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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That vadose seepage is see percolation, percolation water.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for watering (Keyword) returned 32 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 32
The future of the dolomitic springs after mine closure on the Far West Rand, Gauteng, RSA, 2003, Swart C. J. U. , James A. R. , Kleywegt R. J. , Stoch E. J. ,
Approximately 1.2 km of dolomitic limestone overlies the Far West Rand gold reefs southwest of Johannesburg, South Africa. This karst aquifer is partitioned into several groundwater compartments by predominantly north-south trending syenite dykes. Prior to mining, the primary water flow was westwards, decanting over dyke boundaries as a succession of springs along the Lower Wonderfontein Spruit. Dewatering of the overlying dolomitic aquifer for safety and economic reasons by deep gold mining operations, caused the water levels of four compartments to drop and their respective springs to dry up. By perforating dykes, formerly separated aquifers were hydraulically interconnected by mining. Using historical and recent data of water flow-surface and groundwater-and pumping rates, a geohydrological model is presented. The results suggest that the water tables will rise to their pre-mining levels within 30 years after mining ceases and that the dry springs will flow again, despite the compartments being connected by the extensive mining operations

Recent results of the dye tracer tests of the Chocholowskie Vaucluse Spring karst system (Western Tatra Mts.), 2004, Barczyk G,
The region of the Bobrowiec Massif, crucial in underground flows within the Chocholowski Stream catchment area, was not studied in details until the 50ies. The Chocholowskie Vaucluse Spring is recharged mainly by karst systems, including that of the Szczelina Chocholowska - Jaskinia Rybia caves. The remaining 20% of water in the system comes from surface waters of the Chocholowski Stream. First successful dye tests were conducted on this system in 1971/1972. The paper presents data and interpretation of the recent dye-tracer experiments for the Chocholowskie Vaucluse Spring recharge area. The results of these tests prove that the connection between the Szczelina Chocholowska - Rybia caves karst system and the Chocholowskie Vaucluse Spring is of a karst-fissure character. This hydraulic connection is a typical example of a sub-channel circulation, where flow through a karst-fissure system takes place beneath the bottom of an existing river channel. Comparing the time of dye flow through the system with water stages indicates that the system of fissures linking the sinkhole zone with the vaucluse spring is at least three fold. The inverse relation between watermark stands reflecting the degree of watering in the massif and the time, at which dye penetrates the system, is also distinctly visible

Dolomites in SE Asia -- varied origins and implications for hydrocarbon exploration, 2004, Carnell Ajh, Wilson Mej,
Carbonates in SE Asia range in age from Palaeozoic to Recent, but are most important as reservoirs in the Neogene where they comprise a major target for hydrocarbon exploration (e.g. Batu Raja Formation, South Sumatra, Sunda and Northwest Java basins). Carbonates of pre-Tertiary, Palaeogene and Neogene age all show a strong diagenetic overprint in which dolomite occurs as both cementing and replacive phases associated with variable reservoir quality. This paper reviews published data on the occurrence and types of dolomites in SE Asian carbonates, and considers the models that have been used to explain the distribution and origin of dolomite within these rocks. Pre-Tertiary carbonates form part of the economic basement, and are little studied and poorly understood. Although some, such as in the Manusela Formation of Seram, may form possible hydrocarbon reservoirs, most are not considered to form economic prospects. They are best known from the platform carbonates of the Ratburi and Saraburi groups. in Thailand, and the oolitic grainstones of the Manusela Formation of Seram. The Ratburi Group shows extensive dolomitization with dolomite developed as an early replacive phase and as a late-stage cement. Palaeogene carbonates are widely developed in the region and are most commonly developed as extensive foraminifera-dominated carbonate shelfal systems around the margins of Sundaland (e.g. Tampur Formation, North Sumatra Basin and Tonasa Formation, Sulawesi) and the northern margins of Australia and the Birds Head microcontinent (e.g. Faumai Formation, Salawati Basin). Locally, carbonates of this age may form hydrocarbon reservoirs. Dolomite is variably recorded in these carbonates and the Tampur Formation, for example, contains extensive xenotopic dolomite. Neogene carbonates (e.g. Peutu Formation, North Sumatra) are commonly areally restricted, reef-dominated and developed in mixed carbonate-siliciclastic systems. They most typically show a strong diagenetic overprint with leaching, recrystallization, cementation and dolomitization all widespread. Hydrocarbon reservoirs are highly productive and common in carbonates of this age. Dolomite is variably distributed and its occurrence has been related to facies, karstification, proximity to carbonate margins and faults. The distribution and origin of the dolomite has been attributed to mixing-zone dolomitization (commonly in association with karstic processes), sulphate reduction via organic matter oxidation, and dewatering from the marine mudstones that commonly envelop the carbonate build-up. Dolomite has a variable association with reservoir quality in the region, and when developed as a replacive phase tends to be associated with improved porosity and permeability characteristics. This is particularly the case where it is developed as an early fabric-retentive phase. Cementing dolomite is detrimental to reservoir quality, although the extent of this degradation generally reflects the abundance and distribution of this dolomite. Dolomitization is also inferred to have influenced the distribution of non-hydrocarbon gases. This is best documented in North Sumatra where carbon dioxide occurs in quantities ranging from 0 to 85%. There are a number of possible mechanisms for generating this CO2 (e.g. mantle degassing), although the most likely source is considered to be the widely dolomitized Eocene Tampur Formation that forms effective basement for much of the basin. High heat flows are suggested to have resulted in the thermogenic decomposition of dolomite with CO2 produced as a by-product

Origin of Meter-Scale Submarine Cavities and Herringbone Calcite Cement in a Cambrian Microbial Reef, Ledger Formation (U.S.A.), 2004, De Wet Cb, Frey Hm, Gaswirth Sb, Mora Ci, Rahnis M, Bruno Cr,
Meter-scale submarine cavities in Middle Cambrian shelf-margin microbial reef strata indicate large-scale dewatering processes, in conjunction with substrate instability related to interreef channeling and shelf-edge downslope creep and slip. Syndepositional cement precipitation within the cavities preserved delicate microbial fabrics and stabilized the reef system. Radiaxial fibrous calcite and herringbone calcite cements line the cavity interiors isopachously. The two phases cannot be discriminated on the basis of Fe, Mn, or Sr contents, but do have different isotopic signatures. Slightly more negative {delta}13C values in herringbone calcite suggest that abrupt transitions between radiaxial fibrous and herringbone calcite cement are the result of rapid and repeated changes in pore-fluid oxygen levels. Storm-driven pore-water circulation renewed oxygenated seawater flow into the cavities, resulting in precipitation of radiaxial fibrous calcite. A threshold level of oxygen reduction resulted in the change to herringbone calcite precipitation. The pore fluids associated with herringbone calcite did not have elevated Mn or Fe concentrations, as suggested in previous studies. Herringbone calcite appears to be more susceptible to diagenetic alteration than radiaxial fibrous cement however, as indicated by greater resetting of oxygen isotope values

Methane discharge into the Black Sea and the global ocean via fluid flow through submarine mud volcanoes, 2006, Wallmann Klaus, Drews Manuela, Aloisi Giovanni, Bohrmann Gerhard,
During the MARGASCH cruise M52/1 in 2001 with RV Meteor we sampled surface sediments from three stations in the crater of the Dvurechenskii mud volcano (DMV, located in the Sorokin Trough of the Black Sea) and one reference station situated 15[no-break space]km to the northeast of the DMV. We analysed the pore water for sulphide, methane, alkalinity, sulphate, and chloride concentrations and determined the concentrations of particulate organic carbon, carbonate and sulphur in surface sediments. Rates of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) were determined using a radiotracer (14CH4) incubation method. Numerical transport-reaction models were applied to derive the velocity of upward fluid flow through the quiescently dewatering DMV, to calculate rates of AOM in surface sediments, and to determine methane fluxes into the overlying water column. According to the model, AOM consumes 79% of the average methane flux from depth (8.9 [middle dot] 10 6[no-break space]mol a- 1), such that the resulting dissolved methane emission from the volcano into the overlying bottom water can be determined as 1.9 [middle dot] 10 6[no-break space]mol a- 1. If it is assumed that all submarine mud volcanoes (SMVs) in the Black Sea are at an activity level like the DMV, the resulting seepage represents less than 0.1% of the total methane flux into this anoxic marginal sea. The new data from the DMV and previously published studies indicate that an average SMV emits about 2.0 [middle dot] 10 6[no-break space]mol a- 1 into the ocean via quiescent dewatering. The global flux of dissolved methane from SMVs into the ocean is estimated to fall into the order of 10 10[no-break space]mol a- 1. Additional methane fluxes arise during periods of active mud expulsion and gas bubbling occurring episodically at the DMV and other SMVs

Management of karst water resources in mining area: dewatering in mines and demand for water supply in the Dongshan Mine of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, North China, 2006, Wu Qiang, Zhou Wanfang, Li Duo, Di Zhiqiang, Miao Ying,

Valorisation patrimoniale et dynamiques territoriales autour dun site karstique emblmatique : le polj de Cerknica (Slovnie), 2007, Duval M.
HERITAGE VALORIZATION AND TERRITORIAL DYNAMICS AROUND AN EMBLEMATIC KARSTIC SITE: THE POLJE OF CERKNICA (SLOVENIA). Centered on the polje of Cerknica (Slovenia), this paper proposes a sociogeographic approach of a karstic site considered as emblematic.We will deal with the question in which measure the site of Cerknica is marked by construction works as opposed to the heritage valorization of its physical, faunistic and floristic characteristics. In fact, the polje of Cerknica is emblematic in many points of view! It became a scientific curiosity already in early times. From the XVIth century, the functioning of its temporary lake raises questions to the European scientific community, which tries to explain the mystery of the lake of Cerknica. This fascination for the polje of Cerknica contributed gradually to the perception as "haut lieu" of Slovenian and paneuropean karstic landscapes. At the same time, the polje of Cerknica became the heart of the local life space: the seasonal variations of the waterlevel allow the inhabitants of the neighborhood to satisfy their needs. Therefore, the polje of Cerknica also became emblematic because of the complementarity of the economic activities which it allows. This atypical dimension can be found again while reading about the oversized projects of development conceived for the polje: dewatering for the needs of agriculture, permanent lake to produce hydro-electricity or to build a tourist complex, are only some of the many projects which marked the XXth century and contributed to highlight the features of this karstic site. Scientific curiosity, place of resource for the local populations, object of economic greeds, the polje is today marked by heritage valorization. The creation of a regional park allows the local stakeholders to assert their legitimations, to mark their territory and to think about their future in terms of sustainable development.

Sails: a new gypsum speleothem from Naica, Chihuahua, Mexico., 2007, Forti Paolo, Bernabei Tullio, Villasuso Roberto
The caves of Naica (Chihuahua, Mexico) are perhaps the most famous mine caves of the world due to the presence of gigantic gypsum crystals. Nevertheless, very little research has been carried out on this karst area until now. A multidisciplinary investigation started in 2006 with the aim not only to define the genesis and the age of the Naica gypsum crystals, but also on other scientific aspects of these caves. This paper describes a completely new type of gypsum speleothem: the sails, observed only inside the Cueva de las Velas, one of the caves of the Naica system. This speleothem consists of extremely thin, elongated skeleton crystals that have grown epitaxially only on the tips of the gypsum crystals pointing upward. The genesis of sails is strictly related to the environmental conditions set up inside the cave just after the artificial lowering of the groundwater by mine dewatering (less than 20 yr ago). In a few years sail speleothems will disappear entirely and therefore this study is fundamental to preserve at least the memory of them.

Sails: a new gypsum speleothem from Naica, Chihuahua, Mexico, 2007, Forti Paolo, Bernabei Tullio And Villasuso Roberto
The caves of Naica (Chihuahua, Mexico) are perhaps the most famous mine caves of the world due to the presence of gigantic gypsum crystals. Nevertheless, very little research has been carried out on this karst area until now. A multidisciplinary investigation started in 2006 with the aim not only to define the genesis and the age of the Naica gypsum crystals, but also on other scientific aspects of these caves. This paper describes a completely new type of gypsum speleothem: the sails, observed only inside the Cueva de las Velas, one of the caves of the Naica system. This speleothem consists of extremely thin, elongated skeleton crystals that have grown epitaxially only on the tips of the gypsum crystals pointing upward. The genesis of sails is strictly related to the environmental conditions set up inside the cave just after the artificial lowering of the groundwater by mine dewatering (less than 20 yr ago). In a few years sail speleothems will disappear entirely and therefore this study is fundamental to preserve at least the memory of them.

The environmental features of the Monte Corchia cave system (Apuan Alps, Central Italy) and their effects on speleothem growth, 2008, Piccini L. , Zanchetta G. , Drysdale R. N. , Hellstrom J. , Isola I. , Fallick A. E. , Leone G. , Doveri M. , Mussi M. , Mantelli F. , Molli G. , Lotti L. , Roncioni A. , Regattieri E. , Meccheri M. , Vaselli L.
The Monte Corchia cave system, one of the most famous and popular caves in Italy, has in recent times been the subject of investigation on its speleothems as paleoclimate archives. This paper describes the geology, geomorphology and water chemistry of the cave system with the aim to elucidate the processes that have generated these speleothems and the properties they contain that are so useful for paleoclimatology. Some general conclusions can be drawn: i) the Corchia system is a cave developed over different altitudes during progressive uplift of the mountain chain in which it is located, probably under drainage conditions very different to those of the present. This has allowed the development of a large (ca. 60 km) and deep (-1187 m) karst system; ii) the dewatering phases have left the deepest chambers far away from clastic input and with long drip pathways; iii) the peculiar geological context has permitted the water to intercept and dissolve a significant source of U (still unknown) that facilitates radiometric dating; iv) in the last 1 Ma at least, no significant changes have occurred in the relief and in the epikarst, in the sense that speleothems have grown under very similar conditions. In addition the extremely low Ca concentration of drip waters have permitted low speleothem growth rates and, at least for the Galleria delle Stalattiti, the zone under paleoclimate studies, a stable plumbing system (i.e. chemistry and stable isotopes of drip waters) has produced calcite close to isotopic equilibrium.

The environmental features of the Monte Corchia cave system (Apuan Alps, central Italy) and their effects on speleothems growth, 2008, Piccini L. , Zanchetta G. , Drysdale R. N. , Hellstrom J. , Isola I. , Fallick A. E. , Leone G. , Doveri M. , Mussi M. , Mantelli F. , Molli G. , Lotti L. , Roncioni A. , Regattieri E. , Meccheri M. , Vaselli L.

The Monte Corchia cave system, one of the most famous and popular caves in Italy, has in recent times been the subject of investigation on its speleothems as paleoclimate archives. This paper describes the geology, geomorphology and water chemistry of the cave system with the aim to elucidate the processes that have generated these speleothems and the properties they contain that are so useful for paleoclimatology. Some general conclusions can be drawn: i) the Corchia system is a cave developed over different altitudes during progressive uplift of the mountain chain in which it is located, probably under drainage conditions very different to those of the present. This has allowed the development of a large (ca. 60 km) and deep (-1187 m) karst system; ii) the dewatering phases have left the deepest chambers far away from clastic input and with long drip pathways; iii) the peculiar geological context has permitted the water to intercept and dissolve a significant source of U (still unknown) that facilitates radiometric dating; iv) in the last 1 Ma at least, no significant changes have occurred in the relief and in the epikarst, in the sense that speleothems have grown under very similar conditions. In addition the extremely low Ca concentration of drip waters have permitted low speleothem growth rates and, at least for the “Galleria delle Stalattiti”, the zone under paleoclimate studies, a stable plumbing system (i.e. chemistry and stable isotopes of drip waters) has produced calcite close to isotopic equilibrium.


Fluid flow reconstruction in karstified Panormide platform limestones (north-central Sicily): Implications for hydrocarbon prospectivity in the Sicilian fold and thrust belt, 2010, Dewever B. , Berwouts I. , Swennen R. , Breesch L. , Ellam R. M.

Diagenetic analysis based on field and petrographic observations, isotope and microthermometric data was used to reconstruct the fluid flow history of the Cretaceous shallow water limestones from the Panormide platform exposed in north-central Sicily. Analysis focused on diagenetic products in cavities and dissolution enlarged fractures of the karstified limestones that occur just below a regional unconformity. The fluid flow history could be broken down into five stages that were linked to the kinematic and burial history of the region. (1) Petrography (zoned cathodoluminescence and speleothem textures) and stable isotopes (6.5 PDB &/Tm_2 to _5 _C), but at increasingly higher temperatures (Th 60–120 _C). This has been interpreted as precipitation during Oligocene foredeep burial. (4) Hot (Th 130–180 _C), low saline (Tm he low salinity and relatively high d18OSMOW signatures of the fluids are interpreted to be the result of clay dewatering reactions. The presence of bitumen and associated fluorite with hydrocarbon inclusions at this stage in the paragenesis constrains the timing of oil migration in the region. (5) Finally, high saline fluids with elevated 87Sr/86Sr (0.7095–0.7105) signatures invaded the karst system. This last fluid flow event was possibly coeval with localized dolomitization and calcite cementation along high-angle faults of Pliocene age, as suggested by identical radiogenic signatures of these diagenetic products.


Active Erosion of Flat Interfluve Summits Above the Multi-storey Artesian Ozark Aquifer , 2010, Elfrink, N. M.

Migrating regional ground water divides can create unstable zones of relatively stagnant flow in upland areas. Unlike traditional upland ground water divides, the process of flow reversal causes these zones to reject recharge. Artesian pressure surfaces limit the downward infiltration of precipitation and form the subenvelope above which ground water sapping can create a ‘peneplain’ (Stearns, 1967). Only regolith and rock above the pressure surface subenvelope is available for epigenic erosion. Inertia is eventually overcome and ground water circulation substantially increases as hydraulically-advantaged, ‘entrenched’ river systems capture the isolated packets of stagnant ground water. As artesian pressure is lost in the upper story, losing streams form. The losing streams may eventually be consumed by the steep slopes of an entrenching stream, thus completing the reversal of flow. Water level data suggest that the dewatering of stagnant divide areas can be hastened by distant earthquakes.

A variety of observations in Missouri, including recent studies using heat pulse flow meters, show that pressurized sandstone aquifers are widespread beneath upland divides and at surprisingly high elevations. The ground water in the sandstones is confined by relatively tight carbonates. Ground water leaves these confined aquifers by slowly percolating upward through the confining carbonate into shallow bedrock fractures. Storm events then flush shallow mineral-laden ground water into surface streams, which is why floodwaters tend to be dominated by ground water (Frederickson & Criss, 1999). In the major valleys, transverse speleogenesis reverses the hydraulic role of the carbonate beds (Klimchouk, 2003). Classic artesian hydrology generally ignores these mechanisms and cannot explain why most large Ozark caves are associated with sandstones. Unlike classic artesian systems, artesian aquifers in the Ozarks typically lack a marginal recharge zone. Artesian pressures are maintained by ongoing vertical movements. A subsidence rate of approximately 1 mm/yr in the Northern Mississippi Embayment (Calais, 2008) would cause the Ozark ground water divide to migrate to the north and west at approximately 0.7 meter per year, assuming a constant gradient. Flat interfluve summits form as the flow reversal process unfolds.

Once thought to be remnants of ancient peneplains formed near sea-level, isotopic evidence now indicates that modern Ozark summits are actually being sapped by relatively shallow but significant zones of chemical migration. The flat summit surfaces and the steep stream valleys form simultaneously as the landscape is lowered and drainages are rearranged. There is no need to postulate the prior existence of a low elevation peneplain. The uppermost artesian pressure surface acts as the base level, not sea level. Flat interfluve surfaces can form at any elevation, depending on hydrologic conditions. The summit surfaces appear flat because they are essentially created by a regional ground water surface that is widespread and relatively flat.


Surface and subsurface drainage evolution of the Corfino and Soraggio Karst areas (Tuscany, Italy), 2011, Mariannelli Giampaolo, Piccini Leonardo

The Pania di Corfino and Ripa di Soraggio are two minor karst areas in Tuscany, having a surface of only 11 km2, but contain more than 100 known caves. Some caves are old epi-phreatic passages testifying to a discontinuous lowering of base level in the two major valleys that cross the carbonate outcrops: the Serchio di Soraggio and the Fiume rivers, respectively located along the NW and SE borders of the massif. The spatial-altimetric distribution of major caves, which are found on a vertical range of a few hundreds of meters, and their relationships with the position of surface alluvial deposits have allowed to infer a first evolutionary framework of karst during the late Quaternary. If we refer to a simple model, where fluvial deposition occurs mainly during cold stages and incision during warm stages, the discrete distribution of cave passages suggests that the different epi-phreatic phases are the responses to the alternation of cold and warm periods. In any case, the re-organization of the river network induced by the tectonic uplift had a relevant effect on cave systems. First, the underground diversion of surface drainage enhanced the downcutting of NW and SE peripheral streams, which received a larger quantity of water through karst springs due to the favored morpho-structural setting. Successively, the backward piracy of the allogenic catchments of the karst systems by surface tributaries led to the dewatering of caves and to the present situation.


Karst, Uranium, Gold and Water Lessons from South Africa for Reconciling Mining Activities and Sustainable Water Use in Semi-arid Karst Areas: A Case Study, 2011, Winde, Frank

Despite the fact that much of the water stored in dams and reservoirs is lost to the atmosphere due to prevailing semi-arid conditions, South Africa traditionally relies mainly on surface water. Owing to an ever increasing demand that approaches the limits of economically exploitable surface water, the focus increasingly shifts towards groundwater as a long neglected resource. In this context, dolomitic karst aquifers that store large volumes of water protected from evaporation in vast underground cavities are of particular importance. This even more so as some of these aquifers are located in highly industrialised and densely populated areas such as the Gauteng Province, where water demand by far exceeds local supply and necessitates the expensive import of water from catchments as far as Lesotho. However, owing to impacts related to the century-old, deep-level gold mining that initiated South Africa’s economic development, many of the karst aquifers are currently not usable. Using the Far West Rand goldfield as an example, the extent, type and magnitude of mining-related impacts on dolomitic karst aquifers are analysed. This includes impacts on the geohydrological conditions in the area as well as water availability and ground stability associated with the large-scale dewatering of dolomitic aquifers that overly mine workings. Of particular concern is the mining-related contamination of groundwater and surface water with uranium which accompanies gold in most of the mined ore bodies. Finally, possible scenarios for water-related impacts of future mine closure are outlined and associated research needs identified. 


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