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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That grunkarst is see subsoil karst.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Search in KarstBase

Your search for conceptual model (Keyword) returned 111 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 111
Water vulnerability assessment in karst environments: a new method of defining protection areas using a multi-attribute approach and GIS tools (EPIK method), 1999, Doerfliger N, Jeannin Py, Zwahlen F,
Groundwater resources from karst aquifers play a major role in the water supply in karst areas in the world, such as in Switzerland. Defining groundwater protection zones in karst environment is frequently not founded on a solid hydrogeological basis. Protection zones are often inadequate and as a result they may be ineffective. In order to improve this situation, the Federal Office for Environment, Forests and Landscape with the Swiss National Hydrological and Geological Survey contracted the Centre of Hydrogeology of the Neuchatel University to develop a new groundwater protection-zones strategy in karst environment. This approach is based on the vulnerability mapping of the catchment areas of water supplies provided by springs or boreholes. Vulnerability is here defined as the intrinsic geological and hydrogeological characteristics which determine the sensitivity of groundwater to contamination by human activities. The EPIK method is a multi-attribute method for vulnerability mapping which takes into consideration the specific hydrogeological behaviour of karst aquifers. EPIK is based on a conceptual model of karst hydrological systems, which suggests considering four karst aquifer attributes: (1) Epikarst, (2) Protective cover, (3) Infiltration conditions and (4) Karst network development. Each of these four attributes is subdivided into classes which are mapped over the whole water catchment. The attributes and their classes are then weighted. Attribute maps are overlain in order to obtain a final vulnerability map. From the vulnerability map, the groundwater protection zones are defined precisely. This method was applied at several sites in Switzerland where agriculture contamination problems have frequently occurred. These applications resulted in recommend new boundaries for the karst water supplies protection-zones

Role of cave information in environmental site characterization,, 1999, Jancin M.
For consultants concerned with developing site-specific conceptual models for flow and transport in karst, cave information can be worth accessingAt the scale of the basin, caves often display patterns that correlate with both the flow and recharge characteristics of their aquifersCharacterization of overall basin hydrology bolsters predictions and monitoring recommendations which address the siteAlthough the presence of caves beneath or near sites is rare, site-based information such as water-table maps (under both natural and pumping conditions), well water-level fluctuations, well turbidity observations, borehole-void yields during drilling, and dye-trace results, are potentially useful in defining conduit-flow boundaries to diffuse-flow blocksThe appropriate choice of dye-tracer methods should acknowledge whether most site conduits (or borehole voids, or even caves) are within the epikarst, the vadose zone, the phreatic zone, or the oscillation zoneFor inferences on site flow directions, it is useful to compare the directional frequencies of cave passages and joints, faults, and photolinears in the areaThere is evidence that where caves are well developed, there tends to be a low correlation between photolinear locations and relatively high well yieldsLNAPL migration will be retarded where main conduits are well beneath the water table, but an extensive overlying system of saturated epikarstic pores serve as trapsKarst with high seasonal or storm variations in water level will tend to repeatedly remobilize LNAPLsGiven sufficient volume, DNAPLs can penetrate vertically integrated networks of pores, fractures, or solution conduits to great depthHowever, where such pathway networks are lie above relatively tight lithologies at shallow depth, and are not sediment filled, lateral movement can greatly exceed vertical movementCharacterization of the 3-D nature of pores and pathways is an important element in understanding the migration of free product, and therefore in understanding the evolution of associated aqueous plumes

From a conceptual model of karst hydrological systems to water-vulnerability mapping, 1999, Jeannin Py. , Zwahlen F. , Doerfliger N.
A conceptual model of karst hydrological systems is presented hereIt considers that water flows through four cascading subsystems: soils, epikarst, unsaturated zone, and saturated zoneThis model lead us to define four criteria which appear to be significant for intrinsic vulnerability assessment with respect to a spring or a well: characteristics of epikarst (E), characteristics of protective cover (P), recharge or infiltration type (I) and presence/absence of a well-developed conduit network (K)The method has proved to be adequate for karst in Central EuropeIn the future, it should be tested in other areas and compared to numerical approaches of karst systems

The surface-subsurface interface and the influence of geologic structure in karst, 1999, Kastning E. H.
Early studies on the development of karst focused principally on surface features (Sweeting, 1973) and dissolutional enlargement in relation to positions of the water table, influence of the lithologic and stratigraphic character of the bedrock, and geologic structureIn recent decades such studies have broadened to include the hydrodynamics of fluid flow through conduits and the geochemical kinetics of dissolution and mass transportThe history of physical speleology has been well documented by several authors (Davies, 1966; Kastning, 1981; LaMoreaux, 1994; LeGrand and Stringfield, 1973; Moore, 1960; Powell, 1975; Shaw, 1992; Sweeting, 1981; White, 1987)Emerging conceptual models of cavern development and subsurficial karst processes, in general, have evolved to include not only the characteristics of groundwater flow within the bedrock, but also the relationship of these systems to inputs and outputs at the surface (zones of recharge and discharge respectively)The general premises of conceptual models of cave and karst processes were proposed by White (1969) and expanded in subsequent revisions (White, 1977; White, this volume)Some recent landmark papers on speleogenesis include those of Ford and Ewers (1978), Palmer (1984,1991), and White (1976)For further information on karst, see the references cited in the Introduction to this volume

The development of basin-scale conceptual models of the active-flow conduit system, 1999, Meiman J. , Ryan M. T.

Patterns of dissolution porosity in carbonate rocks, 1999, Palmer A. N.
Unlike most geologic processes, the origin of dissolution porosity lends itself readily to analytical solutionsFour salient "laws" govern the process: two mass balances (water balance and chemical mass balance) and two kinetic equations (which describe the dissolution rate and the flow rate of water), and in combination they provide a theoretical basis for quantifying the solutional history of karst aquifersThe greatest difficulty is in applying these clean-cut analytical tools to the complex and rather disordered world of geologyIt is impossible to model a karst aquifer in all its details, because most of the details are unknownHowever, a great deal can be learned about the origin and distribution of dissolution porosity by using the analytical approach to obtain a battery of governing concepts that can be applied to all karst aquifersThis paper summarizes the evolution of a conceptual model whose details were first developed on the basis of field observation and hydraulics, and only later substantiated by chemical kineticsIt applies specifically to carbonate rocks, although the general approach can be modified to fit any geologic setting by substituting the appropriate expressions for kinetics and fluid flow

Symposium Abstract: Stratigraphically-guided drainage in the Slaughter catchment, Forest of Dean - A conceptual model, 2000, Lowe D. J.

Spatial and temporal patterns of bacterial density and metabolic activity in a karst aquifer, 2001, Simon K. S. , Gibert J. , Petitot P. , Laurent R. ,
Karst aquifers are heterotrophic ecosystems fueled by organic matter imported from the surface. The temporal pattern of floods influences organic matter import and the spatial distribution of organic matter and biofilms in aquifer structural zones. We investigated spatial and temporal patterns of bacterial density and activity as indicators of energy availability and microbial dynamics in a karst aquifer. During baseflow, bacterial density and microbial hydrolytic activity were similar in the upper and lower zones of the aquifer. Floods apparently scoured aquifer biofilms and trans ported soil bacteria into the aquifer, increasing inactive bacterial density in the water column. Respiring bacterial density did not respond to floods and changed little over time. The overall proportion of total bacteria that were respiring was very high on some dates, resulting from a reduction of inactive cell density during flood recession. Floods appear to be key events in scouring senescent microbial assemblages in karst aquifers and stimulating microbial recolonization of the aquifer matrix. We conclude that a conceptual model of karst aquifer structure and function should incorporate changes caused by alternation between flooding and drying in the aquifer

The sedimentary records in Mediterranean rockshelters and caves: Archives of environmental change, 2001, Woodward J. C. , Goldberg P. ,
It is important to develop rigorous methods and robust conceptual models for the interpretation of rockshelter and cave sediment records so that the cultural sequences they contain can be considered in their proper environmental context. Much of what we know about the prehistory of the Mediterranean region and adjacent areas has largely been pieced together from materials excavated from sedimentary sequences in these environments. The rockshelters and caves of the region form important environmental and sedimentary archives. Recent work has begun to consider if the remarkable climatic variability evident in the high resolution lacustrine and ice core records is manifest in the rockshelter and cave sediment records of the area, In this context, the two main characteristics of a rockshelter or cave site which control its usefulness as an archive of environmental change are the temporal resolution of the sedimentary record and the environmental sensitivity of the site. Many rockshelters and caves can be described as either Active Karst Settings (AKS) or Passive Karst Settings (PKS) and site type is an important influence on climatic sensitivity with a direct influence upon the usefulness of the sedimentary sequence as a proxy record of climate change. It is now clear that some sites may preserve detailed paleoclimatic records and the climatic signal may be represented by distinctive suites of micromorphological features, by variations in the input of allogenic sediment, or by fluctuations in the mineral magnetic properties of the fine sediment fraction. It can be argued that data derived from the analysis of bulk coarse-grained samples often lacks the stratigraphic resolution and environmental sensitivity that can be obtained from other approaches. The most favorable sites for detailed paleoclimatic reconstruction appear to be in active karst settings such as Theopetra Cave (Greece) and Pigeon Cave (Morocco) where micromorphological analyses offer insights into the stratigraphic record that are not otherwise obtainable. The temporal resolution of a site can only be established through a rigorous stratigraphic analysis and a comprehensive dating program. These are fundamental considerations in the study of rockshelter sediment records, especially when attempting to correlate between sites and draw comparisons with other proxy records of environmental change derived from sedimentary environments with rather different characteristics. Rockshelters and caves are part of a wider sediment system, and their investigation must be accompanied by detailed geomorphological, sedimentological, paleoecological, and geochronological studies of the off-site Quaternary record.

'A conceptual model for DNAPL transport in karst ground water basins' by Caroline M. Loop and William B. White. Ground Water 39, no. 1 : 119-127. Discussion, 2001, Aley T,

'A conceptual model for DNAPL transport in karst ground water basins' by Caroline M. Loop and William B. White. Ground Water 39, no. 1 : 119-127. Discussion - Authors' reply, 2001, Loop C. M. , White W. B. ,

A conceptual model of the Tianjin geothermal system based on isotopic studies, 2001, Wang K. , Zhu J. L. ,
The isotopic technique is an effective measure to set up the conceptual model of a hydrothermal system. A deep circular geothermal system exists in Tianjin, including the semi-open and semi-closed karst geothermal subsystem in the bedrock and closed porous water subsystem in the clastic rocks. The geothermal water is originated from the ancient precipitation of 21-10 kaBP. Since Holocene epoch, the geothermal water is sealed for heating up. The mainly feeding channels are the karst conduits in weathered carbonate rocks of Proterozoic and Lower Paleozoic

Exploration techniques for karst groundwater resources., 2001, Bakalowicz M.
Porous and fissure aquifers display statistical homogeneity of their physical and hydraulic characteristics on a scale ranging from tens to several hundreds of meters. Such homogeneity is a product of the relatively small spatial variability of these characteristics and creates conditions of general hydraulic continuity throughout the entire saturated zone. Their groundwater resources can be explored by a simple approach, i.e. defining the aquifer geometry from geological data, and determining local hydraulic parameters from pumping tests; finally, the local data are extended to characterise the entire aquifer through regionalizing techniques. However, within the infiltration and saturated zones of carbonate aquifers, karst processes create a peculiar void heterogeneity : voids may reach several meters in diameter and several kilometers in length. These voids are organized in a hierarchic network from the input surface often to a single spring: this is the conduit or drainage network. Therefore the network should be fully characterized prior to assessing the groundwater resources of a karst aquifer and its possible storage capacity, i.e. the network's transmissive or drainage function and its links with storage components (its storage function). Traditionally, speleological exploration is considered the best technique for directly characterizing a drainage network. Unfortunately, this usually gives an incorrect view of the karst aquifer because only a few parts (or none at all) are known when there is no access to the saturated zone. The classical hydrogeological approach is thus unsuitable for assessing karst aquifers. In this context, karst hydrogeologists must adopt the classical approach of physicians and biologists examining living bodies, by characterizing a karst aquifer, its resources and storage by accurate description of the void organization and an analysis of its overall behavior (or functioning) and that of its different parts or organs. With such an approach, a karst aquifer is considered as a living organism composed of different types of organs interlinked by functional relationships. Unlike physicians, hydrogeologists generally have to discover the extent of the body they wish to study (the karst system as a drainage unit, its limits and the boundary conditions). Therefore, as in the field of medicine^ techniques are used for describing the aquifer in bi- or tri-dimensional space (geology, geophysics) and for characterizing its functioning (hydrodynamics, natural tracing, hydrological balance). Moreover, data from these techniques are interpreted in order to propose a diagnosis, i.e. for building a conceptual model of the studied aquifer. In the next step, as in medicine, the conceptual model can be assessed with localized tests, such as artificial tracing and diver exploration for borehole positioning and pumping tests. Methods for interpreting tracing and pumping tests must obviously be adapted to the specific nature of karst, i.e. they cannot be based on classical models whose basic assumptions are never verified in the karstic medium. Finally, karst hydrogeologists have to set up and implement a complex set of techniques for describing the extent and limits of a karst system, exploring its drainage pattern, and analyzing its behaviour. All geoscience disciplines are ultimately required for the comprehensive exploration of groundwater resources in karst aquifers.

Geologic framework of the Ozarks of South-Central Missouri Contributions to a Conceptual Model of Karst, 2001, Orndorff R. C. , Weary D. J. , Sebela S.

A geologic framework is required to understand the environmental impact of proposed mining of lead and zinc on large springs in the karst area of south-central Missouri. Information about lithologies, faults, joints, and karst features (sinkholes, caves, and springs) contributes to the development of a conceptual model of karst hydrogeology. Conduits and caves along bedding planes and joints provide avenues for ground-water recharge, movement, and discharge. The trend of joints was studied to determine if they controlled the orientation of cave passages and conduits. The data show that cave passages are curvilinear and do no correlate well with measured joint trends. Instead, stratigraphy, bedding-plane dip, and local base level affect conduit and cave development. The majority of caves in south-central Missouri have developed within stromatolitic dolomite horizons beneath sandstone beds. It is thought that the sandstone beds act as confining units allowing artesian conditions and mixing to occur beneath them, thus, enhancing dissolution. Joints and the high primary porosity of the stromatolitic dolomite beds form openings in the bedrock that initiate solution. Where a solution-widened joint intersects a bedding plane, lateral movement of ground water is controlled by the bedding plane.


Public Datasets Integrated with GIS and 3-D Visualization Help Expand Subsurface Conceptual Model, 2002, Phelan, T. L.
Public domain water well drilling logs were used to construct a 3-D visualization of the subsurface in a karst terrain. Subsurface displacements seen in the 3-D visualization model were shown to correlate with surface topography in the Digital Elevation Model (DEM). This methodology could improve the effectiveness of limited funding by using public datasets to contribute to conceptual hydrogeologic models. It could also identify areas that merit additional investigation which might have gone unnoticed otherwise

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