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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That appendage is an arm or other limb that branches from an animal's body [23].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for mass transfer (Keyword) returned 18 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 18 of 18
Central concepts of karst hydrology, 2013, Palmer, Arthur N.

The solutional growth of karst features involves a simple mass transfer, in which the mass removed from the walls of a void equals the mass removed in solution by flowing water. Mass removed = volume  rock density, and mass in solution = discharge  solute concentration. Therefore (e.g., in a solution conduit) the rate of volume increase = discharge  gain in dissolved load  time / rock density. Density is essentially con-stant, so conduit size depends only on the cumulative values of discharge, dissolution rate, and time. All three are essential, and all are equally important.
Discharge in a conduit depends on catchment area and water balance; and the distribu-tion of water among all solution conduits depends on hydraulic variables and conduit geometry. Dissolution rate varies with rock type, undersaturation, and solution kinetics, the last of which can be determined by laboratory and field measurements. Together, they provide a tool for quantifying the local geomorphic history.
These relationships seem simple, but applying them quantitatively is complex. This requires a finely divided 2- or 3-dimensional grid in which each segment varies in dis-charge and dissolution rate within each of many small time increments. Computer modelers use this approach to simulate conduit growh; but the results depend on the specific boundary conditions of the model.
It is more challenging to use this concept intuitively to solve real field problems, where the variables are only partly understood. In this case, one must show that the water source, dissolution rate, and available time are all great enough to account for the ob-served solution features. All three variables are closely linked by a web of interactive processes, all of which can be expressed quantitatively. Whether the goal is to under-stand what is already known, or to predict the unknown, this approach provides a solid basis for interpreting karst systems.


Early-stage hypogene karstification in a mountain hydrologic system: A coupled thermohydrochemical model incorporating buoyant convection, 2013, Chaudhuri A. , Rajaram H. , Viswanathan H

The early stage of hypogene karstification is investigated using a coupled thermohydrochemical model of a mountain hydrologic system, in which water enters along a water table and descends to significant depth (_1 km) before ascending through a central high-permeability fracture. The model incorporates reactive alteration driven by dissolution/ precipitation of limestone in a carbonic acid system, due to both temperature- and pressuredependent solubility, and kinetics. Simulations were carried out for homogeneous and heterogeneous initial fracture aperture fields, using the FEHM (Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer) code. Initially, retrograde solubility is the dominant mechanism of fracture aperture growth. As the fracture transmissivity increases, a critical Rayleigh number value is exceeded at some stage. Buoyant convection is then initiated and controls the evolution of the system thereafter. For an initially homogeneous fracture aperture field, deep well-organized buoyant convection rolls form. For initially heterogeneous aperture fields, preferential flow suppresses large buoyant convection rolls, although a large number of smaller rolls form. Even after the onset of buoyant convection, dissolution in the fracture is sustained along upward flow paths by retrograde solubility and by additional ‘‘mixing corrosion’’ effects closer to the surface. Aperture growth patterns in the fracture are very different from those observed in simulations of epigenic karst systems, and retain imprints of both buoyant convection and preferential flow. Both retrograde solubility and buoyant convection contribute to these differences. The paper demonstrates the potential value of coupled models as tools for understanding the evolution and behavior of hypogene karst systems.


Early-stage hypogene karstification in a mountain hydrologic system: A coupled thermohydrochemical model incorporating buoyant convection, 2013, Chaudhuri A. , Rajaram H. , Wiswanathan H.

The early stage of hypogene karstification is investigated using a coupled thermohydrochemical model of a mountain hydrologic system, in which water enters along a water table and descends to significant depth (_1 km) before ascending through a central high-permeability fracture. The model incorporates reactive alteration driven by dissolution/ precipitation of limestone in a carbonic acid system, due to both temperature- and pressuredependent solubility, and kinetics. Simulations were carried out for homogeneous and heterogeneous initial fracture aperture fields, using the FEHM (Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer) code. Initially, retrograde solubility is the dominant mechanism of fracture aperture growth. As the fracture transmissivity increases, a critical Rayleigh number value is exceeded at some stage. Buoyant convection is then initiated and controls the evolution of the system thereafter. For an initially homogeneous fracture aperture field, deep well-organized buoyant convection rolls form. For initially heterogeneous aperture fields, preferential flow suppresses large buoyant convection rolls, although a large number of smaller rolls form. Even after the onset of buoyant convection, dissolution in the fracture is sustained along upward flow paths by retrograde solubility and by additional ‘‘mixing corrosion’’ effects closer to the surface. Aperture growth patterns in the fracture are very different from those observed in simulations of epigenic karst systems, and retain imprints of both buoyant convection and preferential flow. Both retrograde solubility and buoyant convection contribute to these differences. The paper demonstrates the potential value of coupled models as tools for understanding the evolution and behavior of hypogene karst systems.


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