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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That karst plain is 1. large flat surface in karst formed by erosion and corrosion [20]. 2. a plain on which closed depressions, subterranean drainage, and other karst features may be developed. also called karst plateau [10]. synonyms: (french.) plateau karstique; (german.) karstebene, karstrandebene, korrosionsflache; (greek.) karstikon pedhion; (italian.) piano carsico; (russian.) karstovaja ravnina; (spanish.) llanura karstica; (turkish.) karst ovasi; (yugoslavian.) krska zaravan, povrs, kraski ravnik. see also marginal polje.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for plant (Keyword) returned 125 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 125
Carbonate chemistry of surface waters in a temperate karst region: the southern Yorkshire Dales, UK, 1992, Pentecost Allan,
A detailed study of surface water chemistry is described from an important limestone region in northern England. Major ions and pH were determined for 485 sites (springs, seeps, streams, rivers and lakes) during summertime. The saturation state of the waters with respect to calcite was determined as the calcite saturation ratio ([Omega]). An unexpectedly large number of samples were found to be supersaturated (65.5% of the 268 km of watercourses surveyed). As a consequence, several streams entering major cave systems were incapable of further limestone solution, at least during periods of low flow. Many waters were supersaturated from their source and some deposited travertine. A significant negative correlation was found between spring discharge and both ([Omega]) and pH. Supersaturation was caused primarily by atmospheric degassing, with some contribution from aquatic plant photosynthesis.The median total dissolved inorganic carbon and Ca concentrations were 2.49 and 1.35 millimoles 1-1 respectively. Calcium originated exclusively from limestone, and carbon dioxide mainly from the soil and dissolved limestone. South facing catchments provided springwaters with significantly higher levels of TDIC and Ca when compared with north facing catchments. The study suggests that acid rain made a measurable contribution to limestone dissolution.Carboniferous limestone denudation rates were estimated as 54 to 63 m3 km-2 a-1 (54 to 63 mm 1000 years-1). About 50% of the Mg came from limestone and the remainder, together with most K, Na, SO4 and Cl from precipitation.Concentrations of dissolved nutrients were low, medians for NO3, NH4, total PO4 and SiO3 were 24 [mu]mol, 1.4 [mu]mol, 0.64 [mu]mol and 15.5 [mu]mol 1-1 respectively. The concentration of a further 23 trace elements was determined

Activity od the scientific commission of ''Grotta Grande del Vento'' (Genga, Ancona, Central Italy)., 1994, Bertolani Mario, Cigna Arrigo A.
The Grotta Grande del Vento (the Great Wind Cave) was discovered in 1971. An administrative body (the "Consorzio Frasassi") under the control of some local authorities took care of its development and the cave was opened to tourists in 1974. A Scientific Commission formed by some experts (choosen by the Consorzio Frasassi) of different disciplines was established in 1975. During these 15 years the Commission acted as an advisory committee for the Consorzio in order to guarantee the protection of the cave environment. In particular the Commission set up a monitoring network of the most important environmental parameters (air and water temperature. air currents, relative humidity and CO2 concentration) in some suitable locations and studied the best solutions to avoid algae and other plants proliferation in the vicinity of light sources. The Commission promoted and directed researches in the karst system under a strict co-operation with the Consorzio Frasassi which funded most of them. Some scientific papers resulted from these researches.

Middle Holocene environmental change determined from the salt caves of Mount Sedom, Israel, 1994, Frumkin, A. , Carmi, I. , Zak, I. And Magaritz, M. , 1994
Paleoclimatic sequence for the Middle Holocene was constructed, based on Mount Sedom salt caves, and other evidence. Mount Sedom is a salt diapir, on the southwestern shore of the Dead Sea, which has been rising above the local base level throughout the Holocene. Allogenic karst development has kept pace with the rising, forming vadose caves. Wood fragments found embedded in flood sediments that were deposited in sub-horizontal cave passages yielded 14C ages from 7090 to 200 YBP. The paleoclimatic sequence is based on parameters that include: relative abundance of plant types or floral communities, the elevations of the corresponding relict cave passages and the ratio of their width to present passage width. Moister climatic stages are indicated by relatively abundant wood remains, by wide cave passages and by higher-level outlets, indicating high Dead Sea levels. Arid periods are marked by a scarcity of wood remains, by narrow cave passages and by low-level outlets. The results were correlated to other middle-Holocene evidence and temporal settlement changes. The Early Bronze period in Israel was the moistest period during the last 6000 years and as such it encouraged cultural development. It was followed by a considerable desiccation that caused a cultural deterioration.

GROUND-WATER BEHAVIOR IN KARST - EXAMPLE OF THE OMBLA SPRING (CROATIA), 1995, Bonacci O,
The hydro-electric power plant (HEPP) which will exclusively use water from a karst underground storage basin will be built in the vicinity of the abundant karst spring Ombla in Croatia. This paper presents the results obtained by hydrogeologic, hydrologic and hydraulic investigations related to the principles of ground water circulation in the karst. The analyses included the determination of the effective porosity n(e) of the karst aquifer and the definition of the volume of large conduits and small fractures in the karst which form the aquifer volume. The position and dimensions of large karst conduits have also been defined. It was established that in three small springs, Zaton, Zavrelje and Slavljan, water overflows from the Ombla Spring in periods of high ground water levels, It was also discovered that at certain periods the Dupuit expression for steady-state flow in an unconfined aquifer can be used. In accordance with this, it was possible to determine the values of hydraulic conductivity, K (in m s(-1)), for the Ombla aquifer. They range from 2 x 10(-3) to 5 x 10(-3) m s(-1) and are inversely proportional to the Ombla Spring discharge. Continuous measurements of the ground water level by several piezometers located in the karst hinterland of the Ombla Spring and simultaneous measurement of the discharge made it possible to define discharge curves of the Ombla Spring dependent upon the ground water levels at Various locations. Characteristic features of the discharge curves made the identification of the position and dimensions of the main karst conduits possible

The last glacial/interglacial record of rodent remains from the Gigny karst sequence in the French Jura used for palaeoclimatic and palaeoecological reconstructions, 1995, Chaline J, Brunetlecomte P, Campy M,
A multidisciplinary approach has produced an exceptional chronological log of climatic patterns for the Upper Pleistocene sequence of Gigny Cave (Jura, France) covering the Pre-Eemian, Eemian Interglacial, Middle Glacial and Upper Pleniglacial, as well as a part of the Holocene. Multivariate analysis (correspondence and component analysis) of rodent associations from the sequence is used here to characterize the different climatic stages in terms of relative temperature, plant cover and moisture. Faunal analysis establishes: (1) positive and negative correlations among the variations of the different species; (2) the significance of axis 1 (component analysis) which, in terms of temperature, opposes cold environments with contrasted continental biotopes; (3a) the significance of axis 2 (component analysis), which reflects vegetation patterns ranging from open to closed habitats; (3b) the significance of axis 3 (component analysis), which expresses trends in moisture; (4) various correlations between faunal and climatic parameters (temperature, plant cover and moisture); (5) evaluation of faunal diversity (Shannon index ranging from 0.74 to 2.27) showing that diversity increases with temperature and the complexity of vegetation, but is not sensitive to moisture. Lastly, the comparison of multivariate methods with the weighted semi-quantitative Hokr method shows the complementarity of the two approaches, the first methods quantifying climatic parameters while the second seems to provide more precise evaluations of the main seasons of rainfall

The induration process of goethitic oxisols on peridotites in New Caledonia: A singular plinthite-type process of induration, 1996, Podwojewski P. , Bourdon E. ,
The strong chemical weathering of peridotites in New Caledonia generates goethitic oxisols acid a karstic relief. A rapid decrease of a water-table at the bottom of a doline leads to a rapid, massive and continuous induration of iron oxide at the interface between an oxidizing and a reducing environment. Goethite precipitates in a reticular network, pseudomorphs after plant cells and could be associated with lepidocrocite, siderite and rhodochrosite. These hardpans could not be strictly considered as ferricretes

Stable Isotope Analysis of Human Remains: A Tool for Cave Archaeology, 1997, Trimble, C. C. , Macko, S. A.
Stable isotope analysis of human remains is a research tool that can provide paleodiet information for archaeological sites, such as caves, where traditional evidence may be missing or out of context. Unlike other lines of evidence, the stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in human bone reflect the chemistry of the diet and therefore provide a direct measure of the foods consumed. As an example, the data from isotopic analyses of bone from the Mer site (44LE280), a cave in Lee County, Virginia, are presented. Although this site lacks faunal and floral remains to provide basic information about the availability and potential utilization of food resources, the stable isotope data from other sites throughout Virginia and North Carolina provide a basis for comparison. The d13C and d15N values for the cave burials suggest a diet composed of primarily C4 plant proteins and some terrestrial animal proteins.

The Hawaiian cave planthoppers (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Cixiidae); A model for rapid subterranean speciation?, 1997, Hoch Hannelore
After the successful colonization of a single ancestral species in the Hawaiian Islands, planthoppers of the cixiid genus Oliarus underwent intensive adaptive radiation resulting in 80 described endemic species. Oliarus habitats range from montaneous rain forests to dry coastal biotopes and subterranean environments. At least 7 independant evolutionary lines represented by different species have adapted to lava tubes on Molokai (1), Maui (3), and Hawaii Island (3). Behavioral and morphological studies on one of these evolutionary lines on Hawaii Island, the blind, flight- and pigmentless Oliarus polyphentus have provided evidence for reproductive isolation between allopatric populations which may in fact be separate species. Significant differences in song parameters were observed even between populations from neighbouring lava tubes, although the planthoppers are capable of underground migration through the voids and cracks of the mesocavernous rock system which is extant in young basalt: after a little more than 20 years, lava tubes within the Mauna Ulu 1974 flow had been colonized by O. 'polyphenius" individuals, most probably originating from a near-by forestkipuka. Amazingly, this species complex is found on the youngest of the Hawaiian Islands, with probably less than 0.5 m.y., which suggests rapid speciation processes. Field observations have led to the development of a hypothesis to match underground speciation with the dynamics of vegetational succession on the surface of active volcanoes. Planthopper range partitioning and geographic separation of populations by young lava flows, founder events and small population size may be important factors involved in rapid divergence.

Elevated and variable values of 13C in speleothems in a British cave system, 1997, Baker A, Ito E, Smart Pl, Mcewan Rf,
[delta] 13C isotope variations in speleothems have been investigated for samples from the British Isles, where plants which use the Hatch-Slack or C4 photosynthetic pathway are not present. The range of [delta] 13C expected in speleothem carbonate formed in isotopic equilibrium with soil CO2 derived from the overlying C3 vegetation should thus fall in the range -12 to -6[per mille sign]. Forty-one actively growing speleothem samples from low-discharge sites were analysed from Stump Cross Caverns, Yorkshire, England. Ten percent have [delta] 13C greater than -6%. In addition, a large range of [delta] 13C was observed (-8.06 1.38[per mille sign], a 1 [sigma] variability of 17%), with adjacent samples having [delta] 13C differing by a maximum of 4.74[per mille sign]. Similar findings were obtained from a review of analyses of late Quaternary speleothem samples from the British Isles, with 75% of flowstone samples and 57% of high-flow stalagmite samples exhibiting elevated [delta] 13C. Three possible processes are proposed as possible causes of elevated [delta] 13C in speleothems. Firstly, fractionation may occur between the stalactite and stalagmite due to evaporation or degassing. Secondly, degassing of the groundwaters may have occurred within the aquifer before reaching the cave void, allowing release of some CO2 from the water whilst remaining saturated in calcium. Finally, the elevated [delta] 13C may be due to short water residence times in the soil, such that equilibrium between soil water and soil CO2 is not reached. Evidence presented here demonstrates that any one of these mechanisms may be important in the karst areas of the British Isles. Caution is needed before interpreting the [delta] 13C signal within speleothems in terms of palaeovegetation

Geochemistry and water dynamics: Application to short time-scale flood phenomena in a small Mediterranean catchment .1. Alkalis, alkali-earths and Sr isotopes, 1997, Benothman D, Luck Jm, Tournoud Mg,
We report major, trace elements and Sr isotope data for water samples taken regularly during a four-day-long September flood of a Mediterranean river, the Vene (Herault, S. France). The objective is to combine all these data into a dynamic model that describes the origin(s) and movements of waters and their loads. This river drains the runoff from a small, mainly carbonate, partly karstified watershed with Miocene and Jurassic lithologies. The watershed is also impacted by both agricultural and urban activities. Both the dissolved and the particulate loads were analyzed. Concentrations of the dissolved components show major remobilization of almost all elements during the first few hours of the flood (water treatment plants and aerosol scavenging), followed by a sharp concentration decrease. Some major species return to their previous summer values (Ca, HCO3) while others reach low 'background' levels (Na, K, Cl, SO4). Some trace elements (Rb, Sr, Cs) show similar behaviour but (Ba) appears somewhat unaffected. Trace element concentrations and ratios define two main periods (three in the suspended particulate matter). Ratios do not allow distinguishing between the three main sources for the dissolved load in the first period (Miocene, Jurassic, water treatment plants), but clearly show the Jurassic karst influence later on. The Sr-87/Sr-86 Of the suspended particulate matter is more variable and more radiogenic than in the dissolved phase. Variations in concentration ratios and Sr isotope composition in particulates indicate the large and variable contribution of Miocene silicates with some carbonate. However, there is a need for another component with [Rb]/[Sr] higher than bedrocks, internal or external to the watershed, possibly due to differential erosion. Dissolved Ca and Mg fluxes during the flood were calculated at 0.26 ton and 0.029 ton/km(2), respectively. Even though the carbonate nature of the watershed restricts variability in Sr isotope composition in the dissolved load, we distinguish several endmembers: seawater(approximate to marine rain), Miocene marls, Jurassic limestones, water treatment plants (and possibly another attributable to fertilizers). Combined with major and trace element variational Sr isotope fluctuations indicate time-varying proportions of different water endmembers at the outflow and suggest a general dynamic model. Based on PCA (principal component analysis), a 3D representation allows to visualize the geochemical evolution of the Vene waters. In particular, Sr isotopes clearly indicate that the inflow of karstic waters during the flood was not continuous but occurred as a series of marked oscillations between flowing waters with chemical signature of Miocene lithologies and increasing flushes of deeper waters that interacted with Jurassic lithologies. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V

Terrestrial hot-spring Co-rich Mn mineralization in the Pliocene-Quaternary Calatrava Region (central Spain), 1997, Crespo A, Lunar R,
Central Spain hosts a series of high-Co (up to 1.7% Co) Mn mineralizations displaying a variety of morphologies: spring aprons and feeders, pisolitic beds, wad beds and tufa-like replacements of plants and plant debris. The Mn mineralogy consist of cryptomelane, lithiophorite, birnessite and todorokite. The spring apron deposits formed in close proximity to Pliocene volcanic rocks (alkaline basaltic lava flows and pyroclastics) belonging to the so-called Calatrava Volcanic Field. The spring aprons are found along or near to normal faults bounding small basins and topographic highs. Mn tufa-like deposits are found near to the spring sources, while both pisolitic and wad beds are clearly distal facies occuring well within the Pliocene basins. The two latter are interbedded with clastic lacustrine and fluvial sediments. Collectively, these deposits contain a complex suite of Mn-(Co) mineralization ranging from proximal, hot-spring-type Mn facies, grading into more distant sedimentary, stratabound mineralization. Volcanism, basin formation and Mn deposition took place within a failed rift environment which triggered hydrothermal activity and Mn-(Co) deposition as proximal (near to the volcanic axes) and distal (of sedimentary affinities, within the basins) facies

Geochemical patterns in soils of the karst region, Croatia, 1997, Prohic E. , Hausberger G. , Davis J. C. ,
Soil samples were collected at 420 locations in a 5-km grid pattern in the Istria and Gorski Kotar areas of Croatia, and on the Croatian islands of Cres, Rab and Krk, in order to relate geochemical variation in the soils to underlying differences in geology, bedrock lithology, soil type, environment and natural versus anthropogenic influences. Specific objectives included assessment of possible agricultural and industrial sources of contamination, especially from airborne effluent emitted by a local power plant. The study also tested the adequacy of a fixed-depth soil sampling procedure developed for meager karstic soils. Although 40 geochemical variables were analyzed, only 15 elements and 5 radionuclides are common to all the sample locations. These elements can be divided into three groups: (1) those of mostly anthropogenic origin - Pb, V, Cu and Cr; (2) those of mixed origin - radionuclides and Zn; and (3) those of mostly geogene origin - Ba, Sr, Ti, Al, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ni and Co. Variation in Pb shows a strong correlation with the pattern of road traffic in Istria. The distributions of Ca, Na and Mg in the flysch basins of southern Istria and Slovenia are clearly distinguishable from the distributions of these elements in the surrounding carbonate terrains, a consequence of differences in bedrock permeability, type of drainage and pH. The spatial pattern of Cs-137 from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident reflects almost exclusively the precipitation in Istria during the days immediately after the explosion. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V

Forest recovery in the karst region of Puerto Rico, 1998, Rivera L. W. , Aide T. M. ,
Widespread deforestation has led to an increase in secondary forest in the tropics. During the late 1940s in Puerto Rico, forest covered only 6% of the island, but a shift from agriculture to industry has led to the increase of secondary forest. This study focuses on the regeneration of forest following the abandonment of pastures and coffee plantations located in the karst region of Puerto Rico. Alluvial terraces and sinkholes were the principal features used for pastures, shifting agriculture, and coffee plantations, whereas mogotes (limestone hills of conical shape) were burned periodically or cut for charcoal or wood production. Abandoned pasture sites had a greater woody species diversity in comparison with coffee sites. The density of woody stems was greater in the abandoned pasture sites and Spathodea campanulata was the dominant species. In coffee sites Guarea guidonia was the most abundant species. There was no difference in basal area between the two land uses. Canonical Correspondence Analysis applied separately to adults and seedlings clearly separated each community according to land use. Seedling composition in coffee sites indicates a resistance to change in terms of the dominant species while in the pasture sites the composition will change as the dominant species S. campanulata is replaced with more shade tolerant species. Patches of forest that remained on the steep sides of mogotes and the presence of bats appears to have enhanced forest recovery, but the land use history of these sites has affected the pattern of regeneration and will continue to affect forest dynamics for many years. The karst area is a critical environment for water resources and biodiversity and its conservation and restoration is essential. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Influence of Pedo-chemical Field on Epi-karstification in Subtropical Humid Region-Field Monitoring and Laboratory Experiment , 1998, Pan Genxing, Tao Yuxiang, Teng Yogzhong, Xu Shenyou, Sun Yuhua, Han Fushun

The influence of pedo-chemical conditions on epi-karstification in a karst hydrogeochemical experiment site near Guilin was studied. The dissolution of limestone, and pH, CO2, HCO3- in soil and karst water under soil cover conditions was monitored by using filter tubes containing reference rock plate, and by using portable pH meter, CO2 gas meter and Aqumerck Kit. Laboratory experiments of dissolution under different soil conditions were also conducted by using leaching cylinders. In addition, 13C tracing was carried out on the samples of plant- litter- SOM-soil CO2-spring water-travertine-rock in the karst system. Soil pH, SOM status (subsequently CO2 concentration) and Ca+2 saturation constitutes a pedo-chemical field vigorously affecting the rock dissolution. The carbon in the form of HCO3- in the spring water and of CaCO3 in the travertine was closely related with the soil CO2 gas. Thus, soil carbon through the transferring pathway of air CO2-plant carbon-SOC-soil CO2 was involved in the epi-karstification process, and interface exchange of soil Ca+2, HCO3- with karst water existed in the karst hydrogeochemical flow. A modified model for epi-karstification in the studied area was suggested.


Isotopic Stratigraphy of a Last Interglacial Stalagmite from Northwestern Romania: Correlation with the Deep-sea Record and Northern-latitude Speleothem, 1999, Lauritzen, S. E. , Onac, B. P.
LFG-2, a 39.5 cm tall stalagmite from northwestern Romania, has been dated by U-series a-spectrometric dating, and analyzed for stable isotope variations (d18O, d13C) along its growth axis. The sample grew all the way through oxygen isotope stage 5(a-e), and perhaps for some time into stage 4. In spite of a rather low uranium content and therefore imprecise chronology, the sample provides an interesting stable isotope record with high temporal resolution that correlates favorably with other speleothems and with the deep-sea record. Termination II is well defined in the record as a rapid shift from light (cold) to heavier (warm) d18O values, when C3 vegetation seemed to dominate. The d13C in a slow growth zone, corresponding to oxygen isotope stage 5d, as well after the stage 5/4 transition, suggests that C4 plants possibly dominated the surface environment. The d18O record also correlate quite well with the a-dated FM-2 record from northern Norway

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