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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That land surface is that part of the lithosphere usually not covered by water [16].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for var (Keyword) returned 1539 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 1539
Report of the Cambridge Univeristy Caving Club Expedition to Svartisen, Norway 1958, 1959, Jenkins D. A.

Glacier Caves of Svartisen, Norway, 1961, Davies, William E.

Isotopic variations in meteoric waters, 1961, Craig H.

Cave Animals and Their Environment, 1962, Richards, Aola M.

Caves can be divided into three distinct regions - the twilight zone, the transitional zone and the troglic zone. The main physical characters of caves - light, air currents, temperature and humidity - are discussed in relation to their effect on cave fauna. Various classifications of cave animals are mentioned, and those of Schiner and Jeannel discussed in detail. The paucity of food in caves, and its effect on the animal population is considered. Mention is made of the loss of secondary sexual characters and seasonal periodicity of breeding among true troglobites. Cave animals have undergone many adaptations to their environment, the most interesting of these being blindness and loss of pigment. Hyper-development of tactile, gustatory, olfactory and auditory organs and general slenderness of body, are correlated with eye degeneration. Several theories on the origin of cave fauna are discussed, and the importance of isolation on the development of cave fauna considered.


Jamaica type bauxites developed on limestones, 1963, Hose H. R. ,
'When the various types of bauxite found on limestones are studied in detail in the field it becomes apparent that the older diasporic and boehmitic bauxites of the northern Mediterranean area developed initially in the same manner as the recently formed Jamaican gibbsitic bauxites.'

Water Sampling at Yarrangobilly, New South Wales, 1963, Jennings, J. N.

Various geomorphologists such as Bgli, Corbel and Lehmann have in recent years demonstrated the interest that certain simple chemical analyses of natural waters can have for the comparison of rates of limestone solution in different in different climatic conditions. They can also have their relevance for the tracing of underground water connections as Oertli (1953) has shown in the example of the Slovenian part of the classical Yugoslavian karst. Since 1957, the writer has therefore been making such analyses of waters from Australian limestone areas. The chief significance of these measurements comes when one caving area is compared with another. M.M. Sweeting (1960) has already commented briefly on observations from Mole Creek, Tasmania, Buchan, Victoria and the Fitzroy Basin, Western Australia, made in 1958-59 by herself and the writer; further discussion will appear in a forthcoming publication of ours on the Limestone Ranges of the Fitzroy Basin. Nevertheless measurements of this kind can have a certain intrinsic interest as it is hoped to show in the following notes on the few observations I made at Yarrangobilly. These observations are set out in tabular and Trombe graph forms; the locations of the collecting points are shown on the map.


Scintillites: A Variety of Quartz Speleothems, 1964, Deal, Dwight E.

Antrolana lira, a new genus and species of troglobitic cirolanid isopod from Madison cave, Virginia., 1964, Bowman Thomas E.
Antrolana lira, a new genus and species of troglobitic cirolanid isopod, is descnibed from Madison Cave, in the Appalachian Valley of Virginia. The problem of its origin from a marine ancestor is discussed. A supplementary description is given of Cirolanides texensis, and records of its occurrence are given. A key is given to the troglobitic Cirolanidae of the Western Hemisphere, and their known distribution is shown on a map. The subgenus Speocirolana Bolivar y Pieltain is raised to genus.

Observations on the evolution of caves., 1964, Cavaille Albert
In this note, which results from a paper published in France, the author defines the "karst system" formed by several successive levels, at the heart of a limestone mass: joints of surface feeding, vertical chimneys, galleries which are alternatively dry and full of water according to the season, a network of continually drowned clefts. He then studies modifications in this system resulting from internal causes, corrosion, filling and sedimentation, concretion. Then he shows how this evolution of the karst system may be modified by general conditions: geology, tectonics, geography with the losses, resurgences and the role of surface formations. The deepening of the river level may create a structure of differing levels in the various karst system, but their positioning is always slower than the streams erosion and it comes about later. In any case, the caves in a dried karst system undergo an evolution on their own. Finally, the author gives the definition of the terms used to explain the evolution in the karst system: "embryonic galleries" in the network of clefts, "young galleries" in the zone which is alternately wet and dry, "mature galleries" where the concretion and the erosion are balanced, "old galleries" where the concretion is becoming more and more important, "dead galleries" where the cave is completely filled by the deposits and concretions. This classification will easily replace the inexact terms of "active galleries" and "fossilized galleries" which are too vague and lead to confusion.

Contribution to the knowledge on spring fauna in the Bela Reca river valley (Romania)., 1965, Capuse Iosif, Motas Constantin
After an introduction, comprising a historical summary on the researches on well fauna, a description of the study area in which 13 water wells have been investigated is given. The authors explain the adopted working method and indicate the physical and chemical characteristics of the waters (temperature, pH, alkalinity, hardness, O2-content, fixed residuum, suspended matter, N2O5, P2O5, NaC1, Ca, Fe). The fauna of the wells of Mehadia (see systematic part) is composed of 34 species: 1 Triclade, 3 Oligochaeta, 2 Gastropods, 5 Cladocera, 1 Ostracod, 3 Copepods, 4 Isopods, 2 Amphipods, 1 Halacarida, 1 Collembola, empty puppies of a Trichoptera, 2 Coleoptera and 8 Diptera (larves and nympha). Among these species 15% can be considered phreatobionts: a blind Triclade (not identified), Candona eremita Vejd., Asellus (Proasellus) danubialis Lt. & M. Codr., Asellus (Proasellus) elegans Lt. & M. Codr., Niphargus jovanovici bajuvaricus Schell. and Niphargopsis trispinosus Dancau & Capuse. The remaining 28 species, counting for 85%, belong to the phreatoxenes. It is worth to mention that Vejdovsky (1882) in wells near Prague, Jaworowski (1895) in wells of Cracovia and of Lwov, Moniez (1888, 1889) in wells in North-East France and Chappuis (1922) in those close to Bale, have found a much smaller proportion of phreatobe forma (e.g. Chappuis 2%).

Data on the Algal Flora of Kolyuk cave close to Manfa (Hungary)., 1965, Claus George
The Kolyuk cave lies in the southern part of Hungary in the Mecsek Mountains, about 3 km. in distance from the village of Mnfa. The material accepted for investigation originated from a recently discovered and until now completely entombed part of the cave. It was collected by the geologist Gbor Magyari and consisted of material scraped from the walls and ceiling of a cavity in the cave, which could be reached only by underwater swimming. From these scrapings cultures were installed with sterile Knopp solution and after the algae present in the collection reproduced, a diversified flora developed which consisted of the following: Cyanophyta; 20 species, varietates and formae; Bacillariophyta; 2 species and varietas; Chlorophyta; 7 species. There was a total of 29 different taxa. Since the cave from which the collections were made was completely devoid of light, it is especially significant that a well developed blue-green algal flora was found. We thus have further evidence for our previously advanced theory (Claus, 1955, 1962 a, 1962b) that some algae were present in the caves at the time of their origin. They were able to survive in an actively assimilating vegetative state and not only in the form of cysts or arthrospores.

Caves of the Coastal Areas of South Australia, 1965, Sexton, R. T.

The majority of South Australian caves occur in the Tertiary and Quaternary limestones of the coastal areas. Their distribution is discussed here on a geological rather than a geographical basis. The most significant caves are briefly described and illustrated to indicate different types and related developments in the coastal limestones. The most notable feature of the limestones is their soft, porous nature. Caves also occur in South Australia in hard, massively bedded Cambrian and Pre-Cambrian limestones and dolomites. These are not discussed in the present paper. To facilitate recording, South Australia has been divided into six zones as shown in Figure 1, and the caves numbered in order of discovery in each area. In general, both the name and the number of the cave have been given, but unnamed caves are specified by number only. The cave maps have been chosen to give as wide a coverage as possible of the various types, or to illustrate points of particular interest. The arrows on the section lines show the direction of viewing, and the sections are numbered to relate them to the plans. Where a cross-section and longitudinal section intersect, the common line has been drawn to relate the sections. The same scale has been used throughout for ease of comparison.


Pelodrilus bureschi Mich. 1924 (Oligochaeta Haplotaxidae) of the caves of Banat (Romania)., 1966, Botea Francisc, Botosaneanu Lazare
Pelodrilus bareschi Mich., one of two species of limicolous oligochaetes strictly confined to a subterranean environment and previously known from several caves in Bulgaria and Yugoslavia, was recently found in three caves in the Banat Mountains, Romania. Examination of sexually mature worms showed that they are within the range of variability of P. bareschi and that there is no reason to describe a form peculiar to the caves of Banat. Pelodrilus has almost always been found in the mud or clay covering the bottom of pools of variable size, which are filled by periodic flooding of underground water courses. The Banat colonies are small.

The Crustaceans of the reservoir of the Fontaine des Suisses at Dijon., 1966, Dussart Bernard, Graf Franois, Husson Roger
Inventory of the Crustaceans collected in the basin of the Fonatine des Suisses at Dijon. The Copepoda are represented by 5 species: Macrocyclops albidits, Eucyclops serrulatus in two slightly different forms, Eucyclops serrulatus var. mihi, Acanthocyclops venustus, Acanthocyclops vernalis and Acanthocyclops robustus. The coexistence of these two last forms in this very tiny environment makes it probable that we have here to do with two distinct species. A determination key is given for the Genus Acanthocyclops. Amphipoda are represented by Niphargus virei and especially Niphargus kochianus kochianus of which more than 100 samples have been collected. Of this last small species some considerations regarding geography, the laying of eggs, sexual dimorphism and closely related species are also given.

The geographical distribution of Australian cave dwelling Chiroptera., 1966, Hamiltonsmith E.
Of the 56 species of bats currently recorded from Australia, 22 are known to occur in caves. The geographical distribution of each of these species is detailed, and from this data, the species are divided into four groups according to their pattern of distribution. Group I comprises those species found only North of 18S latitude, all of which either also occur in New Guinea or are closely related to New Guinea species. Group II, including both endemic Australian genera, occurs over that area North of 28S latitude. This area largely comprises desert or semi-desert terrain, with its characteristics of low humidity and a wide range between extremes of temperature. Group III occurs in the Eastern Coastal Region, with one species extending to a limited degree along both Northern and Southern Coasts. Although temperature is extremely varied over this range, there are common environmental factors of moderate to high humidity and a moderate to low range of temperature variation. Group IV species are all widespread, in many cases over the whole continent, are all members of the Vespertilionidae, and occur in caves only occasionally or only in certain parts of their range. These species are more commonly found in trees or buildings. The possible factors contributing to the origin of these distributional patterns are discussed, and some areas for future investigation suggested.

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