent with high altitude and a severe climate thick beds of snow and ice were found in a few shafts. Near the southeastern border of the National Park area there are a few streams which flow over the less permeable Triassic dolomite beds and impermeable Triassic and Permian clastic beds. They sink at the contact with permeable carbonate beds. Among their ponors the largest is Vele Vode ponor cave which is 1495 m long.


Some geological observations in Slovačka jama cave (-1268m) in Velebit mountain, Croatia, 1999, Lacković, Damir, Š, Mida Branislav, Horvatinč, Ić, Nada, Tibljaš, Darko

During three speleological expeditions the Slovačka jama cave has been explored to the depth of 1268m. In the cave there are several channels with phreatic forms. The highest relict phreatic channel is probably due to sinkholes formed on the karst uvala Veliki Lubenovac at the time of uvala formation. Lower, recent and subrecent, phreatic horizons at the cave bottom are probably a part of the underground route of the Lika river which sinks on the north-eastern side of Velebit mountain and flows through the mountain to the submarine springs in the Adriatic sea. Other channels are mostly shafts and channels with meandering vadose forms. 14C isotope analysis of speleothems shows that the oldest are situated in both ancient and subrecent phreatic channels, while younger ones are found in the vadose meandering channel.


Karst and Caves in the works of the Austrian Archduke and natural scientist Ludwig Salvator, 1999, Mader, Brigitta

The Austrian Archduke and scientist, Ludwig Salvator, who is well known in speleology as the promotor of the explorations of the Cuevas del Drach in the island of Mallorca made by E.A. Martel in 1896, was also interested in karst and caves generally, as he demonstrated by always pointing out various speleological phenomena of the islands and geographical regions he visited. Therefore the author decided to pick out and publish for the first time Ludwig Salvator's descriptions, observations and designs in karstology in a geographical sequence and to present his works as a source for the history of karst research and speleology. In the present paper will be treated the Kvarner region, which occupied Ludwig's interests very early.


A modern human humerus from the early Aurignacian of Vogelherdhohle (Stetten, Germany), 2000, Churchill Se, Smith Fh,
Implicit in much of the discussion of the cultural and population biological dynamics of modern human origins in Europe is the assumption that the Aurignacian, from its very start, was made by fully modern humans. The veracity of this assumption has been challenged in recent years by the association of Neandertal skeletal remains with a possibly Aurignacian assemblage at Vindija Cave (Croatia) and the association of Neandertals with distinctly Upper Paleolithic (but non-Aurignacian) assemblages at Arcysur-Cure and St. Cesaire (France). Ideally we need human fossil material that can be confidently assigned to the early Aurignacian to resolve this issue, yet in reality there is a paucity of well-provenanced human fossils from early Upper Paleolithic contexts. One specimen, a right humerus from the site of Vogelherd (Germany), has been argued, based on its size, robusticity, and muscularity, to possibly represent a Neandertal in an Aurignacian context. The morphological affinities of the Vogelherd humerus were explored by univariate and multivariate comparisons of humeral epiphyseal and diaphyseal shape and strength measures relative to humeri of Neandertals and Early Upper Paleolithic (later Aurignacian and Gravettian) modern humans. On the basis of diaphyseal cross-sectional geometry, deltoid tuberosity morphology, and distal epiphyseal morphology, the specimen falls clearly and consistently with European early modern humans and not with Neandertals. Along with the other Vogelherd human remains, the Vogelherd humerus represents an unequivocal association between the Aurignacian and modern human morphology in Europe. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc

Interpretation of groundwater level monitoring results in karst aquifers: examples from the Dinaric karst, 2000, Bonacci O, Rojebonacci T,
The paper presents an attempt to determine the characteristics of karst aquifers using information on groundwater lever (GWL) in natural holes and boreholes with different data quantity and time resolution of GWL measurements. In this paper the particulars of karst aquifers were analysed for four examples from the Dinaric karst. In all four study areas, aquifers are formed in bare, deep and well-developed Dinaric karst consisting of Cretaceous limestones. The first example represents a wide area of Imotsko polje in the karst. The aquifer was analysed on the basis of infrequent water level monitoring in natural karst water features (jamas, lakes, wells) and discharges of springs and rivers. The karst aquifer in this example is complex, non-homogenous and variable in space and time, which is frequent in the Dinaric karst. Regardless of the aforementioned it was possible to determine its elementary characteristics. The second example represents 10 wells used for the water supply for the city of Pula. The GWL and salinity were measured once a week in the period between 1981 and 1996. Even though these measurements were relatively infrequent in space and time, they served as bases for assessment of average and maximum aquifer conditions as well as boundaries of saltwater intrusion. In the third example only a portion of aquifer of the karst spring Blaz, which is in the contact with the Adriatic Seas, has been analyzed. It is a spring with an intrusion of salt water. For purposes of study of saltwater intrusion, 26 piezometers were drilled in its vicinity in which GWL, salinity and temperature were measured once a day during 168 days, a period comprising one complete cycle of seawater intrusion and retreat. These measurements proved the existence of dispersed discharge from the aquifer into the sea and its non-homogeneity in space. In the fourth example GWL was measured continuously in 10 deep (up to 300 m) piezometers in the hinterland of the Ombla Spring catchment. The measurement period lasted 2 years (January 1988 to December 1989). The analyses are made with hourly data. The results made it possible to determine numerous characteristics of the karst aquifer and a significant non-homogeneity of groundwater distribution in karst aquifers, depending more on the underground karst phenomena than the surface karst forms

Evaluation of terra rossa geochemical baselines from Croatian karst regions., 2000, Miko S.

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