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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That anhydride is anhydrous calcium sulfate, caso4 [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for helictite (Keyword) returned 283 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 283
Movements of Rhaphidophoridae (Orthoptera) In Caves At Waitomo, New Zealand, 1965, Richards, Aola M.

Cavernicolous Rhaphidophoridae are very active insects, in spite of their immobile appearance on the walls of caves. Movement is continuous to a greater or lesser degree throughout the 24 hour period of each day. Through marking a representative sample of the total adult population of two species of Rhaphidophoridae in limestone caves in New Zealand, it was shown that several different types of movement occurred; that home ranges had no well-defined limits; and that there was no evidence of territorial behaviour. The technique of marking Rhaphidophoridae is discussed in some detail.


Bat Erosion in Australian Limestone Caves, 1965, Dwyer, P. D.

The clustering areas of bent-winged bats in limestone caves are frequently stained and etched. This staining is very intense, and covers large areas at breeding caves present in Palaeozoic limestones. Erosion of limestone is very conspicuous in these caves. Staining is not intense at breeding caves in Tertiary limestones, but a combination of chemical and mechanical erosion may, in part, account for the depth of dome pits in which the bats cluster. Certain caves that are characterised by extensive guano deposits and by conspicuously eroded and/or stained limestone, but which are currently without large colonies of bats, may represent ancestral breeding caves.


Breeding Caves and Maternity Colonies of the Bent-Winged Bat In South-Eastern Australia, 1966, Dwyer P. D. , Hamiltonsmith E.

Eight breeding Caves of Miniopterus schreibersi (Kuhl) are described from South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Southern Queensland, in terms of their structure, the location of nursery areas at which juveniles are deposited after birth, and their physical environments. Maternity colonies are found at these caves through spring, summer and early autumn. Established colonies range from about 15,000 to 200,000 bats at peak size. These individuals are predominantly adult females and their young. Adult males are conspicuous only at the single South Australian breeding cave. Births occur from approximately the beginning of December to mid-January at all colonies except that in South Australia, where a birth period is evident between mid-October to late-November. Artificial warming, as a consequence of bat activity, appears to be characteristic of these Miniopterus schreibersi breeding caves. It is suggested that this may have functional significance in facilitating adequate development of juveniles, and that the habit could be a reflection of the tropical ancestry of this species.


Old Napier Downs Cave, west Kimberly, Western Australia, 1966, Jennings, J. N.

Although small caves are numerous in the limestone Ranges of the Fitzroy Basin in West Kimberly, (sic, actually Kimberley) large and long caves are few on the basis of present knowledge, and reasons for this paucity are ready to find (Jennings, 1962). Of all the known caves, The Tunnel has probably the greatest geomorphological interest (Jennings and Sweeting, 1963a), though it offers little apparent prospect for further exploration. The string of caves ending in Cave Spring in Bugle Gap (Jennings and Sweeting, 1963b) seemed more promising in this latter respect when examined in 1959 and D.C. Lowry (Personal Communication) reports finding considerable extension to one of these caves in a recent visit. Although the cave to be discussed here - Old Napier Downs Cave - is not very large in terms of its known dimensions and a brief reference to it has already been made (Jennings and Sweeting, 1963b, p.27), fuller description in a journal more readily accessible to Australian speleologists and publication of a survey are justified because of the prospects for further exploration that the cave itself and its neighbourhood present.


Hand Paintings In Caves (With Special Reference to Aboriginal Hand Stencils From Caves on the Nullarbor Plain, Southern Australia), 1966, Lane Edward A. , Richards Aola M.

This paper discusses hand stencils and imprints found in caves and rock shelters throughout the world, and considers their possible origin and significance. It discusses the paleolithic hand paintings of France and Spain, and presents some of the meanings attributed by various authors to this form of art. Particular mention is made to mutilation found in many of the hand stencils. Reference is made to historic and recent examples of these hand paintings. Australian aboriginal hand paintings in limestone caves and rock shelters are also considered and their meanings discussed. The similarity of Australian and European hand imprints is pointed out. Special reference is made to hand stencils found in caves on the Nullarbor Plain, Southern Australia. It appears that stencils in Abrakurrie Cave show the deepest penetration of aboriginal art yet recorded inside caves in Australia.


Caves of the Chillagoe District, North Queensland, 1966, Hamiltonsmith, E.

The caves of the Chillagoe District are well-known by repute, but have not been described in speleological literature to date. The author visited the area in April, 1964, in company with Mr. D. Fitzsimon, of Mareeba. This paper summarises the observations made on that occasion. Chillagoe is an almost deserted town, once the centre of an extensive mining industry, and is situated about 120 miles west of Cairns, North Queensland. Access may be gained either by road or rail from Cairns. It can be seen from Table 1 that the climate is monsoonal, with comparatively heavy summer rains, but with dry weather throughout the remainder of the year. The Silurian Limestone in which the caves occur forms a belt some 40 miles long by four miles wide, extending from Almaden in the south-east to the Walsh River in the north-west. Caves probably occur throughout much of this belt, but known caves are concentrated in the Chillagoe and Mungana areas. Mungana lies approximately ten miles north-west of Chillagoe.


Observations on the Eastern Horse-Shoe Bat in North-Eastern New South Wales , 1966, Dwyer, P. D.

Between July, 1960, and December, 1963, observations were made on the natural history of Rhinolophus megaphyllus Gray in north-eastern New South Wales. Typically the species occurs as small colonies in a wide variety of cave and mine roosts. It appears to be absent from available roosting sites at higher altitudes in this area. Seasonal changes in the sizes of testes and epididymides suggest that mating occurs in May and June. The single young are born at maternity colonies through November, and nursing lasts about eight weeks. Field weights do not reflect seasonal variation other than that associated with pregnancy. However, seasonal differences in daytime level of activity are noted and these correlate with behavioural changes apparently related to temperature selection. Changes in colony size are described for several roosts and three movements made by marked individuals are recorded. Males appear to be more sedentary than females. Considerable aggregation of females and their young at maternity colonies (size, 15 to 1,5000 individuals) characterises the spring and summer population.


Murray Cave, Cooleman Plain, New South Wales, 1966, Jennings, J. N.

Murray Cave is an almost horizontal former outflow cave, which is now on the brink of inactivity. A heavily decorated upper branch functioned during the first outflow phase and the present inactive entrance succeeded it as the outlet point. Both are at the level of a low aggradational terrace of the North Branch of Cave Creek outside the cave; this probably belongs to a Pleistocene cold period. An undecorated lower branch provided the third phase outlet, which still functions occasionally when water rises up a water trap at the inner end of the main passage and flows along that passage into it. The entrance chamber has angular gravel fill due to frost shattering, which post-dates the development of the lower branch passage and belongs to a late Pleistocene cold period. Evidence of free surface stream action predominates in the cave but shallow phreatic conditions must have contributed to its development.


Speleochronology, 1966, Ollier, C. D.

Speleochronolgy is a study of the age of caves and their contents. At the present time the International Commission for Speleology is collecting data, and as the Australian representative on the Commission, the author would like to hear from anyone with information that may be relevant to speleochronology in Australia or in neighbouring countries. This paper shows some of the aims and methods of the subject and indicates the type of information that may be useful.


Discovery of a Thylacine (Tasmanian Tiger) Carcase In a Cave Near Eucla, Western Australia, 1967, Lowry David C. , Lowry Jacoba W. J.

A well preserved carcase of a Tasmanian tiger (Thylacinus) was found in October, 1966, in Thylacine Hole (N63), a cave 68 miles west of Eucla in Western Australia.


Cockroaches (Blattodea) From Australian Caves, 1967, Richards, Aola M.

Ten species of Australian cockroaches are recorded from Australian caves and mines. Most are troglophiles or guanobia. Only one troglobitic species is known. The distribution of these species is given, and attention is drawn to their absence from south-eastern Australia and Tasmania. It is suggested that climatic changes in the Pleistocene and early Recent may have been responsible for this, and that the fauna found in many cave areas may be of comparatively recent origin.


The Cave Spring Cave Systems, Kimberly Division of Western Australia, 1967, Lowry, David C.

The three cave systems are developed along the course of a seasonal stream that has been superposed on a range of Devonian Limestone in north-western Australia. The cave system furthest upstream has the greatest known development of cave passages in the region (more than 2,300 yards) and is controlled by two sets of vertical joints approximately at right angles to each other.


Tasmanian Cave Fauna: Character and Distribution, 1967, Goede, A.

The geology and nature of the caves is discussed. Cave development has been affected by glacial outwash and periglacial conditions which must be taken into account when considering the development and distribution of cave fauna. The food supply in the caves is limited by the absence of cave-inhabiting bats. Floods while adding to the food supply must be destructive to some forms of terrestrial cave life. The cave fauna consists entirely of invertebrates. The carab genus Idacarabus Lea contains the only troglobites found in Tasmania. A common troglophile throughout the island is Hickmania troglodytes (Higgins and Petterd) which belongs to a very small group of relict spiders. Five species of cave crickets are known from Tasmania and Flinders Island. Three species belong to the genus Micropathus Richards and show an interesting distribution pattern. A single species of glow-worm, Arachnocampa (Arachnocampa) tasmaniensis Ferguson occurs in a number of Tasmanian caves. It is more closely related to the New Zealand species than to glow worms found on the Australian mainland. Other terrestrial cave life is briefly discussed. Aquatic cave life is poorly known. The syncarid Anaspides tasmaniae (Thomson) has been recorded from several caves. It differs from epigean forms in reduction of pigment.


Further Remarks on the Big Hole, Near Braidwood, New South Wales, 1967, Jennings, J. N.

The new data from the Big Hole and its vicinity give some further support to the view maintained previously as to its origin, though an approach through water chemistry proved non-committal. Difficulties attaching to an origin by true phreatic solution of underlying limestone through circulations of groundwater of meteoric provenance remain however. Nevertheless, the possibility, not considered previously, that the Big Hole is due to hydrothermal solution in the manner of many collapse structures associated with uranium ore bodies in southwestern U.S.A. finds no support in the regional geology of the Shoalhaven valley, though it could produce features of the right dimensions. Previous lack of a complete parallel to the Big Hole has been removed by reference to the furnas of southern Brazil where a similar origin to the one proposed here is also inferred.


Halite Speleothems From the Nullarbor Plain, Western Australia, 1967, Lowry, D. C.

Halite has been found in five caves on the Nullarbor Plain, Western Australia. It occurs as stalactites, stalagmites, crusts, or fibres. The climate of the plain is arid to semi-arid, and the halite is derived from wind-blown salts that accumulate in the soil. The halite forms in the caves under conditions of relatively low humidity (about 70%) and high temperature (about 67°F). Its association with older calcite deposits suggests the climate was once wetter or cooler than at present.


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