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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That strike valley is a valley following the strike of underlying strata [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for stalagmite (Keyword) returned 214 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 214
Sea-Level Lowering During the Illinoian Glaciation: Evidence from a Bahama 'Blue Hole', 1979,
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Gascoyne M, Benjamin Gj, Schwarcz Hp, Ford Dc,
Stalagmites have been recovered from 45 meters below sea level in an underwater karstic cave ('blue hole') near Andros Island in the Bahamas. Uranium series ages, corrected for contamination of the sample by young marine carbonate replacements, show that the speleothem was deposited between 160,000 and 139,000 years before the present. This period corresponds to the Illinoian glacial event and demonstrates that sea level must have been lowered by at least 42 meters (allowing for subsidence) from its present position during this time

Sea Caves of King Island, 1979,
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Goede Albert, Harmon Russell, Kiernan Kevin

Investigation of two King Island sea caves developed in quartzitic rocks shows them to contain a wealth of clastic and chemical sediments. Clastic sediments consist of wave-rounded cobbles, debris cones, and angular rock fragments produced by frost weathering and crystal wedging. Chemical deposits include a variety of calcium carbonate speleothems and also gypsum occurring as wall crusts and blisters. The latter appear to be a speleothem type of rare occurrence. Growth of gypsum is responsible for some crystal wedging of the bedrock. Three basal stalagmite samples have been dated by the Th/U method indicating Late Pleistocene as well as Holocene speleothem growth. The caves are believed to have formed by preferential wave erosion during the Last Interglacial in altered and fractured quartzites. The evidence for pre-Holocene evolution of sea caves and geos in the Tasman region is summarised. Tasmania and the Bass Strait Islands provide a particularly favourable environment for the preservation of relict landforms on rocky coasts because of Late Quaternary uplift. The potential of further studies of sea caves to test two recently advanced archaeological hypotheses is discussed.


Computer-Simulationen des Wachstums von Stalagmiten., 1981,
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Dreybroth W. , Lamprecht G.

Computer-Simulationen des Wachstums von Stalagmiten, 1981,
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Dreybroth W. , Lamprecht G.

A possible mechanism for growth of calcite speleothems without participation of biogenic carbon dioxide, 1982,
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Dreybrodt W,
Using Plummer et al.'s [11] rate equations on the dissolution and deposition of CaCO3 in H2O---CO2 systems, we have calculated deposition rates of CaCO3 to stalagmites in caves which are covered by glaciers or bare karst. In this case no biogenic CO2 from vegetated soil is available and the deposition of CaCO3 involves only atmospheric CO2. The mechanism of deposition proceeds by a temperature effect. Cold melting waters of about 0[deg]C dissolve CaCO3 under open system conditions at the surface of the rock. When this solution saturated with respect to CaCO3, flows through the limestone rock its temperature increases by several degrees. Therefore, it becomes supersaturated, and CaCO3 is deposited under open system conditions in the warmer cave. Maximal growth rates of about 10-3 cm/year are possible. From the kinetics of the deposition of CaCO3 from the thin water films present at the surface of stalagmites we are able to estimate the isotopic composition of carbon in the CaCO3 deposited on the stalagmites to be approximately [delta]13C = %, which is close to some observed values.From our data we conclude that substantial growth of stalagmites is possible during glacial periods as well as in areas of bare karst, a question which was not resolved up to now

Lattice Deformation and Curvature in Stalactitic Carbonate., 1983,
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Broughton Paul L.
The cause of lattice curvature is related to the nature of growth on a curved surface, peculiar to stalactites and stalagmites. Lattice curvature in stalactitic carbonate results from the coalescence of sub-parallel to divergent syntaxial overgrowth crystallites on the growing surface of stalactites and stalagmites. Moderate lattice mismatch results in an undulose extinction, or subcrystal domains, whereas more divergent growth favours marked lattice curvature recognized by its optical brush-extinction. Extreme lattice mismatch between the precursor crystallites results a columnar crystal boundary instead of lattice curvature.

Trace-element partition coefficients in the calcite-water system and their paleoclimatic significance in cave studies, 1983,
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Gascoyne M,
Speleothems (stalactites, stalagmites) formed in limestone caves have been found to contain much information on the timing and intensity of past climates, from analysis of their U, Th, 13C and 18O contents. Because the incorporation of certain trace elements (e.g., Mg, Mn and Zn) in calcite is known to be temperature-dependent, it may be possible to use variations in trace-metal content of fossil speleothems as an alternative paleotem-perature indicator. Using specially developed ion-exchange sampling techniques, analysis of trace-metal content of seepage water and associated fresh calcite deposits in caves in Vancouver Island and Jamaica shows that Mg is distributed between phases in a consistent manner within the temperature regimes of the caves (7[deg] and 23[deg]C, respectively). Average values of the distribution coefficient for Mg are respectively 0.017 and 0.045 at these temperatures. These results indicate that the Mg content of calcite varies directly with temperature and in a sufficiently pronounced manner that a 1[deg]C rise in depositional temperature of a speleothem containing 500 ppm Mg, at ~10[deg]C, would be seen as an increase of ~35ppm Mg -- a readily determinable shift. Other factors affecting Mg content of a speleothem are considered

Abstract: Benua Cave, Keriaka Plateau, Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea, 1985,
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Wood, Ian D.

Benua Cave is situated in the Keriaka Limestone plateau above the west coast of Bougainville Island. It was first reported by pilots during World War II and first visited speleologically by Fred Parker in 1963. The North Solomons Cave Exploration Group made a three day visit to the cave in order to make an accurate survey. The cave consists of a single chamber, 470m along its longest length with a maximum width of 150m and height of 170m. A river estimated at 3 m3.s-1 rises at the foot of a 100m sheer wall and flows out of the entrance. The cave contains an 18m tall stalagmite of impressive proportions. Side passages can be seen at high level but would require mechanical aids to reach. (The full text of this paper will appear in Australian Caver)


Wachstumsgechwindigkeiten und Durchmesser von Kerzenstalagmiten., 1987,
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Dreybrodt W. , Franke H. W.

Observations prliminaires sur les cavits de la rgion du lac Centrum (NE Groenland), 1987,
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Loubiere, J. F.
CAVES OF CENTRUM LAKE AREA (NE GREELAND) - In 1983, M.Chiron, G.Favre, J-F. Loubire and J-P. Ttard identified a network of caves located in the extreme nord-east of Greenland. A cambro-silurian limestone zone stretches out to the south-west of Kronprins Christians land, the northern extremity of the great range of folded mountains of eastern Greenland. During an era characterised by the absence of permafrost and by a warmer climate favouring underground water circulation, these limestone formations were hollowed out by karstic river system. Such climatic conditions have long ceased to exist. During the major glaciations of the Quaternary period, the cavities were greatly modified. Glacier movements, cutting into the plateau, broke up the networks. The original underground deposits were then altered by allochtonous material of aeolian and morainic composition. Severe and ongoing frost shattering has added to this destructive process. It is hoped that this article will help to draw attention to these caves and to the more general subject of paleo-climates, especially their effects in the polar region during the Plio-Pleistocene transition (Electron Spin Resonance method on stalagmite and discovery of a mycelian hypha into calcite structure).

Wachstumsgechwindigkeiten und Durchmesser von Kerzenstalagmiten, 1987,
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Dreybrodt W. , Franke H. W.

Palaeoseismicity from karst sediments: the “Grotta del Cervo” cave case study (Central Italy), 1991,
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Postpischl D. , Agostini S. , Forti P. , Quinif Y. ,
Karst speleothems can be used for tectonic and palaeoseismic analyses; in particular, stalagmites can be treated as the records of a natural pendulum.Samples of stalagmites from the “Grotta del Cervo” and the “Grotta a Male” caves (Central Italy) have been dated using 14C and U/Th radiometric methods. The present paper shows the limits and validity of such methods for dating strong earthquakes of the past.In particular, radiometric 14C dating shows that the youngest general stalagmitic collapse observed inside the “Grotta del Cervo” cave must be related to the December 1456 earthquake of Central Italy

A giant Late Pleistocene halite speleothem from Webbs cave, Nullarbor Plain, Southeastern Western Australia, 1992,
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Goede Albert , Atkinson Tim C. , Rowe Peter J.

A giant halite stalagmite found in a broken condition, believed to be tallest recorded anywhere, collected from Webbs Cave, Mundrabilla area, Nullarbor. Reconstruction showed it had been 2780 mm tall. Collapse due to water percolating down the side and dissolving cylindrical hole near base. Analysis of bulk sample indicates late Pleistocene deposition between 20 and 37 ka. Previous dating of a small halite speleothem from Webbs Cave showed Holocene period of halite deposition dated at 2.5 +/- 1.2 ka.


Datation dune stalagmite dans la caverne de Tnhet (Wildhorn, Valais, Suisse), 1993,
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Quinif Y. , Leroy J. , Morverand P. , Pahud A.
The Tenehet cave (669 m, -120 m) is situated at 2770m near the Wildhorn glacier. Numerous speleothems (stalagmites) are present in an old gallery (-70 m). U/Th dating (400 000 years) shows this cave is probably preglacial (before Quaternary period) when the climate was warmer and the geomorphology different.

The Treasure Cave, Rincn de la Victoria (Malaga, Spain), 1994,
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Gutirrez Jos Lus, Guzmn Antonio, Mendoza Fernando
La Cueva del Tesoro (The Treasure Cave) is located on the East, 10 kilometres from the city of Malaga, in a coastal promontory called El Cantal (a small steep), which is situated in the municipality of Rincn de la Victoria. The composition of land in this zone El Cantal is made up of limestone and there are many caves which are located within a radius of 2 kilometres, although some of them have already disappeared: la Cueva dei Tesoro, la cueva del Hoyo de la Mina, Cuevas de Navarro, Cuevas de la Cantera, Cueva de los Molinos, Cueva de la Raja del Humo, etc. The best known of these caves and the only one who can be visited is the Cueva del Tesoro. It has been also known by some other names, such as the Cueva del Higuern or the Cueva del Suizo. The Cueva del Tesoro has its origin in the sea coast depths; that is why its morphology is made up of halls, gorges and columns. Then, and because of the upheaval of El Cantal the cave emerged out of the sea. Finally, fresh water percolation resulted in the formation of some stalactites and stalagmites, although they are of less importance within the whole cave This cave. which was already used as shelter for 8 months by Marcus Crassus (according to a legend) in 86 B.C. when he was prosecuted, it was also used, according to another tradition, to hide the Almoravid treasure in the l2th century. This treasure has been searched for by some people in the last two hundred years. One of them was the Swiss, Antonio de la Nari, who died because of an explosion inside the cave in 1847. Professor Manuel Laza Palacios from Malaga, owner of the cave, has been the best specialist and treasure searcher. He was an exceptional person, has knew how to keep alive hopefully the old legend throughout his whole life. Besides, the cave has provided some important archaeological discoveries: Father Breuil found out some cave paintings in 1918 and excavations have been recently carried out by Mr. Manuel Laza. A rather interesting material appeared, such as Neolithic pottery, lithic industry (the most important object is an Upper Paleolithic arrow-head), human and animal remains. According to these discoveries, the presence of human beings in this cave is proved since the Paleolithic. There are also a series of legends and traditions related to the Cueva del Tesoro. So, in this frame, it has been given for sure and for a very long time that the ghost of the Swiss still appears in El Cantal to look for the treasure. Another tradition, studied by Mr. Laza, places the sanctuary of the old goddess Noctiluce inside a hall of the cave.

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