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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That solution pan is shallow solution basin or closed depression formed on bare limestone, generally characterized by flat bottom and overhanging sides [10]. the initial form is a closed hollow created by a humus patch. it may have over-hanging side walls and a flat floor covered by algae and small pieces or broken rock. diameters are rarely greater than 15 cm [3]. synonyms: (german.) kamenitza or kamenica, opferkessel; (british.) panhole; (spanish.) tinajita. see kamenica.?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for events (Keyword) returned 302 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 302
The Historical Construction of Naracoorte Caves, 1986, Hamiltonsmith, Elery

This paper will focus upon the role of Reddan and Leitch, who between them were responsible for some 59 years of the first 62 years of cave management at Naracoorte. Those who seek a more comprehensive narrative of events, both prior to the first reservation and since, should consult the Draft Management Plan document (S.A. : National Parks and Wildlife Service, 1986).


Mount Etna Caves: The Fight to Save Mount Etna Caves from Limestone Mining, 1987, Vavryn, Josef M. C.

This treatise is a record of the dates and events, heavily condensed, of the history of Mount Etna since The Caves area was first settled. I hope to show that since the fight to save Mount Etna was first joined, seriously, in 1964 or there about, that the Central Queensland Company and the Queensland Government has had no intention to voluntarily release Mount Etna from limestone mining. Even in the event that conservationists took the Queensland Government to court, the Government had plans prepared to counter such. That was clearly shown when the government rescinded the Recreation Reserve, R444, on Mount Etna and refused to give a fiat to prosecute the Government. The next event, the passing of a law stating that any mining lease inadvertently granted illegally will now stand and be legal, was aimed at the mining lease granted illegally including Mount Etna. At this point in time there is very little that is being done to save Mount Etna. I hope that this paper will create new interest and revive the flagging "Fight to Save Mount Etna", with input from ASF member societies and individuals. If the treatise does not have the desired effect of renewing interest in the fight, and if the Central Queensland Cement Co. Pty. Ltd. Starts mining the main cavernous northern face of Mount Etna, the next ASF conference, or possibly the following, will have a "Letter of Requiem" read to them. If the Australian Public can save the "Gordon-below-Franklin" area and the "Lindeman Island National Park", surely something can be done for Mount Etna.


Wilderness Myths and Australian Caves, 1987, Hamiltonsmith, Elery

Beyond a preliminary discussion of some of the basic issues in the writing of any history, the paper looks at what might be called 'Wilderness Myths' of Australian caves. Any wild place generates myths, and Australian caves have their share of these, which constitute the 'folk history' of caving areas (and often that of cave guides). It is argued that these are more-or-less systematic and are not simply the result of error or simple exaggeration in transmitting the story. Examples include myths about bottomless pits, blind fish, aboriginal-white conflict, bushrangers and popular heroes of cave discoveries (along with the interesting result that non-heroes are neglected or even completely forgotten). Wilderness myths present two issues to the would-be historian : what actual events contributed to them and what does their evolution as myths mean?


First Responder Care for Cave Accident Victims, 1987, Osborne R. A. L. , (read By) Steenson R.

Although cave accidents are fairly rare events in New South Wales there is a need for Police, Ambulance and V.R.A. personnel to be aware of the problems presented by cave rescues and to be able to act should a cave accident occur. The N.S.W. Cave Rescue Group is available to provide advice and training in cave rescue and, in the event of an accident taking place, can be mobilised through the Police Disaster and Rescue Branch. Like most members of the caving community, the Cave Rescue Group is a largely Sydney based organisation and its response time for an authentic call out is likely to be between 3 to 5 (or even more) hours. In the event of a cave accident there will be a delay of at least an hour before initial reporting, (members of the victim's party must leave the cave and summon help, or a party is reported overdue). As caving areas are some distance from major centres the first responders are not likely to reach the accident scene in less than two hours after the accident has taken place. With some N.S.W. cave areas it is reasonable to assume that an accident victim may be 24 hours or more away from first responder care. It is vital that the first responders to a cave accident are aware of the type of acre required by cave accident victims and of the hazards that caves present.


Pseudosinella revisited (Collembola, Entomobryinae), 1988, Christiansen Kenneth, Moberg Thomas
Eight controversies are active in the study of macroevolution. These are: 1) the meaning of the term macroevolution, 2) the role of chance, 3) the role of stasis and gradualism, 4) whether significant change Is Iimited to speciation events, 5) the environmental conditions where macroevolutionary change occurs, 6) whether Neodarwinian mechanisms are adequate to explain change, 7) the existence and nature of hierarchical evolutonary processes, and 8) Darwin's views about all this. After a brief examination of each of these issues we used the extensive data available for 9 species of European and Nearctic cave Pseudosinella to examine the third, fourth and fifth controversies mentioned above. Our conclusions are that while we are unable to demonstrate ongoing directional selection, we have clear evidence that significant adaptive change is not limited to speciation events. It does however appear that the amount of adaptive change is greater in the process of speciation than in between. We also show that there is no evidence for clear periods of stasis in the evolution of these forms. This leads us to a new model of the macroevolutionary process combining features of gradualism and punctuated equilibrium. We also showed that evolutionary change Is not associated with unstable environments but rather with more stable ones.

Paleoenvironment and speciation in the cave beetle complex Speonomus delarouzeei (Coleoptera, Bathysciinae), 1988, Juberthie Christian
In the eastern part of the Pyrenees (France) the author describes a scenario of speciation in the cave species complex Speonomus delarouzeei (Coleoptera Bathysciinae); the speciation processes have been initiated by a breakdown of the ecological equilibrium induced during three glacial-interglacial episodes. The scenario is the following: during the first glaciation (2.3-2.1 MY), psychrophilic populations ancestral to S. brucki were selected over the highest elevation of the range, by means of cold effect which produced an adaptive demographic advantage; adaptive characters of troglobitic species (K strategy) take place presumably in relation to colonization of caves and M.S.S.; during the second glaciation (1.7-1.3 MY) and a more recent, S. charlottae, latter S. emiliae, diverged from troglobite ancestors of S. brucki without further adaptive characters, as result from stochastic and historical events. M.S.S. generated during erosional period of glacial event provided ways for migration and new niches for colonization. Bottleneck effect in size population of ancestors, founder effect, and colonization by local population which present genetic and behavioural geographical polymorphism, argue for a rapid speciation, presumably 100,000 years long and 50,000 generations in the case of S. emiliae.

Climatostratigraphic scheme of the Black Sea pleistocene and its correlation with the oxygen-isotope scale and glacial events, 1988, Zubakov V. A. ,
New evidence from the Asov Sea-Black Sea region shows that after the Cobb Mountain magnetic event (1.1 myr) there were 8 saline water events, with Mediterranean molluscs penetrating into the Asov Sea (five times farther than the western Manych Strait), and 7 or 10 cold freshwater events. During the freshening phase, the Caspian Sea molluscan fauna penetrated into the Black Sea; each time the Caspian mollusc assemblage was characterized by a new species of Didacna. Thus, some 18-20 bioclimatostratigraphic units can be distinguished in the Asov Sea-Black Sea section for the last 1 myr. Their numerical age is estimated by some dozen thermoluminescence dates and 12 magnetic-polarity datum planes. The Karangatian s. lato corresponds to the interval 300,000-50,000 yr, the Uzunlarian to 580,000-300,000 yr, and the Chaudian to 1,100,000-600,000 yr. The Karangatian and Tyrrhenian marine terraces correspond to marine isotope stages 5 and 7, the Uzunlarian and Milazzian to stages 11-15, and the Chaudian and Sicilian to stages 16-28. The number and ages of glacial-interglacial cycles in continental Europe are identical to the climatic cycles in the Black Sea and Mediterranean

Introduction une histoire des tudes karstiques, 1990, Renault, Ph.
History of speleo-karstology: an introduction - Before any historical study, it seems important to recall some general notions, studied in recent publications. History of sciences does not limit itself to a repertory of events or to statistics, even when those matters give the basic and main notions. It traces back the evolution of a thought acting upon nature. The historico-critical analysis shows that the noticed trajectories are irregular and moved by crisis for instance with Newton, Lavoisier, Einstein correspond to theory conflicts. Bachelard, Khun, Piaget, etc., bring the analytic elements particularly the notion of paradigm explaining the constant readjustments of scientific system. History of science, behind the stories, must identify the elements of epistemology, which explains the successive points of view of a discipline.

La karstification de l'le haute carbonate de Makatea (Polynsie franaise) et les cycles eustatiques et climatiques quaternaires, 1991, Dessay J. , Pouchan Y. , Girou A. , Humbert L. , Malezieux J.
THE KARST 0F MAKATEA ISLAND (FRENCH POLYNESIA) AND THE CLIMATIC AND GLACIO-EUSTATISM SETTING - Located in the Central Pacific, in the northwestern part of the Tuamotu Archipelago, Makatea island (148 15 W - 15 50 S) is an uplifted, karstic, carbonate construction of Early Miocene age, which reaches 113m in height. From 1906 to 1966, phosphate deposits were exploited on Makatea Island. These phosphate deposits (apatite) overlaid the Miocene series and filled the karstic cavities in the higher regions of the island. Several traces of ancient shorelines can be observed on Makatea: 1/ three different reef formations, which reach about +27m, +7m, +1m above the present mean sea level and respectively dated 400,000 100,000 yr BP, 140,000 30,000 yr BP, between 4,470 150 yr BP and 3,720 13O yr BP; 2/ four distinct marine notch lines on the Early Miocene cliff at about +1m, +7m, +27m and +56m (or +47m on the west coast caused by tilt) above the present mean sea level; 3/ two exposed marine platforms respectively at +29m and +7m above the present mean sea level. The ages of the former makatean shores are inferred by using: (1) the Pacific glacio-eustatic sea-level curve for the last 140,000 yr BP, (2) the Pacific oxygen isotope curve for the last 900,000 yr BP, and (3) a constant uplift rate during the Pleistocene. In this way, according to their age and elevation, the sea-level indicators at about +1m, +7m and +27m (+29m) above the present mean sea level can be respectively related to the Holocene transgression (Flandrian) dated between 6,000 and 1,500 yr BP, to the last Pleistocene interglacial period (Sangamon) dated between about 130,000 and 110,000 yr BP, and to a Middle Pleistocene interglacial period (Yarmouth) dated between about 315,000 and 485,000 yr BP. If we assume that a sea level similar to the present occurred during the Yarmouth inter-glacial period, the uplift rate is valued at 0.085 mm/yr to 0.056 mm/yr. Thus the sea-level associated with the marine notch at about +56m (+47m) may be about 650,000 yr to 1 M.y. old and can be associated with another Pleistocene interglacial period (Aftonian). Consequently, as indicated by the former shores, the sea level fluctuations can be related to the major glacio-eustatic quaternary events. This climatic and eustatic setting is used to explain the karst observed on the Makatea island. Carbonate dissolution and essentially vertical karst genesis were the result of the superposition of several cycles. Each cycle was initially composed of a solution of the carbonates during an interglacial period, followed by a drainage of the saturated solutions during the marine regression associated with the consecutive glacial period. Nevertheless, this scheme is not enough to explain the specific morphology of the makatean karstic cavities and we suggest using insular phosphatisation to explain this karst genesis. It is generally accepted that phosphate rock deposits on coral reef islands are the result of chemical reaction between seabird guano and reef limestone. Furthermore, petrographic and stable isotope studies suggest several generations of phosphorite formation and reworking episodes in the history of these deposits. The primary deposition of phosphates must have begun during a glacial period. This deposition was followed by some redistribution of phosphorites during the interglacial period and by additional precipitation of apatite from meteoric waters. This assumed process of phosphogenesis is consistent with both the field observations and the geodynamic evolution of Makatea. Thus, the particular morphology of the makatean karst can be the result of the dissolution of the carbonates caused by phosphoric acid etching. This acid is derived from the evolution of the phosphorites during the pleistocene interglacial periods.

POST JURASSIC BRITTLE TECTONICS OF THE HAMMAM ZRIBA MINE (NORTHEASTERN TUNISIA) AND RELATED KARST AND FLUORINE, BARYTINE AND CELESTITE OCCURRENCES IN CARBONATE ENVIRONMENTS, 1991, Melki F. , Zargouni F. ,
The Hammam Zriba mine is located in a lenticular horst structure, of varying width (0.3 to 1 km) and NNW-SSE strike over about 3 kms. The mineralization is strata-bound at the top of massive Portlandian limestones and is overlain by embedded Middle to Upper Campanian limestones with marl intercalations. This horst has formed during the late Jurassic as an emerged block bound by major faults that were remobilized later during various deformation stages. These facts are clearly documented by field observations and tectonic analysis essentially along the N160-N180 trending faults in the Portlandian lithofacies. These fractures have also controlled the palaeomorphological framework of the uppermost part of the Portlandian massive facies. The overlying Campanian unit exhibits onlap structures that rest on the irregular eroded karstified and mineralized surface which forms a screen surface for the upward channelized fluids and mineral formations in karst and graben. Fluids were apparently channelized by faults trending N070-N090 and N160-180, a few hundred metres long, that have facilitated karst, dissolution and mineral deposition during tectonic events

DIAGENESIS AND MINERALIZATION PROCESSES IN DEVONIAN CARBONATE ROCKS OF THE SIDING-GUDAN LEAD-ZINC MINERAL SUBDISTRICT, GUANGXI, SOUTHWEST CHINA, 1991, Schneider W. , Geng A. Q. , Liu X. Z. ,
The lead-zinc ore deposits of the Siding-Gudan mineral subdistrict Guangxi are part of the large Nanling district of South China, and hosted in Devonian carbonate rocks. The ore bodies occur significantly along main faults and fault zones, and concentrate up to 300 meters above the Cambrian/Devonian unconformity. Connected with hydrothermal karst, size and volume of the ore bodies increase in proximity to this unconformity. Moving from the unaffected host rocks to the center of the ore bodies, four zones can be discriminated by the mineral assemblage (pyrite, sphalerite, galena) as well as by the degree of ordering, Ca/Mg, and Fe/Mn ratios of different dolomites. Homogenization temperatures range from 80-100-degrees-C (Presqu'ile dolomite) to 230-260-degrees-C (massive sphalerite). The sulfides reveal delta-S-34 = -20 to parts per thousand, and fluid inclusions display a salinity of 5-12 wt % equivalent NaCl. The diagenetic and hydrothermal history is similar to that of classic Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) sulfide mineral deposits as, for example, Pine Point in Canada. Mineralization and remobilization of the sulfides took place during a wide time span from late Paleozoic through Mesozoic. Both processes are considered as an interaction of saline basinal brines ascended from the adjoining dewatering trough, and magmatic-hydrothermal fluids of several magmatic-tectonic events

Quaternary engineering geology, 1991, Fookes Pg,
The geological and geomorphological effects on the Earth's surface during the Quaternary have been both extensive and profound. An attempt has been made to simplify and summarize these effects by considering the principal agencies at work during the Quaternary: plate tectonics, rapidly rising sea levels, rapidly falling sea levels, rapidly cooling climates and rapidly warming climates. The resulting series of major glacial and interglacial episodes have had far-reaching consequences for the engineering characteristics of the Earth's surface. In attempting to summarize these major omissions will have been inevitable and errors will have occurred due to compression of the subject and its interpretation in a simplified manner. Table 2 summarizes the approach of the paper in itemising the principal Quaternary events, causes and effects, consequences to landscape and inferences to engineering. Each of the six events has been developed into larger tables and accompanied by some discussion and examples. The principal consequences of the events for engineering have been the production of glacial and periglacial soils,over large areas of the northern and southern hemispheres; changes in the sediment patterns on the coasts, the continental shelves and in river systems; and the development of weathering profiles of very variable type and distribution leading to development of in situ residual soils of many different engineering characteristics. The major shifts in climate associated with these events have led to migration of various surface forms which are now being exposed or covered by the present regime, leading to many active slope processes with potential instability for engineering projects and unexpected distribution of materials. The continuing events of plate tectonics which precedes the Quaternary by a long period of geological time explain the distribution of earthquake systems, growing coastlines and mountains, and the pattern of volcanic areas with their own suites of rock and soil of significance for the engineer. ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

EVIDENCE FOR EXTENSIVE POST-CALEDONIAN KARST DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHWESTERN SPITSBERGEN, 1992, Bjornerud M,
Proterozoic limestones at several localities in southwestern Spitsbergen contain karst-elated features (layered clastic infillings, collapse breccias, deeply weathered depressions) which overprint the Caledonian deformational fabric in the rocks. These features apparently developed between middle Devonian and mid-Carboniferous time when the Precambrian basement complex stood high above sea level. Recognition of these karst features may shed light on depositional and tectonic events in post-Caledonian Spitsbergen

Some remarks on the genus Microcharon Karaman in Greece, and description of M. agripensis n. sp. (Crustacea, Isopoda, Microparasellidae), 1994, De Laurentiis Paola, Galassi Diana M. P. , Pesce Giuseppe L.
Several samples of microparasellid isopods of the genus Microcharon Karaman were obtained in groundwater habitats of Greece. Four species are identified, and taxonomical and zoogeographical remarks on some rare or poorly known taxa are made. One species, herein described as Microcharon agripensis n. sp., is new to Science. M. latus prespensis Karaman, 1954, on account of the different morphology of the first and second male pleopods, and its partially overlapping distribution, in respect to M. latus Karaman, 1934, is definitively raised at specific rank. Supplementary descriptions and illustrations are reported for incompletely described species such as M. latus, M. prespensis stat. nov., M. major Karaman, 1954 and M. othrys Argano & Pesce, 1979. For some species, such as M. latus, M. othrys and M. antonellae Galassi, 1991, SEM preparations of the mouthparts, not well detailed with the optical microscopy, were carried out. According to data from the present study, a paleogeographical scenario of the Balkan Peninsula is briefly depicted in order to sketch the most significative events which led to the colonization and speciation of the Microcharon species in this area.

230Th dating of the speleothems from the ''Grotta del Fiume-Grotta Grande del Vento'' karst system in Frasassi (Ancona, Italy) and paleoenvironmental implications., 1994, Taddeucci Adriano, Tuccimei Paola, Voltaggio Mario
Chronological measurements have been carried out on speleothems from the Grotta del Fiume-Grotta Grande del Vento karst system in Frasassi (Ancona, Italy) by means of the 230Th radiometric method in order to date hypogean karst levels and related geological events. Higher levels were found to be older than the lower ones according to standstills and sinkings of the water table. The dated speleothems from the first and second level formed less than 10,000 years ago; the minimum ages of the third and fifth levels, which are respectively 130,000 and 200,000 years old, were correlated to climatic events. Dating different portions of a speleothem allows the measurements of the radial and vertical accretion rates and their variation over time. Such data together with the 234U/238U activity ratio and the uranium content of the speleothems have been correlated with the climatic variations connected to the glacial cycles. The same data have been used to fit a hydrogeological model.

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