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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That unaltered rock is rock that has not experienced physical or chemical erosion [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?



Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for states (Keyword) returned 137 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 137
Bat Rabies in the United States, 1980, Trimarchi, C. V.

Historical Geogrpahy of United States Saltpeter Caves, 1981, Depaepe Duane, Hill Carol A.

Saltpeter Caves of the United States, 1981, Hill Carol A. , Depaepe Duane P. , Eller Gary, Hauer Peter M. , Powers John, Smith Marion O.

Genetic Population Structure in an Amphipod Species., 1981, Golladay S. W. , Gooch James L.
Genetic structure of a species should conform, in part, to environmental structure. Three polymorphic enzyme loci in the amphipod Gammarus minus Say are geographically differentiated in gene frequencies in the mid-Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States, and genetic breaks usually coincide with topographical features and stream divides. Considering alleles as migrational markers, it is expected that heterozygosity would decrease upstream in isolated drainage basins, increase in the headwaters of adjacent but oppositely flowing streams in which gene exchange was occurring between genetically differentiated populations, and increase in sites near regional master streams. These genetic patterns were found to exist in an area near the Juniata River in central Pennsylvania.

Genetic Differentiation in Populations of the Freshwater Amphipod Gammarus minus Say in a Karst Area., 1981, Gooch James L. , Hetrick Steven W.
The genetic makeup of populations in a particular geographic area should conform, in part, to environmental structure. Three polymorphic enzyme loci in the amphipod Gammarus minus are geographically differentiated in gene frequencies in the mid-Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States, and genetic breaks usually coincide with topographical features and stream divides. Areas with well integrated drainage systems have a high degree of genetic uniformity.

Saltpeter Caves of the United States-Updated List, 1982, Hill, Carol A.

Observations on the Biology of Cave Planarians of the United States., 1982, Carpenter Jerry H.
Observations are made on the biology of several species of cave planarians (mostly of the family Kenkiidae) collected alive from over 50 caves in 14 states. Most of these species were maintained in laboratory cultures at 12C3C. Food eaten was extremely variable. Functions of the anterior adhesive organ included food capture, locomotion, defence against predators, and probably chemoreception, mechanoreception, and as a holdfast in strong currents. Predators probably consist of fishes, crayfishes, and salamanders. Sporozoan and ciliated parasites were found occasionally. Cocoons were found in winter, spring, and summer; they hatched in about 3 months and contained 2 to 17 young.

La recherche karstologique en Amrique du Nord, 1983, Palmer, A. N.
Karst research in North America - After several decades of isolation from the other goesciences, karst research in the USA is now merging with many other science fields. Advances have been particularly notable in the subjects of cave origin, mineralogy, geochemistry, geochronology and paleoclimatology. Recently there has been a tendency for karst principles to be applied to diverse fields such as carbonate petrology, environmental science, and hydrology

Paleokarst of the United States, 1989, Palmer M. V. , Palmer A. N.

Paleokarst - a Systematic and Regional Review, 1989,

Prepared by some of the world's leading experts in the field, this book is the first summarizing work on the origin, importance and exploitation of paleokarst. It offers an extensive regional survey, mainly concerning the Northern Hemisphere, as well as a thorough analysis of the problems of research into paleokarst phenomena, with particular emphasis on theoretical contributions and practical exploitation. By concentrating on phenomena which have appeared in the course of geological history, the book represents a substantial development in the general theory of paleokarst and demonstrates the advantages of a comprehensive approach to the problem. Considerable emphasis is put on the economic importance of paleokarst phenomena, from the point of view of exploiting significant deposits of mineral raw materials, as well as from a civil engineering and hydrological point of view. Since the publication deals with a boundary scientific discipline, it is intended for specialists from various branches of science: geologists, paleontologists, economic geologists, geographers, mining engineers and hydrogeologists.

List of Contributors. Foreword.

Part I. Introduction.
Introduction (P. Bosák et al.). Paleokarst as a problem (J. Głazek, P. Bosák, D.C. Ford). Terminology (P. Bosák, D.C. Ford, J. Głazek).

Part II. Regional Review.
Paleokarst of Belgium (Y. Quinif). Paleokarst of Britain (T.D. Ford). Paleokarst of Norway (S.-E. Lauritzen). Paleokarst of Poland (J. Głazek). Paleokarst of Czechoslovakia (P. Bosák, I. Horáček, V. Panoš). Paleokarst of Hungary (G. Bárdossy, L. Kordos). Hydrothermal paleokarst of Hungary (P. Müller). Paleokarst of Italy. Selected examples from Cambrian to Miocene (M. Boni, B. D'Argenio). Paleokarst-related ore deposits of the Maghreb, North Africa (Y. Fuchs, B. Touahri). Paleokarst of Yugoslavia (D. Gavrilović). Paleokarst of Bulgaria (I. Stanev, S. Trashliev). Paleokarst of Romania (M. Bleahu). Paleokarst of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (R.A. Tsykin). Paleokarst of China (Zhang Shouyue). Paleokarst of Canada (D.C. Ford). Paleokarst of the United States (M.V. Palmer, A.N. Palmer).

Part III. Mineral Deposits Connected With Karst.
An introduction to karst-related mineral deposits (P. Bosák). Pb-Zn ores (S. Dżułyński, M. Sass-Gustkiewicz). Bauxites (G. Bárdossy). Iron ore deposits in paleokarst (G. Bárdossy, Y. Fuchs, J. Głazek). Clays and sands in paleokarst (P. Bosák). The oceanic karst: modern bauxite and phosphate ore deposits on the high carbonate islands (so-called ``Uplifted Atolls'') of the Pacific Ocean (F.G. Bourrouilh-le Jan). Paleokarst-related uranium deposits (Y. Fuchs).

Part IV. Hydrogeology and Engineering Hazards in Paleokarst Areas.
Paleokarst as an important hydrogeological factor (J. Zötl). Hydrogeological problems of opencast and underground mining of mineral deposits encountered during their exploration, development and exploitation stages (P. Bosák). Hydrogeological problems of the Cracow-Silesia Zn-Pb ore deposits (Z. Wilk). Hydrogeological problems of Hungarian bauxite and coal deposits (T. Böcker, B. Vizy). Paleokarst in civil engineering (A. Eraso). Interaction between engineering and environment in the presence of paleokarst: some case histories (J. Głazek).

Part V. Paleokarst as a Scientific Subject.
Special characteristics of paleokarst studies (I. Horáček, P. Bosák). Tectonic conditions for karst origin and preservation (J. Głazek). Problems of the origin and fossilization of karst forms (P. Bosák). Biostratigraphic investigations in paleokarst (I. Horáček, L. Kordos).

Part VI. Conclusions. Part VII. References. Part VIII. Indexes.
Author Index. Geographical Index. Subject Index.

Bibliographic & ordering Information
Hardbound, ISBN: 0-444-98874-2, 726 pages, publication date: 1989

Glaciation and saline-freshwater mixing as a possible cause of cave formation in the eastern Midcontinent region of the United States; a conceptual model, 1990, Panno Samuel V. , Bourcier William L. ,

A ground water monitoring study was conducted for the triazine herbicide simazine at 11 sites in the United States. The study used carefully selected, small-scale sites (average size: about 33 acres) with documented product use and sensitive hydrogeological settings. The sites selected were Tulare County, California (two sites); Fresno County, California; Sussex County, Delaware; Hardee and Palm Beach counties, Florida; Winnebago County, Illinois; Jackson County, Indiana; Van Buren and Berrien counties, Michigan; and Jefferson County, West Virginia. These sites satisfied the following criteria: a history of simazine use, including the year prior to the start of the study; permeable soil and vadose zone; shallow depth to water; no restrictive soil layers above the water table; and gentle slopes not exceeding 2 percent. A variety of crop types, climates, and irrigation practices were included. Monitoring well clusters (shallow and deep) were installed at each site except in California and West Virginia, where only shallow wells were installed. Simazine was monitored at these sites at quarterly intervals for a two-year period during 1986-1988. The results of the study showed that out of 153 samples analyzed, 45 samples showed simazine detections. A substantial majority of the detections (32 out of 45) occurred in Tulare, Fresno, and Jefferson counties. The detections in these areas were attributed to mechanisms other than leaching, such as drainage wells, karst areas, surface water recharge, or point source problems. An additional 11 detections in Van Buren County were apparently due to an unknown upgradient source. Only one detection (in Palm Beach County, Florida) near the screening level of 0.1 ppb was attributed to possible leaching. The results of this investigation support the hypothesis that simazine does not leach significantly under field use conditions

Synthetic strontianite-aragonite solid-solution minerals were dissolved in CO2-saturated nonstoichiometric solutions of Sr(HCO3)2 and Ca(HCO3)2 at 25-degrees-C. The results show that none of the dissolution reactions reach thermodynamic equilibrium. Congruent dissolution in Ca(HCO3)2 solutions either attains or closely approaches stoichiometric saturation with respect to the dissolving solid. In Sr(HCO3)2 solutions the reactions usually become incongruent, precipitating a Sr-rich phase before reaching stoichiometric saturation. Dissolution of mechanical mixtures of solids approaches stoichiometric saturation with respect to the least stable solid in the mixture. Surface uptake from subsaturated bulk solutions was observed in the initial minutes of dissolution. This surficial phase is 0-10 atomic layers thick in Sr(HCO3)2 solutions and 0-4 layers thick in Ca(HCO3)2 solutions, and subsequently dissolves and/or recrystallizes, usually within 6 min of reaction. The initial transient surface precipitation (recrystallization) process is followed by congruent dissolution of the original solid which proceeds to stoichiometric saturation, or until the precipitation of a more stable Sr-rich solid. The compositions of secondary precipitates do not correspond to thermodynamic equilibrium or stoichiometric saturation states. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements indicate the formation of solid solutions on surfaces of aragonite and strontianite single crystals immersed in Sr(HCO3)2 and Ca(HCO3)2 solutions, respectively. In Sr(HCO3)2 solutions, the XPS signal from the outer approximately 60 angstrom on aragonite indicates a composition of 16 mol% SrCO3 after only 2 min of contact, and 14-18 mol% SrCO3 after 3 weeks of contact. The strontianite surface averages approximately 22 mol% CaCO3 after 2 min of contact with Ca(HCO3)2 solution, and is 34-39 mol% CaCO3 after 3 weeks of contact. XPS analysis suggests the surface composition is zoned with somewhat greater enrichment in the outer approximately 25 angstrom (as much as 26 mol% SrCO3 on aragonite and 44 mol% CaCO3 on strontianite). The results indicate rapid formation of a solid-solution surface phase from subsaturated aqueous solutions. The surface phase continually adjusts in composition in response to changes in composition of the bulk fluid as net dissolution proceeds. Dissolution rates of the endmembers are greatly reduced in nonstoichiometric solutions relative to dissolution rates observed in stoichiometric solutions. All solids dissolve more slowly in solutions spiked with the least soluble component ((Sr(HCO3)2) than in solutions spiked with the more soluble component (Ca(HCO3)2), an effect that becomes increasingly significant as stoichiometric saturation is approached. It is proposed that the formation of a nonstoichiometric surface reactive zone significantly decreases dissolution rates

ROADWAY DESIGN IN KARST, 1993, Fischer Ja, Fischer Jj, Greene Rw,
To minimize costs in conventional roadway design, as much low or valley areas as possible are utilized. In many areas of the eastern United States, these valleys are filled with carbonate rocks. Excavation is used to minimize grades-this removes protective overburden or rock cover over cavities; fill also is used to minimize grades-this can increase loads on marginally stable soil arches or rock cavity roofs. Surface water runoff is directed toward low areas-the low areas are likely zones of weakness or solutioning, thereby increasing the potential for sinkhole development and providing an opportunity for groundwater contamination, and remediation usually consists of blindly filling rock cavities, thus either channeling the still-contaminated surface flows someplace else or perhaps eliminating useful ground water recharge conduits. The authors suggest that the key to proper design, construction, and remediation for roadways planned in karst is to understand the geologic and hydrogeologic setting of the route(s) or locale, perform true geotechnical engineering design, and remediate with an understanding of the overall engineering geologic, hydrogeologic, and environmental picture

Subsidence-sinkhole development in light of mud infiltrate structures within interstratal karst of the Coastal Plain, southeast United States, 1993, Jancin M. , Clark D. D. ,

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