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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That recharge pit is a large diameter well or shaft for recharge under gravity [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for cave microclimate (Keyword) returned 21 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 21 of 21
PHySICAL AND CHEMICAL RESEARCH IN VELEBITA PIT (CROATIA), 2008, Paar Dalibor, Ujevi? Magdalena, Baki? Darko, Lackovi? Damir, ?op Ana & Radoli? Vanja
We have performed measurements of the cave microclimate, water quality parameters and radon concentration to a depth of -1000 m in Velebita Cave system (Northern Velebit, Croatia). The results were analyzed as a function of the cave depth and geomorphological characteristics. Two different air temperature gradients were obtained, which can be attributed to a cave morphology and air circulation in the upper part of the pit. The water quality parameters show that the studied waters are poorly mineralized and are of weakly alkaline type. Water chemistry is probably predominantly controlled by the petrography of the bedrock (limestone) and the cave morphology. Water in the cave is not affected by pollution. The average value of radon concentration is rather low, much lower than in some other Croatian caves.

Annual and transient signatures of gas exchange and transport in the Castaar de Ibor cave (Spain)., 2009, Fernandezcortes A. , Sanchezmoral S. , Cuezva S. , Caaveras J. C. And Abella R.
The large microclimatic stability is a basic characteristic of the subterranean karst systems and causes a high sensitivity to changes in environmental conditions. High-accuracy monitoring of Castaar de Ibor cave (Spain) determined the temporal evolution of the aerodynamic processes and ventilation rate by tracking CO2 and 222Rn levels over a twelve-month period. This cave is characterized by a very stable microclimate, with high and relatively constant radon content (the mean value is 32200 Bq/m3, roughly, and the standard deviation is 7600 Bq/m3) and a moderate and quite stable CO2 concentration (the mean value is 3730 ppm and the standard deviation is 250 ppm). Beside the general patterns of cave microclimate throughout an annual cycle, some particular microclimatic processes are described with regard to the gas exchange between the cave and the outside atmosphere. There is a complex microclimatic functional relationship between the meteorological and cave microclimate conditions and the diffusion and flow of tracer gases from the fractures and the pore system of soil and host rock to cave atmosphere. Transient variations of tracer gas on cave air are controlled by natural barometric fluxes and anthropogenic forced ventilation due to uncontrolled opening of cave entrance. The short-term fluctuations of gas levels on cave air reveal distinct patterns during the exhalation process of theses gases from the net of fissures and pores to the cave atmosphere, depending on the isolation effect of soil and host rock.

Annual and transient signatures of gas exchange and transport in the Castaar de Ibor cave (Spain), 2009, Fernandezcortes A. , Sanchezmoral S. , Cuezva S. , Caaveras J. C. , Abella R.

The large microclimatic stability is a basic characteristic of the subterranean karst systems and causes a high sensitivity to changes in environmental conditions. High-accuracy monitoring of Castañar de Ibor cave (Spain) determined the temporal evolution of the aerodynamic processes and ventilation rate by tracking CO2 and 222Rn levels over a twelve-month period. This cave is characterized by a very stable microclimate, with high and relatively constant radon content (the mean value is 32200 Bq/m3, roughly, and the standard deviation is 7600 Bq/m3) and a moderate and quite stable CO2 concentration (the mean value is 3730 ppm and the standard deviation is 250 ppm). Beside the general patterns of cave microclimate throughout an annual cycle, some particular microclimatic processes are described with regard to the gas exchange between the cave and the outside atmosphere. There is a complex microclimatic functional relationship between the meteorological and cave microclimate conditions and the diffusion and flow of tracer gases from the fractures and the pore system of soil and host rock to cave atmosphere. Transient variations of tracer gas on cave air are controlled by natural barometric fluxes and anthropogenic forced ventilation due to uncontrolled opening of cave entrance. The short-term fluctuations of gas levels on cave air reveal distinct patterns during the exhalation process of theses gases from the net of fissures and pores to the cave atmosphere, depending on the isolation effect of soil and host rock.


Spatial-dynamic peculiarities of CO2 distribution in the air of Zoloushka Cave, 2011, Andreychouk V. , Teleshman I. , Kouprich P.

Zoloushka Cave is characterized by relatively high (1-5%) content of 2 in its underground atmosphere. The source of 2 is the oxidation of organic matter and methane by ammonifying and methane-oxidizing bacteria. The accumulation of carbon dioxide in the cave air is caused by slow air exchange with the surface. The distribution of 2 through the cave space has been investigated in August 2008 and 2009 and compared with the CO2 distribution in 1982. The main regularities of 2 distribution in the cave are region-by-region increase in CO2 concentrations in the direction from the entrance into depth of cave and the vertical stratification – increase of carbon dioxide content in depressions of cave bottom and shafts. The influence of 2 on the working conditions in the cave, on the human body and his mind, is also analyzed. The integral table of safety precautions is proposed, which should be followed when doing of research in the cave


The visitors influence on air temperature of Yaltinskaya and Geofizicheskaya show caves (Ay-Petri massif, Mount Crimea), 2011, Amelichev, G. N. , Tokarev, S. V. , Klimchouk, A. B.

Monitoring of air temperature in the Yaltinskaya and Geofizicheskaya caves, situated in the Ay-Petri massif in the Mountainous Crimea, was conducted during 7 months. The purpose of this study is to determine the visitors’ influence on natural environment of the caves. Average temperature during the period of monitoring in Yaltinskaya cave was 7,55 °  (v=0,01) and in Geophisicheskaya cave was 6,99 °(v=0,06).

The visitation by tourists causes rising of air temperature up to 0,39 ˚per day. In periods of low visitation the anthropogenic thermal anomalies broke down naturally during the night time, with the participation of processes of evaporation and condensation of cave moisture. In periods of high attendance a partial retention and accumulation of anthropogenic heat occurs. Daily thermal anomalies in starting and finishing periods of holiday season were at the average 0,04 ˚(Yaltinskaya) and 0,13 ˚(Geofizicheskaya). In the peak season they were 0,07 and 0,20 °, respectively.

The anthropogenic influence on the temperature of the studied caves has a seasonal character. It is unstable and is 1-2 orders of magnitude less than the seasonal variability of the natural temperature background.


Variances in airflows during different ventilation modes in a dynamic U-shaped cave, 2013, Faimon J. , Lang M.

Airflow dynamics were studied in Císařská Cave (Moravian Karst, Czech Republic) under different seasonal conditions. The dependence of airflows on the difference between external and cave temperatures is nonlinear and roughly obeys the Darcy-Weisbach equation. The upward airflows were found to be systematically higher than the downward airflows under comparable driving forces. The principle reason is nonlinearity between air temperature and air density. U-shaped cave geometry magnifies this effect by feedback between external temperature and airflow driving forces. Whereas this feedback is positive during the upward airflow ventilation mode, it is negative during the downward airflow mode. To discuss the behavior in detail, a simplified model based on balancing the masses of two equivalent air columns of different temperatures and densities is proposed. The results contribute to a better understanding of cave microclimate evolution, cave CO2 dynamics, and speleothem growth.


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