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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That absorption is the process by which substances in gaseous, liquid or solid form dissolve or mix with other substances [22].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for prealps (Keyword) returned 24 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 24 of 24
Nouvelles observations sur lhydrogologie du vallon du Cruet, Haute-Savoie (France), 1998,
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Sesiano, Jean
Following a recent dye-tracing experiment the hydrogeological model for the Cruet valley, in the northern French Prealps has had to be modified. Faults, parallel and transverse to the valley, allow a mixing of waters from different origins. There is thus possible contamina_tion of several Cruet valley springs used for human consumption by surface pollutions.

Plio-Quaternary karst development in the French Prealps: Speleogenesis and significance of cave fills, 2000,
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Audra P.
Three French cave systems in the Prealps in the Vercors and Devoluy mountain areas are described. It is possible to reconstruct their evolution by analyzing their morphology and by dating the karst fill using paleomagnetism and U/Th. Cave development began at the end of the Miocene during uplift when inclined tubes formed in the epiphreatic zone. Later the tubes were partially blocked by weathered detritus from the surface. Uplift diverted former recharge away from the caves and extensive calcite deposition occurred. The cave systems were reactivated during glaciations, with flooding to considerable depths. The epiphreatic zone was blocked with calcareous varves from meltwater. During interglacial periods, either calcite deposition or dissolution occurred, depending on the altitude and density of the soil cover.

Le jaugeage de dbits torrentiels par dilution dun colorant alimentaire (E110 : jaune orang sunset). Application lexsurgence de la Doria (Massif des Bauges, France), 2003,
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Fanget Bernard, Najib Hamid, Mietton Michel
Measurement of torrential flows (Doria, Prealps of Savoy, France) by dilution of a food colouring (E110: yellow orange sunset) - The aim of this study is the measurement of torrential flows by dilution of a food yellow orange colouring (E110). Field measurements are realised in the Doria river, a mountain torrent in Savoy Prealps. A gauge station, installed since ten years, is periodically calibrated by mechanical and chemical measurements. Moreover, the comparison of the concomitant mechanical and chemical methods allows the statistical validation of the proposed technique. The main advantages of this method are the lack of toxicity and the colour, comparable to the one of aquatic organic matter, and the low detection limit. This method allows high flow measurement values when using suitable tank and adjutage.

CHANGES IN THE USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND HUMAN IMPACT IN THE KARST ENVIRONMENT OF THE VENETIAN PREALPS (italy), 2006,
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Sauro, Ugo
In the Venetian Prealps the old model of resources use was for many aspects of sustainable type, in equilibrium with the natural dynamics. Episodes of strong impact occurred only in some particular areas and in specific economical and political situations. After the Second world war dramatic changes in the resources management have taken place, induced by the urban and industrial development. The traditional system of self-sustained economy has completely collapsed and has been replaced by an open economy more dependent on that of the large urban sprawl of the plain. Such development is clearly incompatible with the local environmental dynamics and it is difficult to be modified, because it triggers self-sustaining processes. The problem to individuate new more compatible directions for the development is, for a large part, a cultural problem and it may not be solved without a cultural revolution. Local people must be helped to understand the karst geo-ecosystem, the natural realm, the landscape, the local history, and the cultural heritage. Starting from such knowledge, local people have to develop a strong sense of belonging to their own geographical units and to become and to feel protagonists, responsible of their own development, capable to lead it.

Karst and Cryokarst, 2007,
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"Karst and Cryokarst", dedicated to the memory of Teresa Wiszniowska (authority on research of large fossil mammals, cave bear especially) and Marian Pulina (authority on speleology and geomorphology), contains works covering the subjects of their broad scientific interests.
The book is a joint publication of IGU Karst Commission and UIS Commission Glacier Caves and Cryokarst in Polar and High Mountain Regions /GLACKIPR/.

Contents:
Eraso A., Domìnguez M.C.
Subpolar glacier network as natural sensors of global warming evolution
Mavlyudov B.R.
Internal drainage systems of glaciers
Schroeder J.
Moulins of a subpolar glacier seen as a thermal anomaly Domìnguez M.C., Eraso A.
Frequent systematic errors In the measurements of the glacier discharge
Domínguez M.C., Eraso A.
Substantial changes happened during the last years in the icecap of King George, Insular Antarctica
Eraso A., Domínguez M.C.
Physicochemical characteristics of the subglacier discharge in Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica
Sauro U.
Forms of mixed origin in the karst environment of the Venetian Prealps
Auly T.
Quelques morphologies de rapport karst/glaciaire dans les Pyrénées (France)
Pawłowska-Bielawska P.
Evolution of Wielka Śnieżna Cave in the light of geomorphologic observations
Dobrowolski R.
Model of glaciogenic transformation of the Lublin-Volhynia chalk karst (Poland SE, Ukraine NW)
Bieroński J., Socha P., Stefaniak K.
Deposits and fauna of the Sudetic caves ? the state of research Trofimova E.V.
Particularités du développement récent du karst calcaire de Sibérie et d'Extrême-Orient (Russie)
Cao Jianhua, Yuan Daoxian, Zhang Cheng, Jiang Zhangcheng
Karst ecosystem of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region constrained by geological setting: Relationship between carbonate rock exposure and vegetation coverage
Smieja A., Smieja-Król B.
Springs with active calcium carbonate precipitation in the Polish part of the Tatra Mountains
Parise M., Trisciuzzi M.A.
Geomechanical characterization of carbonate rock masses in underground karst systems
Piasecki J., Sawiński T.
Acoustic measurements of airflow in speleo-climatological studies
Kadebskaya O.
News in monitoring system and recommendations in development of use and protection of Kungur Ice cave
Mokrushina O.
Ordinskaya cave as new object of speleoturism

Book is available at the Department of Geomorphology University of Silesia ordering via e-mail: atyc@us.edu.pl


Aspects of the evolution of an important geo-ecosystem in the Lessinian Mountain (Venetian Prealps, Italy), 2007,
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Latella L. , Sauro U.

The Grotta dell’Arena (476 V/VR), located in the Lessinian Mountain, at the elevation of 1512 m a.s.l., is a very important underground karst system. Although it is only 74 m long, several of the geological, geomorphological and environmental features of the High Lessinian underground karst are present in this cave. The Grotta dell’Arena shares some common geological and faunistic characters with other important and well known karst systems. This cave has also one of the highest number of troglobitic species in all Venetian Prealps and some of them possibly originated in the pre-Qquaternary. From the geological point of view the cave is the expression of a contact karst, where different limestone types come in contact both stratigraphically and along tectonic structures. The Grotta dell’Arena is located at the stratigraphic contact between the “Calcari del Gruppo di San Vigilio” and the “Rosso Ammonitico” and it is very close to a fault plane putting in vertical contact the two above formations with the “Biancone”, a kind of limestone closely stratified and densely fractured, very sensible to frost weathering. It is interesting to note the presence of a good number of species of Tertiary, or more generally pre-Qquaternary, originate in the Grotta dell’Arena. This presence is possibly related to the geology of caves. In this paper the different kinds of underground karst systems in the Grottta dell’Arena and Lessinian Mountain, are analyzed and the relation with the cave fauna distribution are taken in consideration.


Hydrologie du Dvoluy: La Souloise, les Gillardes et le puits des Bans, 2008,
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Lismonde B. , Morel L. , Bertochio P.
Hydrology of Dvoluy (French PreAlps): Souloise river, Gillardes springs and puits des Bans: Dvoluy is a karstic system in the French Alps with a size of 165 km2. The basin is drained by a surface river, the Souloise, and an underground collector, reappearing at the springs of Gillardes. A cave, the puits (shaft) des Bans, situated 200 m higher, is an overflow spring of the underground system. We studied the discharge of the surface river and the spring as well as the flooding heights in the Puits des Bans during a year. The linear correlation between the spring discharge at Gillardes and the water elevation in the puits des Bans is surprising for a karstic flow. We propose a hydrologic model of two basins with a narrow link and laminar flow, of which the commmon spring is Gillardes. The obstacle is localised near the important geologic structure named Digne thrust. Some hydrologic properties are developed: hydrologic connections, hydraulic transmissivity, and storage volumes during floods.

Der Hhlenname Ofen, 2012,
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Hasitschka, J.
Since the Middle Ages washed out kolks in canyons, cave entrances, rock recesses or overhanging rock walls mainly situated in the Northern Calcareous Alps have been called fen. They have in common that they look like an ancient vaulted oven to the hollow mould of which they are compared. It is difficult to track topographic-etymologic traces because the concrete names like in Ziegelofenhhle (brickoven cave) are mixed with abstract, figurative meanings like in Gamsofen (chamois oven). The term Ofen got one further meaning by introducing the speleological term Backofentypus (oven type cave). About 130 Austrian caves with the name of Ofen are analyzed topographically and etymologically, from lime kilns (Kalkfen) in the Prealps up to the mountain peaks of Salz- or Rotofen. The question why the name Ofen in modern language is rarely used or even no longer understood is finally dealt with.

A REVIEW ON HYPOGENE CAVES IN ITALY, 2014,
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De Waele J. , Galdenzi S. , Madonia G. , Menichetti M. , Parise M. , Leonardo Piccini , Sanna L. , Sauro F. , Tognini P. , Vattano M. Vigna B.

Although hypogene cave systems have been described since the beginning of the 20th century, the importance in speleogenesis of ascending fluids that acquired their aggressiveness from in-depth sources has been fully realized only in the last decades. Aggressiveness of waters can be related to carbonic and sulfuric acids and the related corrosion-dissolu­tion processes give rise to different types of caves and under­ground morphologies.

The abundance of hydrothermal springs and associated traver­tine deposits, and the widespread interaction between volcanic or sub-volcanic phenomena and karst in many sectors of the Ital­ian peninsula are a strong evidence of hypogene speleogenesis. Furthermore, researches on secondary minerals have allowed to discover hypogene caves formed by highly acidic vapors in sub­aerial environments, also showing that most of these caves have extremely rich mineral associations.

Despite this, until the late 1980s the only known important cave systems of clear hypogene origin in Italy were considered to be the ones hosted in the Frasassi Canyon and Monte Cucco, in which important gypsum deposits undoubtedly showed that sulfuric acid played an important role in the creation of voids (Galdenzi, 1990, 2001; Galdenzi & Maruoka, 2003; Menichetti et al., 2007). Afterwards many other caves were categorized as formed by the sulfuric acid speleogenesis throughout the entire Apennines. Following the broad definition of hypogene caves by Palmer in 1991, and the even more general one of Klimchouk in the last decade (Klimchouk, 2007, 2009), the number of caves considered of hypogene origin in Italy has grown rapidly. Figure 1 shows the hypogene karst systems of Italy, including, besides the well-known and published ones, also the known and less studied, and presumed hypogene cave systems (see also Table 1).

More recently, in some of these caves detailed studies have been carried out including geomorphology, mineralogy, and geochem­istry. Sulfuric acid caves are known from many regions along the Apennine chain (Tuscany, Umbria, Marche, Latium, Campa­nia, Calabria) (Forti, 1985; Forti et al., 1989; Galdenzi and Me­nichetti, 1989, 1995; Galdenzi, 1997, 2001, 2009; Galdenzi et al., 2010; Piccini, 2000; Menichetti, 2009, 2011; Mecchia, 2012; De Waele et al., 2013b), but also from Piedmont, Apulia, Sicily (Vattano et al., 2013) and Sardinia (De Waele et al., 2013a). In this last region ascending fluids have also formed a hypogene cave in quartzite rock. Oxidation of sulfides can locally create hypogene cave morphologies in dominantly epigenic caves, such as in the Venetian forealps (this cave is not shown in Figure 1, being largely epigenic in origin) (Tisato et al., 2012). Ascend­ing fluids have also created large solution voids in Messinian gypsum beds in Piedmont, and these can be defined hypogene caves according to the definition by Klimchouk (Vigna et al., 2010). Some examples of hypogene cave systems due to the rise of CO2-rich fluids are also known in Liguria and Tuscany (Pic­cini, 2000). In the Alps and Prealps (Lombardy), some ancient high mountain karst areas exhibit evidences of an early hypo­gene origin, deeply modified and re-modeled by later epigenic processes. Hypogene morphologies are thus preserved as inac­tive features, and it is often difficult to distinguish them from epigenic ones.

At almost twenty years distance from the first review paper on hypogene cave systems in Central Italy by S. Galdenzi and M. Menichetti (1995), we give a review of the state-of-the-art knowledge on hypogene caves actually known from the whole of Italy


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