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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That outwash gravel is glacial drift material deposited by streams from a glacier [16].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for water budget (Keyword) returned 19 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 19 of 19
Time‐lapse microgravity surveys reveal water storage heterogeneity of a karst aquifer, 2010, Jacob T. , Bayer R. , Chery J. , Le Moigne N.

Time‐lapse microgravity surveying combined with absolute gravity measurements is  used to investigate water storage changes in a karst aquifer of ∼100 km2 area. The survey  consists of 40 gravity stations measured with a relative gravimeter; absolute gravity is  measured at three stations for each survey. In total, four gravity surveys are performed over  a 2 year time period during consecutive wet and dry periods. Survey precisions range  between 2.4 and 5 mGal, enabling statistically significant detection of 10 mGal change, i.e.,  ∼0.25 m equivalent water level change. Observed gravity changes are coherent between  consecutive survey periods, i.e., net water withdrawal and net water recharge is observed,  reaching changes as high as 22 mGal. Observed gravity changes allow refining  evapotranspiration estimates, which may serve to improve the water budget of the aquifer.  High‐and low‐gravity amplitude zones characterize the karst system, demonstrating  spatially variable storage behavior. Geomorphologic considerations are invoked to explain  the location of preferential zones of water storage, and a conceptual model of water storage  is discussed for the studied karst. 

Karstification in the Cuddapah Sedimentary Basin, Southern India: Implications for Groundwater Resources, 2011, Dar Farooq Ahmad , Perrin Jerome, Riotte Jean , Gebauer Herbert Daniel, Narayana Allu Chinna, Ahmed Shakeel

The Cuddapah sedimentary basin extends over a significant part of the southern part of Andhra Pradesh State, Southern India. Proterozoic carbonate rocks in the basin are constituted by as three main units- the Vempalle dolomite, the Narji and Koilkuntla limestones. These carbonate rocks are of strategic im­portance for local communities as they provide the main water source for irrigation and domestic use and they are also inten­sively quarried for cement production and building stones. It is therefore, of primary importance to assess to which extent these carbonate units are karstified so as to provide recommendations for appropriate land and water resource management. The field investigations carried out indicate that these carbonate units are significantly karstified and karstification has been an ongo­ing process with several phases under variable climatic condi­tions. As a result, a significant part of aquifer recharge occurs as point-recharge through swallow-holes and groundwater flow is channelized by conduit networks which emerge at karst springs. Karst development was possibly more active during past humid conditions; however karstification is still an ongoing process under the present semi-arid climate especially in the favorable case where karst drains the runoff issued from upstream quartz­itic hills. The karstic nature of these carbonate units need to be integrated in future research and development programmes to avoid practices that may lead to unexpected collapses, reservoir leaks, inaccurate groundwater budgeting, etc.


The Balcones Fault Zone Edwards aquifer (Edwards aquifer) is one of the major regional karst aquifers in the United States, with an average withdrawal of 950 million liters per day (L/d). This study focuses on the connection between the Uvalde pool and the San Antonio pool of the Edwards aquifer, west of the San Antonio metropolitan area in Uvalde County, Texas. This area is known as the Knippa Gap and is located north of the community of Knippa. The Knippa Gap is a major zone controlling the flow from the Uvalde pool to the San Antonio pool. The San Antonio pool is the primary source of water for the greater San Antonio water supply. The Knippa Gap is a restriction where the aquifer narrows to a width estimated to be approximately 4 km, is bounded by northeast trending faults of the Balcones Fault Zone on the north, and uplift from the Uvalde salient and igneous intrusive plugs to the south. (Green et al., 2006). The hydrogeology in the Knippa Gap has been a topic of major interest among researchers in this area for numerous years, yet the exact location, nature of boundaries, and karst hydrogeology are not well defined, and the flow through this area is in need of refinement to improve the aquifer water balance.
This study integrates recent research by other scientists with field studies conducted during the summer of 2012 as part of an M.S. thesis. This paper is limited to a discussion of the water quality as it relates to the southern flow boundary of the Knippa Gap near the Devils River Trend of the Uvalde salient. Water-quality data constrain a revised conceptual model of the flow and karstification in this critical area of recharge to the San Antonio pool, and provide specific lateral boundaries and vertical karstification zones which are being tested in the more comprehensive M.S. thesis. Although current interpretations are tentative, it appears this conceptual model will be readily convertible into a digital model that can test 2hypotheses relating a much broader suite of calibration data, including water levels, water budgets, and spring discharges.

Hydrodynamic modeling of a complex karst-alluvial aquifer: case study of Prijedor Groundwater Source, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2013, Polomčić Dušan, Dragišić Veselin, Živanović Vladimir

Middle Triassic fractured and karstified limestone and dolomite form a karst aquifer in the Sana River Valley near the town of Prijedor. As a result of intensive tectonic movements, carbonate rocks are mostly below the Sana River level, covered by younger Pliocene and alluvial deposits. The main source of groundwater recharge is infiltration from the Sana River through its alluvium over most of the aquifer. The main objective of the research reported in this paper was to evaluate the hydraulic relationships of the alluvial, Pliocene and karst aquifers in order to better understand the water supply potential of the karst aquifer. Although the use of hydrodynamic modeling is not very common with karst aquifers, the developed model provided significant and useful information on the groundwater budget and recharge type. The influence of fault zones and spatial anisotropy of the karst aquifer were simulated on the hydrodynamic model by varying permeability on the xand y­axes of the Cartesian coordinate system with respect to the fault, the main pathway of groundwater circulation. Representative hydraulic conductivities were Kx

 = 2.3·10­3

 m/s and Ky

 = 5.0·10­3

 m/s in the faults of Nw to SE direction, and Kx

 = 2.5·10­3

 m/s and Ky


 m/s in the faults of Sw to NE trend. Model research showed that the karst aquifer can be used in the long term at maximal tested capacities and that current groundwater exploitation is not compromised in dry periods when the water budget depends entirely on recharge from the Sana River.

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