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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That rate of infiltration is the maximum rate at which soil can absorb water [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for cayman (Keyword) returned 29 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 29 of 29
Origin of endogenetic micrite in karst terrains; a case study from the Cayman Islands, 1995,
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Jones Brian, Kahle Charles F. ,

Morphologic studies of bell hole development on Cayman Brac, 1997,
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Tarhulelips R. , Ford D. C.

Morphometric studies of Bell Hole development on Cayman Brac, 1998,
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Tarhulelips R. F. A. , Ford D. C.

Condensation Corrosion in Caves on Cayman Brac and Isla de Mona, 1998,
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Tarhulelips, R. F. A. , Ford, D. C.
Many speleothems in caves on Cayman Brac and Isla de Mona have suffered considerable dissolution. It is suggested that this is a consequence of condensation corrosion rather than of aqueous flooding of the entire cave. A program of temperature and relative humidity measurements during the rainy seasons showed that the entrance zones are areas of comparatively large diurnal variation where condensation from warm air onto cooler walls may occur. Artificial condensation was induced using ice bottles: chemical analysis of the condensation waters determined that they were generally undersaturated with respect to calcite and/or dolomite but that this changes over space and time. Gypsum tablets were suspended inside three sample caves on Cayman Brac and one on Isla de Mona for 16 and 13 months, respectively. At the end of this period, tablets close to the entrances and to the floor were found to have undergone considerable dissolution; this could only have been the result of condensation corrosion

Karst processes on Cayman Brac, a small oceanic carbonate island, PhD Thesis, 1999,
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Tarhulelips, Rozemarijn Frederike Antoinette

Cayman Brac is a good example of a small oceanic carbonate island which has undergone several periods of submergence and emergence since the Tertiary, resulting in the geological formations being well karstified. This study investigated several karst phenomena on the island including the occurrence and morphology of caves, the water chemistry and microclimate inside the caves, periods of speleothem growth and dissolution, and bell holes. Caves occur throughout the island at various elevations above sea level. Using elevation as a criterion, the caves were divided into Notch caves, located at, or one-two metres above, the Sangamon Notch, and Upper caves, located at varying elevations above the Notch. Analysis of the morphology, age and the relative abundance of speleothem in the caves further supports this division. The close proximity of the Notch and the Notch caves is coincidental: speleothem dating by U-series methods shows that the caves predate the Notch. They are believed to have formed between 1400 and 400 ka, whereas a late Tertiary to Early Quaternary age is assigned to the Upper caves. Speleothem on the island has suffered minor, moderate and major dissolution. Minor dissolution is due to a change in the degree of saturation of the drip water feeding the speleothem, whereas the last two are caused by flooding or condensation corrosion. Many of the speleothems in fact experienced several episodes of dissolution followed by regrowth. The latest episode appears to be caused by condensation corrosion rather than flooding. Eleven speleothems containing growth hiatuses were dated by U-series methods. The results indicate that growth cessation did not occur synchronously. Furthermore, the timing of the hiatuses during the Quaternary is not restricted to glacial or interglacial periods. Oxygen and carbon stable isotope analyses of seven of the samples reveal an apparent shift towards a drier and warmer climate around 120 ka. However, more data and further collaborative evidence is desirable. Of six samples with hiatuses, five show a bi-modal distribution of stable isotope values: before and after the hiatus. Oxygen isotope analyses of modern drip water found inter-sample variations of over 2[per thousand]. This is due to cave environmental factors such as evaporation, infiltration velocity and roof thickness. Inside the caves δ 18 O of drip water decreases with increasing distance from the entrance and thus decreasing external climatic influence. This distance-climatic effect is also reflected in the δ18 O calculated for modern calcite: -5.3, -6.5 and -7.6[per thousand] VPDB at 3, 10 and 20 m respectively. The morphology of bell holes, found only in certain Notch caves, was studied in detail. It is proposed that the bell holes are formed by condensation corrosion, probably enhanced by microbiological activity. The study represents a comprehensive and thorough analyses of karst features on a small oceanic island, and provides information useful for climatic reconstruction during the Quaternary


Letter: ''Morphometric studies of Bell Hole development on Cayman Brac'' [Comments on], 2000,
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Self C. A.

Geomicrobiology of caves: A review, 2001,
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Northup D. E. , Lavoie K. H. ,
In this article, we provide a review of geomicrobiological interactions in caves, which are nutrient-limited environments containing a variety of redox interfaces. Interactions of cave microorganisms and mineral environments lead to the dissolution of, or precipitation on, host rock and speleothems (secondary mineral formations). Metabolic processes of sulfur-, iron-, and manganese-oxidizing bacteria can generate considerable acidity, dissolving cave walls and formations. Examples of possible microbially influenced corrosion include corrosion residues (e.g., Lechuguilla and Spider caves, New Mexico, USA), moonmilk from a number of caves (e.g., Spider Cave, New Mexico, and caves in the Italian Alps), and sulfuric acid speleogenesis and cave enlargement (e.g., Movile Cave, Romania, and Cueva de Villa Luz, Mexico). Precipitation processes in caves, as in surface environments, occur through active or passive processes. In caves, microbially induced mineralization is documented in the formation of carbonates, moonmilk, silicates, clays, iron and manganese oxides, sulfur, and saltpeter at scales ranging from the microscopic to landscape biokarst. Suggestions for future research are given to encourage a move from descriptive, qualitative studies to more experimental studies

Temporal evolution of tertiary dolostones on Grand Cayman as determined by Sr-87/Sr-86, 2003,
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Jones B. , Luth R. W. ,
On the Cayman Islands, the Tertiary Bluff Group (Brac Formation, Cayman Formation, Pedro Castle Formation) is onlapped and overlain by the Pleistocene Ironshore Formation. On Grand Cayman, the Brac Formation and Cayman Formation are formed of finely crystalline dolostones; whereas the Pedro Castle Formation is formed of finely crystalline dolostones, dolomitized limestones, and limestones. No dolomite has been found in the Ironshore Formation. Dolostones in the Bluff Group, which retained their original depositional textures and lack evidence of any recrystallization, are formed of small (typically 5-15 mum long) interlocking, euhedral dolomite crystals. Dolomite cement is present in the Brac Formation and Cayman Formation but is very rare in the Pedro Castle Formation. Most of the dolomite crystals are characterized by oscillatory zoning with alternating zones of low-Ca calcian dolomite and high-Ca calcian dolomite. Grand Cayman is ideal for assessing the temporal evolution of Tertiary dolostones because the dolostones are young, have not been recrystallized, and are geographically isolated by the deep oceanic waters around the island. Interpretation of 158 new Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios from the dolostones in the Bluff Group indicate that the succession underwent three time-transgressive phases of dolomitization during the Late Miocene, the Late Pliocene, and Pleistocene. Petrographically similar dolomite was produced during each phase of dolomitization that was mediated by the same type of fluid and the same general conditions. Dolomitization was part of a dynamic cycle of processes that followed major lowstands. Karst development during the lowstands preconditioned the limestones for dolomitization by increasing their porosity and permeability. Thus, vast quantities of the dolomitizing fluids could freely circulate through the strata during the subsequent transgression. Dolomitization ceased once a stable highstand had been attained

Petrography of Finely Crystalline Cenozoic Dolostones as Revealed by Backscatter Electron Imaging: Case Study of the Cayman Formation (Miocene), Grand Cayman, British West Indies, 2003,
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Jones Brian, Luth Robert W. ,
Finely crystalline Cenozoic island dolostones, like those found in the Cayman Formation on Grand Cayman, are commonly assumed to be petrographically and compositionally homogeneous. Backscatter electron images (BSEI), however, show that the constituent dolomite crystals (< 100 {micro}m long and commonly < 20 {micro}m long) are commonly zoned with respect to their mol % CaCO3 content. Moreover, such images allow (1) depiction of growth patterns in the constituent crystals, irrespective of their origin, (2) recognition of replacive dolomite as opposed to dolomite cement, and (3) delineation of 'stratigraphic packages' in the dolomite cements that reflect different episodes of cementation. Integration of this information forms the basis for paragenetic interpretations of the dolostones. On Grand Cayman, the Miocene Cayman Formation can be divided into friable, high-porosity dolostones and hard, low-porosity dolostones. Backscatter electron images show that the hard dolostones are characterized by complex arrays of zoned dolomite cements that have occluded most of the pores. Caymanite, an internal sediment, has occluded many of the larger cavities. In contrast, the high-porosity dolostones contain little cement and no internal sediments. Precipitation of the cements and the deposition of internal sediments were related to the passage of large volumes of water through some of the dolostones. Thus, the hard, low-porosity dolostones are found in the 'cap rock' of the formation, in coastal locations, and in areas close to solution-widened fractures. Conversely, the friable, high-porosity dolostones form the lower 'porous unit' of the formation in the interior of the island, where the passage of water was more restricted

Temporal Evolution of Tertiary Dolostones on Grand Cayman as Determined by 87Sr/86Sr, 2003,
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Jones Brian, Luth Robert W. ,
On the Cayman Islands, the Tertiary Bluff Group (Brac Formation, Cayman Formation, Pedro Castle Formation) is onlapped and overlain by the Pleistocene Ironshore Formation. On Grand Cayman, the Brac Formation and Cayman Formation are formed of finely crystalline dolostones whereas the Pedro Castle Formation is formed of finely crystalline dolostones, dolomitized limestones, and limestones. No dolomite has been found in the Ironshore Formation. Dolostones in the Bluff Group, which retained their original depositional textures and lack evidence of any recrystallization, are formed of small (typically 5-15 {micro}m long) interlocking, euhedral dolomite crystals. Dolomite cement is present in the Brac Formation and Cayman Formation but is very rare in the Pedro Castle Formation. Most of the dolomite crystals are characterized by oscillatory zoning with alternating zones of low-Ca calcian dolomite and high-Ca calcian dolomite. Grand Cayman is ideal for assessing the temporal evolution of Tertiary dolostones because the dolostones are young, have not been recrystallized, and are geographically isolated by the deep oceanic waters around the island. Interpretation of 158 new 87Sr/86Sr ratios from the dolostones in the Bluff Group indicate that the succession underwent three time-transgressive phases of dolomitization during the Late Miocene, the Late Pliocene, and Pleistocene. Petrographically similar dolomite was produced during each phase of dolomitization that was mediated by the same type of fluid and the same general conditions. Dolomitization was part of a dynamic cycle of processes that followed major lowstands. Karst development during the lowstands preconditioned the limestones for dolomitization by increasing their porosity and permeability. Thus, vast quantities of the dolomitizing fluids could freely circulate through the strata during the subsequent transgression. Dolomitization ceased once a stable highstand had been attained

Karren features in Island Karst: Guam, Mariana Islands, 2004,
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Taborosi D. , Jenson J. W. , Mylroie J. E. ,
Dissolutional sculpturing (karren) in island karst terrain is distinct from karren in inland continental settings, whether temperate or tropical. Reef, lagoonal and eolian limestones that form most young carbonate islands are eogenetic, meaning they have not undergone significant diagenesis and exhibit high primary porosity and extreme heterogeneity. These lithologic qualities, combined with other characteristics of island karst, including the effects of autogenic recharge, tropical climate, and the proximity of the ocean, result in the development of unique karren forms. Highly irregular, composite karren forms are dominant, while linear forms, especially hydrodynamically shaped features, are rare or absent. The most common karren type on Guam is an assemblage of densely packed solution pits, separated by jagged ridges and sharp tips. It dominates the surfaces of all young reef limestones and ranges in texture from extremely jagged coastal forms, to somewhat more subdued inland features. It covers large areas, forming karrenfelds of jagged pit and pinnacle topography. Lacking a unique and accurate geomorphic term, this karren assemblage exists in a variety of similar forms, and its development is poorly understood. We propose the term 'eogenetic karren,' as it emphasizes the eogenetic nature of host limestone as the common factor controlling the development of variants of this karren type, while avoiding references to geographic settings or any of the poorly understood and variable genetic mechanisms. In addition to eogenetic karren, other forms of karren occur on carbonate islands but are limited to specific lithologic and environmental settings. Hydrodynamically-controlled features, dominant in interior continental settings of both classical temperate and tropical karsts, are nearly absent on Guam and similar islands, and form only locally in outcrops of dense, diagenetically mature, and recrystallized, limestones

Variation of palaeostress patterns along the Oriente transform wrench corridor, Cuba: significance for Neogene-Quaternary tectonics of the Caribbean realm, 2005,
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Rojasagramonte Y. , Neubauer F. , Handler R. , Garciadelgado D. E. , Friedl G. , Gadodamas R. ,
In this study, we address the late Miocene to Recent tectonic evolution of the North Caribbean (Oriente) Transform Wrench Corridor in the southern Sierra Maestra mountain range, SE Cuba. The region has been affected by historical earthquakes and shows many features of brittle deformation in late Miocene to Pleistocene reef and other shallow water deposits as well as in pre-Neogene, late Cretaceous to Eocene basement rocks. These late Miocene to Quaternary rocks are faulted, fractured, and contain calcite- and karst-filled extension gashes. Type and orientation of the principal normal palaeostress vary along strike in accordance with observations of large-scale submarine structures at the south-eastern Cuban margin. Initial N-S extension is correlated with a transtensional regime associated with the fault, later reactivated by sinistral and/or dextral shear, mainly along E-W-oriented strike-slip faults. Sinistral shear predominated and recorded similar kinematics as historical earthquakes in the Santiago region. We correlate palaeostress changes with the kinematic evolution along the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Three different tectonic regimes were distinguished for the Oriente transform wrench corridor (OTWC): compression from late Eocene-Oligocene, transtension from late Oligocene to Miocene (?) (D-1), and transpression from Pliocene to Present (D-2-D-4), when this fault became a transform system. Furthermore, present-day structures vary along strike of the Oriente transform wrench corridor (OTWC) on the south-eastern Cuban coast, with dominantly transpressional/compressional and strike-slip structures in the east and transtension in the west. The focal mechanisms of historical earthquakes are in agreement with the dominant ENE-WSW transpressional structures found on land. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

CAVE TURBIDITES, 2008,
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Osborne, R. A. L.

Turbidites are uncommon in caves, but are more common as palaeokarst deposits. Marine carbonate turbidites, called caymanites, are the most common cave and palaeokarst turbidites, but marine non-carbonate turbidites, freshwater carbonate turbidites and freshwater non-carbonate turbidites are also deposited in caves and preserved in palaeokarst sequences. One of the most complex sequences of cave turbidites occurs in the Wellington Caves Phosphate Mine in Australia. Cave turbidites form in ponded water in caves and may be triggered by floods and high intensity rain events. While caymanites are most likely to form during marine transgressions, they can be emplaced by tsunami. Freshwater cave turbidites are most likely to form in flooded hypogene caves located in the seasonally wet tropics and in areas with irregular high intensity rainfall events.


Preservation and burial of ancient karst., 2013,
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Osborne, R. A. L.

Ancient karst features can be preserved by burial, filling, or by occurring in areas with extremely slow denudation. Although the terms ‘paleokarst’, ‘relict karst’,‘buried karst’, and ‘fossil karst’ have caused much confusion, paleokarst, buried karst, and relict karst can be defined in terms useful to karst geomorphologists and cave scientists. The term ‘fossil karst’ is best abandoned. Burial and paleokarstification are not necessarily the end of karst. Ancient features may be exhumed and reactivated. Karst ends with denudation at the Earth’s surface. Unroofed caves are a particular feature of karst denudation. Most ancient karst features may be preserved by filling, burial, and exhumation. In unusual conditions, karst features have survived at the surface since the Mesozoic. Burial, exhumation, and slow denudation may not be sufficient for extreme survival; relative vertical movement may be required. As caves and many other karst landforms are negative features, they are prone to filling by a range of materials, making cave sediments and paleokarst deposits quite diverse. Whole karst landscapes can be buried and evidence of burial can be recorded in the diagenesis of sediments. Although filled and unfilled caves can survive shallow burial, deep burial can crush caves, forming crackle breccia. Exhumation can occur from the surface following uplift or from below following hypogene speleogenesis. Preservation, burial, and exhumation of ancient karst have two unexpected consequences. Caves can be older than the landscapes in which they occur and stalagmites can be the longest surviving karst features


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