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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That labyrinth is see network; maze cave.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for flows (Keyword) returned 315 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 315
Further Studies at the Blue Waterholes, Cooleman Plain, N.S.W., 1969-77, Part I, Climate and Hydrology, 1983, Jennings, J. N.

Previous study of the temporal and spatial distribution of limestone solution at Cooleman Plain rested on monthly discharges and water analyses of the Blue Waterholes over 4 years. For this study automatic recording of discharge (8 years), rainfall (8 years), evaporation (7 years) and temperature (4 years) was attended by variable success in the face of interference, rigorous climate and inaccessibility. The most important aspect of the climatic data was the support obtained for the earlier assumption of similar water balances in the forested igneous frame and the grassland limestone plain. Runoff was again shown to be highly variable from year to year and to have an oceanic pluvial regime, with a summer-autumn minimum owing much to evapo-transpiration. The flow duration curve from daily discharges puts this karst amongst those where neither extremely high nor low flows are important. The stream routing pattern offsets the effect of 71% of the catchment being on non-karst rocks, damping flood events. An inflection of 700 l/s in a flow duration plot based on discharge class means is interpreted as the threshold at which surface flow down North Branch reaches the Blue Waterholes. Storages calculated from a generalised recession hydrograph parallel Mendip data where baseflow (fissure) storage provides most of the storage and quickflow (vadose) storage only a secondary part. Water-filled conduit storage (the phreas) could not be determined but is considered small. The baseflow storage seems large, suggesting that it can develop independently of caves in some measure. A quickflow ratio for floods derived by Gunn's modification of the Hewlett and Hibbert separation line method appears relatively low for a mainly non-karst catchment and is again attributed to the routing pattern. For analysis of variation of the solute load over time, estimates of daily discharge during gaps in the record where made for the author by Dr. A.J. Jakeman and Mr. M.A. Greenaway (see Appendix). A small number of discharge measures of two contrasted allogenic catchments of the igneous frame shows a unit area yield close to that for the whole catchment. Together with the guaging of most of the allogenic inputs, this supports the idea that the water yield is much the same from the forested ranges and the grassland plain. This is important for the estimation of limestone removal rates.


Further Studies At The Blue Waterholes, Cooleman Plain, N.S.W., 1969-77, Part II, Water Chemistry And Discussion, 1983, Jennings, J. N.

The 1969-77 data confirm that groundwater temperature is significantly higher than air temperature at mean catchment altitude but provide only partial support for an explanation in terms of soil temperature and insulation of drainage from cold air ponding over the Plain. Higher pH of output than input streams is attributed mainly to percolation water chemistry. Water chemistry of two contrasted input streams suggests non-karst rock weathering has an important effect on allogenic input streams. An inverse relationship between carbonate hardness and output discharge is found again and attributed mainly to faster transit through the limestone at high flows. Summer has a steeper regression than winter due to precipitation and high flows depressing carbon dioxide and carbonate concentrations more in that season than in winter. Picknett graphs show how solutional capacity varies through the hydrologic system, with aggressive input streams, mainly saturated percolation water, and rarely saturated output springs because of the allogenic component in the last. The total carbonate load of Cave Creek is directly related to discharge, with little seasonal difference so the annual regression is chosen for later calculation. When the carbonate load duration curve and frequency classes for Cave Creek are compared with those for other karsts, it falls into an intermediate class in which neither very high nor low flows dominate the pattern. This is attributed to a combination of a large allogenic input with a complex routing pattern. Consideration of most input stream solute concentration on one occasion indicates such close dependence on catchment geology that doubt is cast on the smallness of the 1965-9 allocation of carbonate contribution from non-karst rock weathering to the allogenic input. This is explained by new CSIRO rainfall chemistry figures from the Yass R. catchment which are smaller than those used before and by elimination of a previous error in calculation. This time subtraction of atmospheric salts is done on a daily basis with a decaying hyperbolic function. Correction of Cave Creek output for allogenic stream input follows the method adopted in 1965-9 but on a firmer basis, with the assumption of approximately equal water yeild per unit area from the non-karst and karst parts of the catchment being more factually supported than before. It remains a substantial correction. The correction for subjacent karst input to Cave Creek is also improved by putting the calculation in part on a seasonal basis; it remains small. The exposed solute load output shows the same seasonal pattern as was determined earlier, with a winter/spring maximum, and it again evinced much variation from year to year. So did annual rates. The mean annual loss of 29 B was slightly greater than for 1965-9. If this difference is real and not an experimental error, the reduced allowance for atmospheric salts and greater annual rainfall in the second period could explain the increase. This erosion rate of 29 B from an annual runoff of about 400mm places this karst where it would be expected in the world pattern of similar determinations in terms of both runoff and its proximity to the soil covered/bare karst dichotomy of Atkinson and Smith (1976). Combined with the other work at Cooleman Plain on erosion at specific kinds of site, an estimate of the spatial distribution of the limestone solution is presented. It agrees well with the similar attempt for Mendip by Atkinson and Smith (1976), when allowance is made for certain differences in method and context. The main conclusions are the great role of solution in the superficial zone and the unimportance of the contribution from caves. Conflict between this process study and the geomorphic history of Cooleman Plain remains and once again an explanation is sought in long persistence of a Tertiary ironstone cover inhibiting surface solution.


Hydrogologie karstique des Alpes-Maritimes, 1984, Baissas, P.
Karst hydrogeology in the Alpes-Maritimes - In the Marguareis, the systems penetrate very quickly by transverse faults, to reach the impermeable basement and then follow the dip. All the waters, even those on the French side, belong to the P basin. In the Roya arc, underflows are to be found going round the base of the Argentera-Mercantour. In the Nice arc, the karstification depends principally on tectonic factors and according to the places, the water follows either the overlaps or transverse faults. In the Grasse plateaus, the galleries follow at the outset the slopes and the dips of the synclinal hinges; the tectonic factors determine the location of the resurgences ; at depth, the karst is always phreatic, with relations between tectonic compartments during floods. In the cover of the Tanneron-Esterel basement and Barrot Dome, lithological factors determine flow.

Le Vercors : un massif de la moyenne montagne alpine, 1984, Delannoy, J. J.
THE VERCORS: A MASSIF OF MIDDLE ALPINE MOUNTAIN - The Vercors is a forested massif of middle mountain, in the French Northern Prealps. The characteristic of the Vercors massif is the thick and massif urgonian limestones, which underlines a folded structure. The Vercors quickly hold the attention of speleologists, who had put forward the density and diversity of karstic aspects since the beginning of the century. Landforms display glacial karstic landscapes more or less damaged in terms of bio-climatic levels of mounts and depressions landscapes and of deep water gaps, which main flows of the massif are flowing in. The notion of the morphoclimatic heritage applies to the underground karst for which glacial quaternary episodes have been determinant in the large systems genesis (gouffre Berger - Scialet de la Fromagre, Antre des Damns, Combe de Fer...). The study of underground deposits allows to bring up-to-date various period of karst development; a preglacial stage (e.g. upper levels of Cuves de Sassenage, Gournier, Coufin-Chevaline...). The study of the current dynamic shows that the Vercors as an important karstic ablation, between 120 to 170mm/ky. The karstic dynamic exerts mainly on the superficial slab of the massif (from 80 to 50% of the whole ablation). The Vercors can be considered as the best example of calcareous massif in temperate middle mountains, thanks to the combination of various favourable parameters: pure karst rocks, morpho-climatic episodes not constraining, and a high karstic dynamic.

Traits gnraux de l'hydrologie karstique en Basse Cvenne, 1984, Fabre, G.
GENERAL FEATURES OF KARSTIC HYDROLOGY IN BASSE CEVENNE (FRANCE) - N to the town of Als (SE Massif Central and Cvennes), a very fractured carbonated belt outcrops. The karst concerns some facies of Trias, Lias-Dogger, Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous. Karstic flows are of two types: toward W, convergent to the important springs of la Tour-Dauthunes, and toward E and divergent. Ggeneral characteristics are presented. Economic aspect is pointed out, just as karstic stream piracy.

Grottes de lave et volcano-karst de surface dans la rgion basaltique du Golan (lsral), 1984, Inbar, M.
Lava caves and surface volcano-karst features in the basaltic area of the Golan Heights (Isral) - Caves are formed endogenically as lava tubes and exogenically by erosion of the interlayer lava flows; calcitic speleothems are found in the basaltic caves. Surface depressions may have been formed by collapsed caves or by volcanic explosions. The drainage density is low and surface morphology locally resembles karst karren fields.

The hydraulics of conduit flow in carbonate aquifers., 1984, Gale S. J.

Analysis of the morphology of dissolution-bedform assemblages and hydraulically-transported sediments found within conduits in carbonate aquifers in North America and the British Isles has allowed the hydraulic conditions under which conduit flows occur to be established. Mean values of flow velocity, boundary-shear stress, conduit Reynolds number, conduit Froude number, boundary friction factor, boundary roughness and flow power have been calculated. The values obtained are in agreement with other evidence in the conduits and are comparable to those obtained from other, similar, hydraulic systems.


Le systme souterrain de la Dent de Crolles, Isre, 1985, Marchand, Th.
THE UNDERGROUND SYSTEM OF DENT DE CROLLES (ISERE, FRANCE) - The Dent de Crolles plateau (highest point: 2062m asl.) is the southermost part of the great syncline of the eastern Chartreuse. This syncline stretches from Grenoble to Mont Granier, above Chambery. The karst of Dent de Crolles develops in urgonian limestone, and in spite of little surface (2km2), it contains the most important underground system of the French Alps (about 52km). In spite of important oceanic rainfall, underground flows only drain some small galleries. Karst genesis is related to the glaciers.

Originalit karstique de l'Atlas atlantique marocain, 1985, Weisrock, A.
THE ATLANTIC ATLAS (MOROCCO): A DISTINCTLY KARSTIC REGION - The Atlantic Atlas is a semiarid mountain, which owes to its proximity of the ocean a winter moisture above 1000 m, with watersheets and at times perennial flows. The main karstic landforms are however inherited of damper tertiary and quaternary periods. These forms were developed in relation to particular structural conditions, because the Atlantic Atlas uplifted during a tertiary orogenesis, which folded the sedimentary jurassic and cretaceous material of an atlantic basin (basin of the Haha). Among the most original results of this evolution, we can find curious tower-like lands-cape of dolomitic high-plateaus, numerous cylindrical pits (ouggar), lines of funnel-shaped dolines (ouddirh) and underground karstic river systems, the longest in North-Africa known to day. On the greater part of the Maha Plateau, remnants of an ancient karstification are masked by plio-moghrebian deposits. The latter are also full of dolines and poljes. In the same way, littoral karstic forms and calcareous deposits (calcrests and travertines) show the continuation of limestone dissolution.

Allophane Flowstone from Newton Cave, Western Washington State, 1985, Webb John A. , Finlayson Brian L.

Shallow-marine carbonate facies and facies models, 1985, Tucker M. E. ,
Shallow-marine carbonate sediments occur in three settings: platforms, shelves and ramps. The facies patterns and sequences in these settings are distinctive. However, one type of setting can develop into another through sedimentational or tectonic processes and, in the geologic record, intermediate cases are common. Five major depositional mechanisms affect carbonate sediments, giving predictable facies sequences: (1) tidal flat progradation, (2) shelf-marginal reef progradation, (3) vertical accretion of subtidal carbonates, (4) migration of carbonate sand bodies and (5) resedimentation processes, especially shoreface sands to deeper subtidal environments by storms and off-shelf transport by slumps, debris flows and turbidity currents. Carbonate platforms are regionally extensive environments of shallow subtidal and intertidal sedimentation. Storms are the most important source of energy, moving sediment on to shoreline tidal flats, reworking shoreface sands and transporting them into areas of deeper water. Progradation of tidal flats, producing shallowing upward sequences is the dominant depositional process on platforms. Two basic types of tidal flat are distinguished: an active type, typical of shorelines of low sediment production rates and high meteorologic tidal range, characterized by tidal channels which rework the flats producing grainstone lenses and beds and shell lags, and prominent storm layers; and a passive type in areas of lower meteorologic tidal range and higher sediment production rates, characterized by an absence of channel deposits, much fenestral and cryptalgal peloidal micrite, few storm layers and possibly extensive mixing-zone dolomite. Fluctuations in sea-level strongly affect platform sedimentation. Shelves are relatively narrow depositional environments, characterized by a distinct break of slope at the shelf margin. Reefs and carbonate sand bodies typify the turbulent shelf margin and give way to a shelf lagoon, bordered by tidal flats and/or a beach-barrier system along the shoreline. Marginal reef complexes show a fore-reef--reef core--back reef facies arrangement, where there were organisms capable of producing a solid framework. There have been seven such phases through the Phanerozoic. Reef mounds, equivalent to modern patch reefs, are very variable in faunal composition, size and shape. They occur at shelf margins, but also within shelf lagoons and on platforms and ramps. Four stages of development can be distinguished, from little-solid reef with much skeletal debris through to an evolved reef-lagoon-debris halo system. Shelf-marginal carbonate sand bodies consist of skeletal and oolite grainstones. Windward, leeward and tide-dominated shelf margins have different types of carbonate sand body, giving distinctive facies models. Ramps slope gently from intertidal to basinal depths, with no major change in gradient. Nearshore, inner ramp carbonate sands of beach-barrier-tidal delta complexes and subtidal shoals give way to muddy sands and sandy muds of the outer ramp. The major depositional processes are seaward progradation of the inner sand belt and storm transport of shoreface sand out to the deep ramp. Most shallow-marine carbonate facies are represented throughout the geologic record. However, variations do occur and these are most clearly seen in shelf-margin facies, through the evolutionary pattern of frame-building organisms causing the erratic development of barrier reef complexes. There have been significant variations in the mineralogy of carbonate skeletons, ooids and syn-sedimentary cements through time, reflecting fluctuations in seawater chemistry, but the effect of these is largely in terms of diagenesis rather than facies

Abstract: Benua Cave, Keriaka Plateau, Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea, 1985, Wood, Ian D.

Benua Cave is situated in the Keriaka Limestone plateau above the west coast of Bougainville Island. It was first reported by pilots during World War II and first visited speleologically by Fred Parker in 1963. The North Solomons Cave Exploration Group made a three day visit to the cave in order to make an accurate survey. The cave consists of a single chamber, 470m along its longest length with a maximum width of 150m and height of 170m. A river estimated at 3 m3.s-1 rises at the foot of a 100m sheer wall and flows out of the entrance. The cave contains an 18m tall stalagmite of impressive proportions. Side passages can be seen at high level but would require mechanical aids to reach. (The full text of this paper will appear in Australian Caver)


Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis of Artificial and Natural Substrates from the Phantom Flowstone of Sulphur River in Parker Cave, Kentucky, 1988, Olson Rick A. , Thompson D. Bruce

Les karsts de l'avant-pays alpin au nord des Alpes occidentales, 1989, Chardon, M.
Karsts of the alpine foreland north to the French Western Alps: glacial origin of the underground systems - Karstic mountains are described between Rhne valley and the border of Northern Alps. The influence of quaternary glaciers is evident for surface landforms and the existence of inactive canyons can be explained only by glacial outflows. Large underground caves and systems such as La Balme, Les Echelles, contain numerous blocks and pebbles of alpine rocks. Except in some places of the alpine mountains, the pre-quaternary karstic evolution cannot be investigated. Now the rate of karstic corrosion is too low and waters are unable to produce large caves. Only the mechanical action of whirling glacial flows in some pre-determinated places can explain the presence of large caves in these low karstic mountains. The formation of these kind of caves can be correlated with the existence of the actual canyons and defils along this part of the Rhne river.

Le karst jurassique du rebord subalpin dans les Alpes-Maritimes, 1989, Mangan, C.
Jurassic karst of the subalpine area in Maritime Alps Department (France) - The jurassic carbonated sediments represent the principal karst aquifer in front of the alpine range. This area is subdivided in three different sectors by the tectonic and paleogeographic evolution: subalpine arc of Castellane (Grasse Prealps), subalpine arc of Nice, Provence foreland. Through the comparative study of these areas, it appears a real diversity about the karst evolution, the geometry about the karst evolution, the geometry of waters reservoirs, the distribution of the underground flows, and therefore about the water supply and exploitation.

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