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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That dendritic drainage pattern is a drainage pattern in which the streams branch randomly in all directions and at almost any angle, resembling in plan the branching habit of certain trees. it is produced where a consequent stream receives several tributaries which in turn are fed by smaller tributaries. it is an indicative of insequent streams flowing across horizontal and homogeneous strata or complex crystalline rocks offering uniform resistance to erosion. this pattern may form on top of the land surface or below the land surface in karst aquifers with anastomoses forming the smaller tributaries.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for dolomite (Keyword) returned 290 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 290
Hydrochemistry of a dolomite terrain; the Bruce Peninsula, Ontario, 1980, Cowell D. W. , Ford D. C.

The kinetics of dissolution of dolomite in CO2?H20 systems at 1.5 to 65 N and 0 to 1 atm PC02, 1982, Busenberg E. , Plummer L. N.

Rpartition quantitative des phnomnes karstiques super-ficiels et souterrains en fonction de la lithologie sur le Causse Comtal (Aveyron, Fr .), 1983, Dodge, D.
QUANTITATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF THE SURFICIAL AND UNDERGROUND KARSTIC PHENOMENA ACCORDING TO LITHOLOGY ON THE CAUSSE COMTAL (AVEYRON, FRANCE) - The quantitative distribution of karst phenomena (dolines, karren, dry valleys, springs, sinkholes and caves) in the Causse Comtal aquifers is analysed. This distribution is dependent on lithology, topography, tectonics, and permeability of the aquifer layers and relative importance of underground drainage networks. The part played by each of these factors in the development of the observed phenomena is discussed. The relationship between superficial and deep karst features is examined.

The Coxco Deposit; a Proterozoic mississippi valley-type deposit in the McArthur River District, Northern Territory, Australia, 1983, Walker R. N. , Gulson B. , Smith J. ,
Strata-bound dolomite-hosted lead-zinc deposit. Crusts of colloform sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and marcasite (stage I mineralization) were deposited on the surfaces of the karst-produced solution cavities. Reduced sulfur was produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria within the karst system. A second stage of mineralization consisting of coarsely crystalline sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and marcasite occurs in veins and as the matrix for dolomite breccias.--Modified journal abstract

Karst development and the distribution of karst drainage systems in Dejiang, Guizhou Province, China, 1983, Song Linhua, Zhang Yaoguang, Fang Jinfu, Gu Zhongxong,
The nature of karstification of two contrasting areas on the north Guizhou Plateau (south China) is shown to be controlled by structure, lithology, geomorphic history and tectonics, and causes significant differences to arise in the subsurface drainage systems of the areas.The Shaqi area lies in a syncline of Permo-Triassic limestones underlain by an insoluble sandy shale which forms the local base level. Karst landforms are strongly influenced by the presence of four erosion levels corresponding to four periods of rejuvenation of the drainage systems. Drainage is concentrated along the syncline axis, and one system (Naoshuiyan) has been pirating another (Lengshuiyan) by headward retreat. Cave passages are typically phreatic.The Dejiang Town area lies in an anticline of Cambrian dolomite and Ordovician limestone. Three large subsurface drainage systems have developed along parallel faults, and have typically vadose cross-sections

Palaeogeographic environment during the desiccation of the Black Sea, 1983, Kojumdgieva Emilia,
During the latest Chersonian (about 10.3 m.y. ago) tectonic movements took place leading to an elevation of the Crimean-Caucasian chain and to an isolation of the Fore-Caucasian part of the Black Sea Basin. This part of the basin had been draining the rivers of the Russian Platform and after the isolation it became desalinized, while the main part of the Black Sea Basin was almost desiccated and evaporites, mainly dolomites, formed in it due to the predominant calcium---magnesium---carbonate composition of the Chersonian Sea waters. These dolomites are found in the drillings of DSDP Leg 42B and are confirmed geophysically.The tectonic movements during the latest Chersonian led to the formation of a series of grabens along which the Mediterranean Sea invaded the north Aegean area and a little later (during the Early Maeotian) the Black Sea

A Preliminary Survey of Water Chemistry in the Limestone of the Buchan Area Under Low Flow Conditions, 1984, Ellaway Mark, Finlayson Brian

Water samples from selected sites in the Buchan area were collected on two different occasions (survey 1 and survey 2) in an preliminary attempt to characterise the samples taken in terms of chemical composition. Chemical constituents such as Ca++, Mg++, and titration alkalinity (as mg/l CaCO3) varied considerably and ranged from 9.0 - 187.0 mg/l, 2.5 - 43.3 mg/l and 27 - 417 mg/l (survey 1) and 3.5 - 188.7 mg/l, 3.5 - 40.0 mg/l and 44 - 424 mg/l (survey 2) respectively. This range in values is attributed to the differing lithology of the sample sites chosen and reflects the geological control on water chemistry of karst landscapes. A computer program for determining equilibrium speciation of aqueous solutions was used to calculate partial pressure of carbon dioxide and saturation indices with respect to calcite and dolomite.


Les cavits d'Afrique du Sud, 1985, Martini, J.
Caves of South Africa - A general description of the caves of South Africa is given. This includes a brief account of caving techniques and aspects of research on the geology, hydrology, morphology and mineralogy of the caves. Although caves systems are well developed in the country, a surface karst morphology is often non existent. Throughout emphasis is placed on the variable nature of the caves resulting from differences in lithology, e.g. complex hyperphreatic mazes in Proterozoic dolomite, shallow phreatic tubes in late Precambrian limestone, phreatic caves in soft Miocene lime-stone, and unusual vadose caves in quartzite and diabase.

Dissolution kinetics of dolomite: effects of lithology and fluid flow velocity., 1985, Herman J. S. , White W. B.

Shallow-marine carbonate facies and facies models, 1985, Tucker M. E. ,
Shallow-marine carbonate sediments occur in three settings: platforms, shelves and ramps. The facies patterns and sequences in these settings are distinctive. However, one type of setting can develop into another through sedimentational or tectonic processes and, in the geologic record, intermediate cases are common. Five major depositional mechanisms affect carbonate sediments, giving predictable facies sequences: (1) tidal flat progradation, (2) shelf-marginal reef progradation, (3) vertical accretion of subtidal carbonates, (4) migration of carbonate sand bodies and (5) resedimentation processes, especially shoreface sands to deeper subtidal environments by storms and off-shelf transport by slumps, debris flows and turbidity currents. Carbonate platforms are regionally extensive environments of shallow subtidal and intertidal sedimentation. Storms are the most important source of energy, moving sediment on to shoreline tidal flats, reworking shoreface sands and transporting them into areas of deeper water. Progradation of tidal flats, producing shallowing upward sequences is the dominant depositional process on platforms. Two basic types of tidal flat are distinguished: an active type, typical of shorelines of low sediment production rates and high meteorologic tidal range, characterized by tidal channels which rework the flats producing grainstone lenses and beds and shell lags, and prominent storm layers; and a passive type in areas of lower meteorologic tidal range and higher sediment production rates, characterized by an absence of channel deposits, much fenestral and cryptalgal peloidal micrite, few storm layers and possibly extensive mixing-zone dolomite. Fluctuations in sea-level strongly affect platform sedimentation. Shelves are relatively narrow depositional environments, characterized by a distinct break of slope at the shelf margin. Reefs and carbonate sand bodies typify the turbulent shelf margin and give way to a shelf lagoon, bordered by tidal flats and/or a beach-barrier system along the shoreline. Marginal reef complexes show a fore-reef--reef core--back reef facies arrangement, where there were organisms capable of producing a solid framework. There have been seven such phases through the Phanerozoic. Reef mounds, equivalent to modern patch reefs, are very variable in faunal composition, size and shape. They occur at shelf margins, but also within shelf lagoons and on platforms and ramps. Four stages of development can be distinguished, from little-solid reef with much skeletal debris through to an evolved reef-lagoon-debris halo system. Shelf-marginal carbonate sand bodies consist of skeletal and oolite grainstones. Windward, leeward and tide-dominated shelf margins have different types of carbonate sand body, giving distinctive facies models. Ramps slope gently from intertidal to basinal depths, with no major change in gradient. Nearshore, inner ramp carbonate sands of beach-barrier-tidal delta complexes and subtidal shoals give way to muddy sands and sandy muds of the outer ramp. The major depositional processes are seaward progradation of the inner sand belt and storm transport of shoreface sand out to the deep ramp. Most shallow-marine carbonate facies are represented throughout the geologic record. However, variations do occur and these are most clearly seen in shelf-margin facies, through the evolutionary pattern of frame-building organisms causing the erratic development of barrier reef complexes. There have been significant variations in the mineralogy of carbonate skeletons, ooids and syn-sedimentary cements through time, reflecting fluctuations in seawater chemistry, but the effect of these is largely in terms of diagenesis rather than facies

Le lapiaz de Souroukoudinga (Burkina Faso), un karst micro-tourelles d'ge suppos quaternaire, 1986, Hugot G. , Carbonnel J. P.
THE SOUROUKOUDINGA LAPIAZ (BURKINA-FASO): A MICRO-TURRETED KARST SUPPOSEDLY FROM THE QUATERNARY ERA. - The very few karsts noted and described from West Africa (Mauritania, Senegal, Mali) are not particularly spectacular. However, one from Burkina-Faso is quite different and is no doubt the most atypical of West African karsts. The Souroukoudinga karst is located in sediments of marine origin, attributed to the Upper Precambrian, and forms the southern limit of the Taoudeni basin. This karst develops in dolomites of the schistic-sandstone-dolomitic level and in particular in a very fine Stromatolite algal structure. It takes up the form of micro-turreted karren which, due to its apparent freshness and the surrounding ferruginous cuirasses, suggests that its formation began in a very recent Quaternary period.

Les phnomnes karstiques des quartzites d'Afrique du Sud, 1987, Martini, J.
KARST FEATURES IN QUARTZITE OF SOUTH AFRICA - The author describes karst features developed in quartzite and also, but to a lesser extent, in weathered diabase and in wad. In quartzite, the karst is due to weathering along joints and bedding planes, producing softer areanaceous boundaries. Later, vadose caves form by piping in the weathered material, starting at a spring and progressing upstream. The karst features include dolines, swallow-holes, and caves, grouped in very localised systems. Over most of the quartzite plateaus, however, real karst features are absent and the drainage remains superficial. The only ubiquitous features, reminiscent of lapies, consist of pinnacles left after erosion of sand. As most of the time they are not associated to deep karst systems, the author proposes that they should not be considered as karst features. Other caves are developed in weathered diabase and dolomite (wad), sandwiched between resistant quartzite layers. They result from the erosion of these soft layers. The author is of the opinion that the term karst rather than pseudokarst should be used to describe this morphology developed in silica and silicate rocks. The reason is that not only the features produced compare well with the ones observed in " soluble rocks " (limestone, gypsum, etc.), but that the genetical process is very similar. It is suggested that the term pseudokarst should be used only in cases were the genesis is different.

Carbonate surface solution in the classical karst, 1987, Cucchi Franco, Finocchiaro Furio, Forti Fabio
The current research on the dissolution of carbonate rocks in the Karst of Trieste indicates that the average degradation of surfaces exposed to atmospheric agents is 0.028 mm/year with an average rainfall of 1350 mm. The maximum levels (0.031 mm/year) correspond to micro-crystalline limestones, the minimum values (0.014 mm/year) to dolomites.

Regional dolomitization of subtidal shelf carbonates: Burlington and Keokuk Formations (Mississippian), Iowa and Illinois, 1987, Harris David C. , Meyers William J. ,
Cathodoluminescent petrography of crinoidal limestones and dolomites from the Mississippian (Osagean) Burlington and Keokuk Formations in Iowa and Illinois has revealed a complex diagenetic history of calcite cementation, dolomitization, chertification and compaction. Dolomite occurs abundantly in subtidal, open-marine facies throughout the study area. Three luminescently and chemically distinct generations of dolomite can be recognized regionally. Dolomite I, the oldest generation, is luminescent, thinly zoned, and occurs mainly as a replacement of lime mud. Dolomite II has dull red unzoned luminescence, and occurs mainly as a replacement of dolomite I rhombs. Dolomite III is non-luminescent, and occurs as a syntaxial cement on, and replacement of, older dolomite I and II rhombs. Petrography of these dolomite generations, integrating calcite cement stratigraphy, chertification and compaction histories has established the diagenetic sequence. Dolomites I and II pre-date all calcite cements, most chert, intergranular compaction and styloites. Dolomite III precipitation occurred within the calcite cement sequence, after all chert, and after at least some stylolitization. The stratigraphic limit of these dolomites to rocks older than the St Louis Limestone (Meramecian) suggests that dolomitization took place before or during a regional mid-Meramecian subaerial unconformity. A single dolomitization model cannot reasonably explain all three generations of dolomite in the Burlington and Keokuk limestones. Petrographic and geochemical characteristics coupled with timing constraints suggest that dolomite I formed in a sea water-fresh water mixing zone associated with a meteoric groundwater system established beneath the pre-St Louis unconformity. Dolomite II and III may have formed from externally sourced warm brines that replaced precursor dolomite at shallow burial depths. These models therefore suggest that the required Mg for dolomite I was derived mainly from sea water, whereas that for dolomites II and III was derived mainly from precursor Burlington--Keokuk dolomites through replacement or pressure solution

Cave dams of the Guanyan System, Guangxi, China, 1987, Smart P. L. , Waltham A. C. ,
With well over 1 million km2 of carbonate rocks exposed at the surface, and a history of exploitation spanning in excess of 2000 years, the Chinese probably have more experience than any other people in developing the water resources of carbonate aquifers. Interestingly, many of the smaller scale projects are carried out by local farmers and co-operatives, with little recourse to the advice of professional engineers and hydrologists, although even in large regional schemes, much local expertise and labour is involved (see for example Hegtkcar 1976). While recently some of the Chinese work on karst hydrology has become available in the west (Song 1981; Song et al 1983; Yuan 1981, ) much of the practical experience resulting from these local and small scale developments remains unpublished even in China. We were therefore very fortunate to be able to examine the engineering works associated with the Guanyan cave system, just south of Guilin, Guangxi Province, SE China, during a recent joint venture with the Institute of Karst Research, Ministry of Geology, Guilin. The Guanyan (Crown Cave) system is developed in a sequence of relatively pure, predominantly finegrained limestones and dolomites over 2600 m thick, and ranging from Devonian to Carboniferous in age (Yuan 1980). These are folded into thrust faulted, NW-SE-trending folds, but dips are generally less than 30{degrees}. The underlying impermeable shales, siltstones and sandstones form a mountainous terrain rising to 1400 m above sea-level east of the limestone, and provide the headwaters for streams feeding into the caves (Fig. ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

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