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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That joint diagram is a diagram constructed by accurately plotting the strike and dip of joints to illustrate the geometrical relationship of the joints within a specified area of geologic investigation.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for habitat (Keyword) returned 204 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 204
Preference responses and tolerances of the troglobitic Carabid Beetle, Rhadine subterranea., 1971, Mitchell Robert W.
Studies were made on the preference responses and tolerances of the troglobitic carabid beetle Rhadine subterranea to light, temperature, and relative humidity. The beetles are weakly photonegative and appear to have a strong preference far atmospheres of low saturation deficit. Both these responses seem to be orthokineses. They have a strongly developed temperature sense, and their temperature preferendum shifts seasonally. This response seems to be a klinotaxis. They are neither strongly stenothermal nor stenohygrobic. The preference responses, especially that of temperature, are probably mechanisms tending to restrict the beetles to their habitat. The tolerance data suggest that the epigeum could, at times, be used as a dispersal route.

On the food and feeding habits of Lepidomysis longipes (Pillai and Mariamma) (Crustacea Mysidacea)., 1972, Nath C. N. , Pillai N. Krishna
The amount of food available to the subterranean mysid, Lepidomysis longipes (Pillai & Mariamma, 1964) in its habitat has been calculated and analysed. Lepidomysis appears to feed mainly on decaying vegetable matter. Lepidomysis shows many modifications in its external morphology. Consequently, the mode of feeding has undergone some marked changes from that of its epigean relatives. L. longipes is a discontinuous feeder.

On the food and feeding habits of Lepidomysis longipes (Pillai and Mariamma) (Crustacea Mysidacea)., 1972, Nath C. N. , Pillai N. Krishna
The amount of food available to the subterranean mysid, Lepidomysis longipes (Pillai & Mariamma, 1964) in its habitat has been calculated and analysed. Lepidomysis appears to feed mainly on decaying vegetable matter. Lepidomysis shows many modifications in its external morphology. Consequently, the mode of feeding has undergone some marked changes from that of its epigean relatives. L. longipes is a discontinuous feeder.

Chronology of the Black Sea over the last 25,000 years, 1972, Degens Et, Ross Da,
Deep-water sediments of the Black Sea deposited during Late Pleistocene and Holocene time are distinguished by three sedimentary units: (1) a microlaminated coccolith ooze mainly consisting of Emiliania huxleyi; (2) a sapropel; and (3) a banded lutite. The base of the first unit lies at 3,000 years B.P., that of the second at 7,000 years B.P., and that of the third at least at about 25,000 years B.P. Fossils and geochemical criteria are used to decipher the environmental events of this time period. Beginning with the base of the section dated at about 25,000 years B.P. we witness the final stage of metamorphosis from anoxic marine to oxic freshwater conditions. By the time this stage ended, about 22,000 years B.P., the Black Sea had become a truly freshwater habitat. The lake phase lasted about 12,000 to 13,000 years. Sedimentation rates were in the order of 1 m/103 years, but began to decrease as sea level rose during the last 5,000 years of this phase (9,000-15,000 years B.P.). Starting at about 9,000 years B.P. and continuing to 7,000 years B.P., Mediterranean waters occasionally spilled over the Bosporus as a consequence of ice retreat and sea level rise. This marked the beginning of a gradual shift from freshwater to marine, and from well aerated to stagnant conditions. At about 7,000 years B.P. when deposition of unit 2 started, the H2S zone was well established. Sedimentation rates dropped to 10 cm/103 years. Environmental conditions similar to those of today finally became established around 3,000 years B.P., almost exactly the time when Jason and the Argonauts sailed through the Bosporus in search of the Golden Fleece

Temperate preference responses of some aquatic, cave-adapted Crustaceans from Central Texas and Northeastern Mexico., 1973, Elliot William R. , W. Mitchell Robert
The temperature preference responses of five species of troglobite crustaceans were studied in a 15-30C gradient. Stygonectes hadenoecus, S. russelli and Asellus reddelli had no discernible temperature preferenda. Speocirolana bolivari had a weak preference for 20-30C. Cirolanides texensis had a pronounced preference for 20-30C, temperatures much warmer than that of its habitat. The lack of temperature preferenda in three species agrees with the hypothesis that imprisoned troglobites tend to lose responses to those environmental variables which are constant in caves. S. bolivari may retain its temperature selectivity because of a slow rate of cave-adaptation. It is hypothised that C. texensis is recently descended from a tropical, epigean, freshwater ancestor.

The natural populations of Stenasellus virei Dollfus (trgoglobic Crustacea Asellota)., 1973, Magniez Guy
Many cavernicolous and phreatic localities are known for the species Stenasellus virei. Some of these, which harbor a rather abundant population have been studied for several years. The endemic populations from permanent waters of some fossil karstic systems seem to have an abnormal composition. They include especially large individuals (juvenile stages being rare). They differ from the phreatic populations, which exhibit a normal distribution in size groups with a normal percentage of juveniles. These differences in the structure of populations may result from physical differences between the habitat in free waters of caves and in phreatic water, and from differences between the associations of species that these two types of hypogean habitat may support.

Temperate preference responses of some aquatic, cave-adapted Crustaceans from Central Texas and Northeastern Mexico., 1973, Elliot William R. , W. Mitchell Robert
The temperature preference responses of five species of troglobite crustaceans were studied in a 15-30C gradient. Stygonectes hadenoecus, S. russelli and Asellus reddelli had no discernible temperature preferenda. Speocirolana bolivari had a weak preference for 20-30C. Cirolanides texensis had a pronounced preference for 20-30C, temperatures much warmer than that of its habitat. The lack of temperature preferenda in three species agrees with the hypothesis that imprisoned troglobites tend to lose responses to those environmental variables which are constant in caves. S. bolivari may retain its temperature selectivity because of a slow rate of cave-adaptation. It is hypothised that C. texensis is recently descended from a tropical, epigean, freshwater ancestor.

The natural populations of Stenasellus virei Dollfus (trgoglobic Crustacea Asellota)., 1973, Magniez Guy
Many cavernicolous and phreatic localities are known for the species Stenasellus virei. Some of these, which harbor a rather abundant population have been studied for several years. The endemic populations from permanent waters of some fossil karstic systems seem to have an abnormal composition. They include especially large individuals (juvenile stages being rare). They differ from the phreatic populations, which exhibit a normal distribution in size groups with a normal percentage of juveniles. These differences in the structure of populations may result from physical differences between the habitat in free waters of caves and in phreatic water, and from differences between the associations of species that these two types of hypogean habitat may support.

Cavernicolous Pseudoscorpions from Macedonia., 1974, Curcic Bozidar P. M.
A cavernicolous pseudoscorpion of the genus Neobisium Chamberlin 1930 is living in Kalina Dupka cave in the Bistra Highland of western Macedonia. This pseudoscorpion clearly differs from the other members of the subgenus Blothrus Schiodte 1849, and belongs to the new species N. (B.) princeps, the principal features of which are described in this study. The nearest relatives of this species are N. (B.} spelaeum (Schiodte) 1849, and N. (B.) stygium Beier 1931, both from Slovenian and Croatian caves. From chelal dentition N. (B.) princeps may be considered as the most primitive element of the princeps-stygium-spelaeum series. This new species is in a subterranean mode of life of extreme specialization. Relating to biogeography, it belongs to the endemic pseudoscorpion fauna in Macedonia. After finding pseudoscorpions in Zmejovica cave (Porece mountainous area), we confirmed the presence of the species N. (E.) karamani (Hadli) 1929 in west Macedonia. Morphologic analysis of male specimens from that new locality enabled us to complete description of this species previously based on a single female specimen. The comparison of Hadzis species with N. (E.) remyi Beier 1939 from west Serbian caves, with N. (E.) brevipes (Frivaldsky) 1866 and N. (E.) leruthi Beier 1931 from Turda and Bihar caves in southern Carpathians, leads to the conclusion that these pseudoscorpions belong to a closely related species group. Judging by actual distribution of these species, the possibility exists that a wide area in the ancient Balkanic dry land had been populated by the initial form of that series. As for its preferences for habitat N. (E.) karamani is an exclusive inhabitant of subterranean environment. Relating to biogeography, it may be considered as a relic of Mediterranean Tertiary fauna and its endemic differentiation as developed under the conditions of the evolution of karst relief in southern countries of the Balkan Peninsula. In conclusion, from actual knowledge and the results of this study caves in Macedonia are inhabited by three endemic species of pseudoscorpions of genus Neobisium (Blothrus), namely: N.(B.) ohridanum Hadzi 1940,N. (B.) karamani (Hadzi) 1929, and N. (B.) princeps Curcic 1974. Judging by known blothroid pseudoscorpions, it is possible Macedonia represents one of the centres of origin and genesis for autochthonous and residual fauna of the Tertiary age.

Studies on the niche separation in two Carabid cave beetles., 1975, Mckinney Tom
Population, habitat and behavioural studies carried out on Pseudanophthalmus menetriesi and P. pubescens in the south central Kentucky karst area are described and discussed. Differences which exist in the timing of population recruitment, habitat preference, habitat niche breadth and in the degree of agression are all important in lessening competition between these two species.

A new species of Parajapygidae from the Caribbean shores of Cuba collected by Pr. L. Botosaneanu during the second cuban-romanian biospeleological expedition to Cuba 1973., 1975, Pages Jean.
P. (P.) botosaneanui n.sp. has been collected in the interstitial habitat of the Caribbean shores on the eastern coast of Cuba. This note is divided into 6 parts: 1) the description by L. Botusaneanu of the stations where this species has been collected and data on the possibility for the specimens of this taxa to swim and to creep between the grains of sand; 2) the description and the affinities of the n. sp., which is closely related to bonetianus Silv. from Mexico; 3) the study of the male genitalia made possible the definition of 4 instars (male 1 to male 4) which seem common to all the Parajapyx; 4) the study of the 9 genitalia, which possess always the same number of phanera, whatever the size may be, does not permit the identification of instars; 5) the study of the armature of the internal margin of the cerci shows for the first time among the Parajapygidae a striking dimorphismus both between the sexless and sexed instars and between male and female, these latter retaining, when "adult", an ornamentation identical to that of juvenil males: 6) the study of evolution and progressive complication of the chetotaxy from the sexless instars to the elder ones.

The distribution of the fauna in the interstitial habitats of the riverine sediments of the Danube and the Piesting (Austria)., 1976, Danielopol Dan L.
The interstitial fauna living in the riverine sediments of the Danube and Piesting have been investigated in Lower Austria. The nematodes, oligochaetes and cyclopoids are the most abundant groups (they represent up to 80% of the total fauna). The harpacticoids, the insect larvae, the isopods, the amphipods, the cladocera and the limnohalacarids are poorly represented (generally under 20% of the total fauna). The absence of hydrachnellids is striking. The vertical distribution of the interstitial fauna shows for several groups i.e. limnohalacarids, ostracods, isopods, harpacticoids, that the epigean species are quantitatively better represented in the upper sediment layers instead of the hypogean species which are more abundant in the deeper layers. At one of the sites where samples were taken down to 3 m, most of the interstitial fauna was concentrated in the upper 1.50 m. The occurrence of limnohalacarids in the wells from the Danube Valley and the Piesting area shows that the repartition of this group is not restricted to the rhitrostygal zone. The distribution of the interstitial fauna in connection with the pollution of the river is discussed. High pollution inside the interstitial habitat eliminates the hypogean fauna and the epigeans disappear mainly in those areas with marked chemical reducing conditions.

Lethargy in the cavernicolous Chiroptera in Central Africa., 1976, De Faveaux Michel Anciaux
From his personal research undertaken in the subterranean field (natural and artificial cavities) in Shaba (ex-Katanga, in S.E. Zaire) and Rwanda, the author briefly defines the macroclimate of the prospected regions as well as the microclimate of the subterranean habitat (humidity and temperature). A reversible hypothermia has been noticed in the dry season only (from May till August) in eleven species of troglophile Chiroptera belonging to the following families: Rhinolophidae (7 species of Rhinolophus), Hipposideridae (only Hipposideros ruber) and Vespertilionidae (Miniopterus inflatus rufus, Miniopterus schreibersi arenarius & M.s. natalensis, Myotis tricolor). No sign of lethargy has been noticed in the Megachiroptera (Lissonycteris angolensis, Rousettus aegyptiacus leachi), Emballonuridae (Taphozous perforatus sudani), Hipposideridae (Cloeotis percivali australis) or Nycteridae (3 species of Nycteris). There could be correlations between lethargy and breeding if one takes into account the phenomena of late ovulation and delayed implantation. The entry into lethargy is not caused by the scarcity of food. It does not concern all the individuals of a colony or in various populations of a cave. The degree of humidity appears to be more important than the temperature as far as the conditions for hibernation are concerned.

Ecological and biogeographical trends in Harpacticoids., 1976, Jakobi Hans
The majority of harpacticoids show a great dependence on the peculiarities of their habitat. This research attempted to detect the possible existence of biogeographical and ecological trends. The limited biogeographical data is discussed, so this is applied the method of analysis of morpho-ecological correlation (Jakobi, 1962) developed to determine ecological trends. This way, all characteristics of the harpacticoidean body selected were studied to check their adaptative value. Based on those results it was possible to establish and to define ecological units. Data were then subjected to statistical tests of homogeneity for variance and significance. Graphs are used to demonstrate the natural adaptation process. Diagrams permit one to recognize the general tendencies as well as degrees of specific evolution. Nevertheless, quite different principles such as type formation and atomic orbit model analogy, were applied to understand biogeographic trends. The change of the endopodits of the 4th leg of adult males (Enp. P4 male) is utilized as an example.

New data on the Foraminifera of the groundwaters of Middle Asia., 1976, Mikhalevich Valeria I.
New data obtained during the expedition to Middle Asia (1973) essentially enlarge our knowledge of foraminifera living in underground waters. Seven new species were discovered in the wells of the Kara-Kum and Ust-Urt deserts. All of them contain cytoplasma. The wells are situated in the region of bedding of underground waters of the heightened salinity in the zone of balance of runoff and evaporation. The majority of the species described in our work like many of the species recorded from the underground waters earlier (Brodsky, 1928; Nikoljuk, 1968; Jankovskaja and Mikhalevich, 1972) belong to the genera living in coastal brackish parts of tropical seas. This fact confirms the supposition of Brodsky about the transition of the marine coastal foraminiferal fauna to underground habitats after the regression of the sea. This fauna is a part of the underground fauna called by Nalivkin (1965) "the planetar fauna of the new type".

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