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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That tubular passage; tube; tube passage is 1. cave passage formed by approximately equal dissolution all round when full of flowing water within the phreas. relict tubes, abandoned as the water table was lowered, are common in old caves, and may be partially filled by sediment, breakdown or stalagmite, or entrenched to form keyhole passages. tube sizes range to over 15m in diameter, but the larger ones are rarely of uniform section. peak cavern in derbyshire is well known for its fine circular phreatic tubes. some of the trunk passages of mammoth cave, kentucky, are spectacular tubes of elliptical section, formed by dissolution rates that were higher along the bedding than across [9]. 2. these are nearly horizontal cave passages (tunnels) with round or elliptical cross sections and are either straight or winding. at mammoth cave they vary in size up to 30 feet high and nearly 100 feet wide. they are formed while completely filled with flowing water. whereas they are typically wider than high as a result of dissolution along horizontal cracks and beddingplane partings, they may also form as high, narrow, straight fissures along major vertical or near vertical fractures [15]. see also canyon passage; keyhole passage; passage; vertical shaft.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for paleoclimat (Keyword) returned 138 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 138
Les cavits de la Sierra d'Aralar (Pays Basque espagnol), 1986,
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Ugarte, F. M.
CAVES OF THE SIERRA OF ARALAR (NAVARRA-GUIPUZCOA, SPAIN). CORRELATION BETWEEN UNDERGROUND FORMATIONS AND GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES - The study of numerous cavities of the Sierra of Aralar permits to give importance to: 1/ the relations between the subterranean morphology and the structural network; 2/ the relations with the actual morphoclimatic conditions of the middle-mountain exokarst; 3/ the part of the heritages of the Quaternary cold-periods. Following important speleological research carried out by the Aranzadi Society of Science (San Sebastian) in the central mountains of the sierra d'Aralar the majority of the PKH (Karst phenomenons) have been located and mapped (PKH = 2,78 km2). As a result of this work, we have attempted to correlate endokarstic landscape with geological structure

Les rseaux souterrains de la rgion de Lbamba (Gabori), 1987,
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Peyrot B. , Massala J.
CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF KARSTIC SYSTEMS OF THE LEBAMBA REGION (GABON) - The Lebamba region is situated in the extreme southern part of Gabon close to the Republic of Congo. Geologically, it can be included within the Niari-Nyanga synclinorium, where the Precambrian schists and limestones show many karstic features and particularly a remarkable subterranean network, as to yet only partially surveyed. The dolomitic limestone of Lebamba, although of little importance, contains many cave systems: Lebamba, Bongolo, Mbenaltembe. A severe tectonic mesh together with fine micro-stratifications have opened the way to biochemical corrosion which, after observations and analysis, appears to result from a climate wetter than at present. The dimensions of the underground passages appear disproportionate, relatively to the low aggressivity of the present environment, thus illustrating the importance of paleoclimatic factors on the morphogenesis of central african karsts.

Le karst pliocne de la rgion de Safi (Maroc atlantique), 1987,
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Weisrock A. , Lunski S.
POST-PLIOCENE KARST OF SAFI AREA (ATLANTIC MOROCCO) - The karst of Safi area is developed in bioclastic calcarenites of Plio-Moghrebian upon Mesozoic limestones, marls and gypsum. Dolines, uvalas and poljes are found along faults N170-N195, N040-N070, N080-N115, which are mainly " Mesetian " and " Atlasic " tectonic directions of Atlantic Morocco. Two points are developed upon this karst genesis: 1/ the relations between post-pliocene karstic landforms and paleokarst in limestones and gypsum; 2/ the recent karstic developments occur during the periods wetter than today (310 mm/y), for example Upper Pleistocene, as it is showed by dating of charcoal in dolines filling.

Oxygen isotopes in meteoric calcite cement as indicators of continental paleoclimate., 1991,
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Hays P. D. , Grossman E. L.

Northwest European paleoclimate as indicated by growth frequency variations of secondary calcite deposits, 1993,
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Baker A. , Smart P. L. , Ford D. C

Les speleothemes; un outil performant pour les etudes paleoclimatiques, 1994,
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Quinif Yves, Genty Dominique, Maire Richard,

Tectonic Speleogenesis of Devils Hole, Nevada, and Implications for Hydrogeology and the Development of Long, Continuous Paleoenvironmental Records, 1994,
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Riggs Alan C. , Carr W. J. , Kolesar Peter T. , Hoffman Ray J. ,
Devils Hole, in southern Nevada, is a surface collapse into a deep, planar, steeply dipping fault-controlled fissure in Cambrian limestone and dolostone. The collapse intersects the water table about 15 m below land surface and the fissure extends at least 130 m deeper. Below water, most of the fissure is lined with a >30-cm-thick layer of dense maxillary calcite that precipitated continuously from groundwater for >500,000 yr. The thick mammillary calcite coat implies a long history of calcite-supersaturated groundwaters, which, combined with the absence of dissolutional morphologies, suggests that Devils Hole was not formed by karst processes. Devils Hole is located in a region of active extension; its tectonic origin is shown by evidence of spreading of its planar opening along a fault and by the orientation of its opening and others nearby, perpendicular to the northwest-southeast minimum principal stress direction of the region. Most Quaternary tectonic activity in the area, including seismicity and Quaternary faults and fractures, occurs on or parallel to northeast-striking structures. The hydrogeologic implications of this primarily structural origin are that fracture networks and caves opened by extensional tectonism can act as groundwater flowpaths functionally similar to those developed by karst processes and that, during active extension, transmissivity can be maintained despite infilling by mineral precipitation. Such extensional environments can provide conditions favorable for accumulation of deposits preserving long, continuous paleoenvironmental records. The precipitates in Devils Hole store chronologies of flow system water-level fluctuations, hydrochemistry, a half-million-yr proxy paleoclimate record, evidence of Devils Hole's tectonic origin, and probably atmospheric circulation

Middle Holocene environmental change determined from the salt caves of Mount Sedom, Israel, 1994,
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Frumkin, A. , Carmi, I. , Zak, I. And Magaritz, M. , 1994
Paleoclimatic sequence for the Middle Holocene was constructed, based on Mount Sedom salt caves, and other evidence. Mount Sedom is a salt diapir, on the southwestern shore of the Dead Sea, which has been rising above the local base level throughout the Holocene. Allogenic karst development has kept pace with the rising, forming vadose caves. Wood fragments found embedded in flood sediments that were deposited in sub-horizontal cave passages yielded 14C ages from 7090 to 200 YBP. The paleoclimatic sequence is based on parameters that include: relative abundance of plant types or floral communities, the elevations of the corresponding relict cave passages and the ratio of their width to present passage width. Moister climatic stages are indicated by relatively abundant wood remains, by wide cave passages and by higher-level outlets, indicating high Dead Sea levels. Arid periods are marked by a scarcity of wood remains, by narrow cave passages and by low-level outlets. The results were correlated to other middle-Holocene evidence and temporal settlement changes. The Early Bronze period in Israel was the moistest period during the last 6000 years and as such it encouraged cultural development. It was followed by a considerable desiccation that caused a cultural deterioration.

EVIDENCE OF PALAEOSTRUCTURES RELATED TO FREEZING THROUGH SOIL MICROMORPHOLOGY IN LAZARET CAVE, NICE (FRANCE), 1995,
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Laafar S. , Rousseau L. , Delumley H. ,
In the Lazaret cave (Nice), the study of soil micromorphology has revealed palaeostructures with a microaggregate facies as well as a round or flat morphology. Observations were performed in the middle of stratigraphic layer C of the archaeological filling which probably belongs to isotopic stage 6. The specific characteristics of these palaeostructures are compared to those observed in certain recent sites which underwent a cold and wet climate. From this comparison, it can be inferred that layer C might have been formed under similar climatic conditions

Paleoclimate implications of mass spectrometric dating of a British flowstone, 1995,
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Baker A, Smart Pl, Edwards Rl,
The timing of growth phases in a cave flowstone from Yorkshire, England, has been precisely dated by thermal ionization mass spectrometric 238 U- 234 U- 230 Th dating. Six growth periods of both short duration and fast growth rate are separated by nondepositional hiatuses. The ages of these phases were determined to be 128.8 or -2.7, 103.1 or -1.8, 84.7 or -1.2, 57.9 or -1.5, 49.6 or -1.3, and 36.9 or -0.8 ka. There is a remarkably good correlation between the periods of active speleothem growth and the timing of solar insolation maxima, derived from orbital parameters, which has not previously been reported. Speleothem growth theory and evidence from other terrestrial paleoclimate records suggest that episodic, rapid growth phases at the insolation maxima are most likely to be caused by changes in either precipitation intensity or volume, which caused switching in the routing of water flow in the unsaturated zone above the cave. Such a result provides new evidence of the importance of variations in solar insolation for terrestrial paleoclimate and offers the potential for derivation of a paleowetness index from speleothem growth

TECTONIC AND PALEOCLIMATIC SIGNIFICANCE OF A PROMINENT UPPER PENNSYLVANIAN (VIRGILIAN STEPHANIAN) WEATHERING PROFILE, IOWA AND NEBRASKA, USA, 1995,
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Joeckel R. M. ,
A Virgilian (Stephanian) weathering profile up to 4 m deep, containing a paleosol (basal Rakes Creek paleosol) in the basal mudstone of the Rakes Creek Member and karstified marine sediments in the Ost, Kenosha, and Avoca members below, is restricted to southeastern Nebraska (specifically the Weeping Water Valley) and the Missouri River Valley bluffs of adjacent easternmost Iowa. This weathering profile, informally referred to as the Weeping Water weathering profile, disappears farther eastward into the shallow Forest City Basin in southwestern Iowa. Weeping Water weathering profile features are prominent in comparison to other Midcontinent Pennsylvanian subaerial exposure surfaces, indicating prolonged subaerial exposure, relatively high elevation, and a marked drop in water table along the Nemaha Uplift in southeastern Nebraska. Eastward, on the margin of the Forest City Basin, the basal Rakes Creek paleosol and underlying karst are thinner and relatively poorly developed; paleosol characteristics indicate formation on lower landscape positions. Comparative pedology, the contrasting of paleosol variability, morphology, and micromorphology between different paleosols in the same regional succession, provides a basis for interpreting the larger significance of the basal Rakes Creek paleosol. The stratigraphically older upper Lawrence and Snyderville paleosols in the same area are significantly different in patterns of lateral variability and overall soil characteristics. Weaker eustatic control and stronger tectonic activity may explain the greater west-east variability (and eventual eastward disappearance) of the basal Rakes Creek paleosol. Differences in soil characteristics between the Vertisol-like upper Lawrence and Snyderville paleosols and the non-Vertisol-like basal Rakes Creek paleosol appear to be due to climate change, particularly a shift from more seasonal to more uniform rainfall. This climate change hypothesis is compatible with overall Virgilian stratigraphic trends in the northern Midcontinent outcrop area

Paleoclimatic implications of radiocarbon dating of speleothems from the Cracow-Wielun Upland, southern Poland, 1995,
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Pazdur A. , Pazdur M. F. , Pawlyta J. , Gorny A. , Olszewski M. ,
We report preliminary results of a long-term systematic study intended to gather paleoclimatic records from precisely dated speleothems. The research project is limited to speleothems deposited in caves of the Cracow-Wielun Upland, the largest and best-explored karst region in Poland, covering ca. 2900 km(2) with >1000 caves. Speleothem samples were selected from collections of the Geological Museum of the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in Cracow. Radiocarbon dates of these samples from ca. 45-20 ka BP almost exactly coincide with age range of the Interplenivistulian. A break in speleothem formation between ca. 20 and 10 ka up may be interpreted as a result of serious climatic deterioration associated with the maximum extent of the last glaciation. We observed differences among C-14, U/Th and AAR dating results. Changes of delta(13)C and delta(18)O in speleothems that grew between ca. 30 and 20 ka sp may be interpreted as changes of paleoclimatic conditions

Annually laminated sequences in the internal structure of some Belgian stalagmites - importance for paleoclimatology., 1996,
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Genty D. , Quinif Y.

Annually laminated sequences in the internal structure of some Belgian stalagmites; importance for paleoclimatology, 1996,
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Genty D, Quinif Y,

Formation des rseaux karstiques et creusement des valles : lexemple du Larzac mridional, Hrault, France, 1997,
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Camus, Hubert
The Causses and mediterranean Garrigues present a long continental evolution from late Cretaceous. The karstic network analysis and the dynamic study give geomorphological indicators to reconstruct the paleogeography of this area when the geological indicators are not present. The paleoclimatic action and the tectonic movements make the actual landscape melting a lot of ages and genesis different elements. The endokarst preserves sedimentological and paleoclimatic witnesses and also hollowing shapes that traduce the successive steps of the paleogeographic evolution. The network's levels of the South Larzac are connected with the landscape karstic forms : poljes, canyons, peripheric valleys. The reef limestone of the Seranne and the dolomite of the Monts de St-Guilhem explain this good conservation of the endokarst and of the landscapes.

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