Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That capillary water is 1. water held in the soil above the phreatic surface by capillary forces [22]. 2. soil water above hydroscopic moisture and below the field capacity [22].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?

Search KARSTBASE:

keyword
author

Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for spectroscopy (Keyword) returned 33 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 33
The impact of host rock geochemistry on bacterial community structure in oligotrophic cave environments., 2007, Barton Hazel A. , Taylor Nicholas M. , Kreate Michael P. , Springer Austin C. , Oehrle Stuart A, Bertog Janet L.
Despite extremely starved conditions, caves contain surprisingly diverse microbial communities. Our research is geared toward understanding what ecosystems drivers are responsible for this high diversity. To asses the effect of rock fabric and mineralogy, we carried out a comparative geomicrobiology study within Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico, USA. Samples were collected from two different geologic locations within the cave: WF1 in the Massive Member of the Capitan Formation and sF88 in the calcareous siltstones of the Yates Formation. We examined the organic content at each location using liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy and analyzed microbial community structure using molecular phylogenetic analyses. In order to assess whether microbial activity was leading to changes in the bedrock at each location, the samples were also examined by petrology, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Our results suggest that on the chemically complex Yates Formation (sF88), the microbial community was significantly more diverse than on the limestone surfaces of the Capitan (WF1), despite a higher total number of cells on the latter. Further, the broader diversity of bacterial species at sF88 reflected a larger range of potential metabolic capabilities, presumably due to opportunities to use ions within the rock as nutrients and for chemolithotrophic energy production. The use of these ions at sF88 is supported by the formation of a corrosion residue, presumably through microbial scavenging activities. Our results suggest that rock fabric and mineralogy may be an important driver of ecosystem function and should be carefully reviewed when carrying out microbial community analysis in cave environments.

The impact of host rock geochemistry on bacterial community structure in oligotrophic cave environments, 2007, Barton H. A. , Taylor N. M. , Kreate M. P. , Springer A. C. , Oehrle S. A. , Bertog J. L.

Despite extremely starved conditions, caves contain surprisingly diverse microbial communities. Our research is geared toward understanding what ecosystems drivers are responsible for this high diversity. To asses the effect of rock fabric and mineralogy, we carried out a comparative geomicrobiology study within Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico, USA. Samples were collected from two different geologic locations within the cave: WF1 in the Massive Member of the Capitan Formation and sF88 in the calcareous siltstones of the Yates Formation. We examined the organic content at each location using liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy and analyzed microbial community structure using molecular phylogenetic analyses. In order to assess whether microbial activity was leading to changes in the bedrock at each location, the samples were also examined by petrology, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Our results suggest that on the chemically complex Yates Formation (sF88), the microbial community was significantly more diverse than on the limestone surfaces of the Capitan (WF1), despite a higher total number of cells on the latter. Further, the broader diversity of bacterial species at sF88
reflected a larger range of potential metabolic capabilities, presumably due to opportunities to use ions within the rock as nutrients and for chemolithotrophic energy production. The use of these ions at sF88 is supported by the formation of a corrosion residue, presumably through microbial scavenging activities. Our results suggest that rock fabric and mineralogy may be an important driver of ecosystem function and should be carefully reviewed when carrying out microbial community analysis in cave environments.


THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CAVE MINERALS AND H2S RICH THERMAL WATERS ALONG THE CERNA VALLEY (SW ROMANIA), 2009, Onac Bogdan P. , Sumrall Jonathan, Tamas Tudor, Povara Ioan, Kearns Joe, Drmiceanu Veronica, Veres Daniel & Lascu Cristian
Within the Cerna Valley in southwestern Romania, over a 100 caves were formed in the Jurassic and Cretaceous limestone that outcrops on the valley walls. Three aspects are prominent when entering most of the caves in this region: the presence of considerable gypsum deposits, the amount of guano, and the cave temperature. High temperature anomalies are uncommon in the cave environment. In certain caves in the lower part of Cerna Valley, however, one can measure air temperatures as high as 40C. This situation is due to the presence of thermal water pooling or =owing through the caves or to the hot steam that rises along fractures from deeper thermal water pools. As a result, these caves provide a unique set of conditions that allowed for the deposition of a suite of unusual minerals. This study presents the results of fiftyy-seven mineral samples that were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, geochemical, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscope analyses with the scope of linking the cave minerals with likely hypo- gene speleogenetic processes. Here we document the occurrence of twenty-two secondary cave minerals, among which, apjonite and tamarugite are the first recorded occurrences in a limestone cave environment. The minerals fall into three distinct associations: sulfate-dominated (Diana Cave), phosphate-dominated (Adam Shaft), and sulfate-phosphate-nitrate-rich assemblage (Great Salitrari Cave). Additional isotopic measurements performed on sulfate speleothems contribute valuable information on both minerals and cave origins.

The mineralogy and trace element chemistry of black manganese oxide deposits from caves, 2009, White W. B. , Vito C. , And Scheetz B. E.

Free surface streams in caves and their surface infeeders often contain pebbles and cobbles coated with black manganese oxide minerals. Coating thicknesses vary from fractions of a millimeter to a few millimeters. In addition, a few caves contain loose masses of black oxide material. The results reported here are based on examination of 39 specimens and detailed chemical analyses of 18 of them. Most of the coatings are amorphous to x-rays, with at best, only a few broad diffraction lines. Infrared spectroscopy shows that most of the specimens are birnessite, with evidence for romanechite, ranceite, and pyrolusite in a few specimens. All specimens contain both iron and manganese, but the Mn/Fe ratio varies widely. Many specimens are enriched in Ba but depleted in Sr. The manganese and iron oxides contain the transition metals Co, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn in concentrations greater than 0.5 wt% in some specimens. Minor Cr and Mo also occur. Given the extremely low concentrations of these elements expected in freshwater streams in carbonate terrains, the manganese oxides exert a dramatic amplifying effect over the expected background. Manganese oxides appear to act as a dosimeter for heavy metals in karst waters.


The relationship between cave minerals and H2S rich thermal waters along the Cerna Valley (SW Romania), 2009, Onac Bogdan P. , Sumbrall Jonathan, Tamas Tudor, Povara Ioan, Kearns Joe, Darmiceanu Veronica, Veres Daniel, Lascu Cristian

Within the Cerna Valley in southwestern Romania, over a 100 caves were formed in the Jurassic and Cretaceous limestone that outcrops on the valley walls. Three aspects are prominent when entering most of the caves in this region: the presence of considerable gypsum deposits, the amount of guano, and the cave temperature. High temperature anomalies are uncommon in the cave environment. In certain caves in the lower part of Cerna Valley, however, one can measure air temperatures as high as 40°C. This situation is due to the presence of thermal water pooling or =owing through the caves or to the hot steam that rises along fractures from deeper thermal water pools. As a result, these caves provide a unique set of conditions that allowed for the deposition of a suite of unusual minerals. This study presents the results of fiftyy-seven mineral samples that were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, geochemical, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscope analyses with the scope of linking the cave minerals with likely hypo- gene speleogenetic processes. Here we document the occurrence of twenty-two secondary cave minerals, among which, apjonite and tamarugite are the first recorded occurrences in a limestone cave environment. The minerals fall into three distinct associations: sulfate-dominated (Diana Cave), phosphate-dominated (Adam Shaft), and sulfate-phosphate-nitrate-rich assemblage (Great Salitrari Cave). Additional isotopic measurements performed on sulfate speleothems contribute valuable information on both minerals and cave origins.


Thorium-uranium ratios of rocks and speleothems based on the high-resolution gamma-spectrometry, 2009, Gudzenko V. V.

Iron Oxide and Calcite Associated with Leptothrix sp. Biofilms within an Estavelle in the Upper Floridan Aquifer, 2011, Florea Lee J. , Stinson Chasity L. , Brewer Josh, Fowler Rick, Kearns B Joe, Greco Anthony M.

In Thornton’s Cave, an estavelle in west-central Florida, SEM, EDS, and XRD data reveal biofilms that are predominantly comprised of FeOOH-encrusted hollow sheaths that are overgrown and intercalated with calcite. Fragments of this crystalline biofilm adhere to the walls and ceiling as water levels vary within the cave. Those on the wall have a ‘cornflake’ appearance and those affixed to the ceiling hang as fibrous membranes. PCR of DNA in the active biofilm, combined with morphologic data from the tubes in SEM micrographs, point to Leptothrix sp., a common Fe-oxidizing bacteria, as the primary organism in the biofilm. Recent discoveries of ‘rusticles’ in other Florida caves suggest that Fe-oxidizing bacteria may reside elsewhere in Florida groundwater and may play a role in the mobility of trace metals in the Upper Florida aquifer.
SEM micrographs from two marble tablets submerged for five months, one exposed to microbial activity and a second isolated from microbial action, revealed no visible etchings or borings and very limited loss of mass. EDS data from the electron micrographs of the unfiltered tablet document the same FeOOH-encrusted hollow sheaths and similar deposits of calcite as seen in the ‘cornflakes’. These results, combined with water chemistry data imply that the biofilm may focus or even promote calcite precipitation during low-water level conditions when CO2 degasses from the cave pools.


Deterioration of the black Drenov Grič limestone on historical monuments (Ljubljana, Slovenia), 2011, Kramar Sabina, Mladenović, Ana, Pristacz Helmut, Mirtič, Breda

The black limestone from Drenov Grič quarry (Central Slove­nia) is considered one of the most beautiful Slovenian natural stones due to its typical color. The limestone was character­ized from mineralogical, chemical, and petrophysical points of view. Furthermore, deterioration phenomena of the limestone from two monuments exposed to indoor and outdoor environ­ments were studied. In situ investigation of two monuments by means of monument mapping has identified several types of deterioration phenomena, such as granular disintegration, flaking, crumbling, efflorescences, crusts, and the presence of microorganisms. Samples were characterized using Opti­cal Microscopy (OM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-Ray Powder Diffraction Analysis (XRD), porosity accessible to wa­ter under vacuum, capillary absorption, Mercury porosimetry (MIP), and Ar-sorption. Although very low values of porosity of the fresh stone as well as slow capillary kinetics were de­termined, both monuments showed severe deterioration as a consequence of the transport and precipitation of soluble salts within the stone.


Measurement of luminescent banding in speleothems: some techniques and limitations, 2012, Crowell Bryan E. , White William B.

Speleothems, especially flowstone and cylindrical stalagmites, exhibit phosphorescence which is often banded on the scale of a few tens of micrometers. The luminescence bands are paleoclimatic records with a very high temporal resolution. A technique has been developed using a laser source and a high resolution Raman spectrometer with microscope and computer-controlled translation stage for both luminescence profiles and luminescence spectroscopy. Luminescence intensity could be measured as a function of traverse distance with a spatial resolution of 2 – 3 μm. Potential sources of error include loss of intensity due to radiation damage by the laser beam, irregularities, cracks, and inclusions on the polished speleothem surface, and defocusing of the beam along the traverse path.


Organic matter of fossil origin in the amberine speleothems from El Soplao Cave (Cantabria, Northern Spain), 2012, Gzquez Fernando, Jose Maria Calaforra, Fernando Rull, Paolo Forti, And Antonio Garcacasco.

Unusual amberine-coloured speleothems were recently found in El Soplao Cave (Cantabria, Spain). Chromophore elements such as Fe, Mn, Cd, Co or Ti were not present in significant quantities. Rather, our data show that their colour comes from leachates of fossilized organic material hosted in the carbonaceous Urgonian facies of the host rock. These leachates are related to the Cretaceous amber deposit that has been recently discovered in the vicinity of El Soplao Cave. The presence of humic and fulvic acids of fossil origin were confirmed by IR and Raman spectroscopic analysis of the carbonaceous strata and the speleothems. In addition, the mineralogy of the amberine speleothems was studied. Alternating bands made of calcite and aragonite reveal that periods of humidity and aridity occurred within the cave during the speleothem genesis.


Hypogenic contribution to speleogenesis in a predominant epigenic karst system: A case study from the Venetian Alps, Italy, 2012, Tisato Nicola, Sauro Francesco, Bernasconi Stefano M. , Bruijn Rolf H. C. , De Waele Jo

Buso della Rana and Buso della Pisatela are two karstic caves located in north-east Italy. They are part of the same karst system and are developed in the Castelgomberto calcarenitic marine sediments, which were deposited in a shallow Caribbean-type sea during the Eocene. The Buso della Rana-Pisatela system developed mostly at the contact between the Castelgomberto calcarenite and underlying volcanic rocks. The system of caves is ~37 km long and has only three entrances, two of which are semi-artificial. The overlying karst plateau is not directly connected to the Buso della Rana-Pisatela system and, with the exception of one deep abyss, exhibits a rather poorly developed karst. This is unexpected considering the presence at depth of such a large and long cave. Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) has locally been observed on the walls of the Buso della Pisatela cave. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), performed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), reveals the presence of sulfur-bearing minerals within the host rock. Gypsum was formed by oxidation of these minerals as indicated by negative δ34S values. The oxidation of sulfide minerals forms a sulfuric-acid solution that dissolves the Castelgomberto calcarenite and, once it is oversaturated in calcium, precipitates as gypsum. The lack of well-developed karst on top of the plateau and the analyses suggest that the formation mechanisms for the Buso della Rana-Pisatela system differ from classical epigenic speleogenesis. The “pyrite-effect” has been recognized in other caves and described in literature. In our case pyrite is responsible of two hypo-speleogenetic processes: i) the dissolution of a portion of the host rock and ii) the enlargement of the karst voids as a consequence of the haloclastic effect.


Gypsum-carbonate speleothems from Cueva de las Espadas (Naica mine, Mexico): mineralogy and palaeohydrogeological implications, 2012, Gzquez Fernando, Calaforra Jos Maria, Forti Paolo, Rull Fernando, Martnezfras Jess

 

Some of the most outstanding hypogenic gypsum speleothems worldwide have been recently discovered in the Naica mines. The Cueva de las Espadas (Swords Cave), which lies at 120 m depth, hosts a rare type of speleothem called “espada” (“sword”). This study contributes to the understanding of the mineralogical composition of these singular speleothems, by means of their examination using micro-Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and EDX microprobe. Our data revealed a complex mineralogy comprising a high-purity selenite core covered by several layers of calcite, aragonite and gypsum. Solid inclusions of polymetallic oxides (Mn-Pb-Zn) and graphite were also detected. The position of the water table during the genesis of the “espada” speleothems (over the past 60 kyr) was deduced from their mineralogy. Water level fluctuations at around -120 m depth led to environmental changes within the Cueva de las Espadas. The selenite core and gypsum layers were precipitated under biphasic (water-rock) conditions when the cave was submerged under hydrothermal water. The aragonite precipitation required triphasic (air-water-rock) conditions and occurred when the water table intercepted the cave, allowing the CO2 exchange necessary for carbonate precipitation. Solid inclusions were trapped in an aerobic environment when the gypsum-aragonite boundary condition occurred. A thin calcite layer was precipitated under vadose conditions after the water table definitively moved out of the cave.


Boxwork and ferromanganese coatings in hypogenic caves: An example from Sima de la Higuera Cave (Murcia, SE Spain) , 2012, Gazquez Fernando, Calaforra Josemaria, Rull Fernando

This paper examines the greyish-blue deposits that were recently discovered in the lower levels of the Sima de la Higuera Cave (Murcia, SE Spain) which occur as patinas over the walls and ceilings, as well as coating boxwork formations. Their mineralogy was determined using XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy, while EDX microanalysis was used to determine their elemental composition. The mineralogical analyses revealed the presence of Mn oxides (todorokite and pyrolusite) and Fe with a low degree of crystallinity, whereas EDX microprobe showed elevated concentrations of Mn (38.2 wt.%), Fe (15.2 wt.%) and Pb (8.1 wt.%). The ferromanganese oxyhydroxides occur as botryoidal aggregates overlying blades of calcite that have a visibly sugary texture. The speleogenetic model proposed describes (1) an initial phase of precipitation of hydrothermal calcite veins (of hypogenic origin) within the fissures of the host rock under phreatic conditions and (2) a subsequent vadose phase involving preferential corrosion of the carbonate host rock caused by lowering of the pH resulting from CO2 diffusion in condensed water and oxidation of Fe and Mn under aerobic conditions, probably mediated by microorganisms. It is this later phase that gave rise to the boxwork. The boxwork of the Sima de la Higuera Cave is a singular example of a formation that is generated by dissolution–corrosion of the rock due to acidification caused by oxidation of iron and manganese.


Boxwork and ferromanganese coatings in hypogenic caves: An example from Sima de la Higuera Cave (Murcia, SE Spain), 2012, Gazquez Fernando, Calaforra Josemaria, Rull Fernando

This paper examines the greyish-blue deposits that were recently discovered in the lower levels of the Sima de la Higuera Cave (Murcia, SE Spain) which occur as patinas over the walls and ceilings, as well as coating boxwork formations. Their mineralogy was determined using XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy, while EDX microanalysis was used to determine their elemental composition. The mineralogical analyses revealed the presence of Mn oxides (todorokite and pyrolusite) and Fe with a low degree of crystallinity, whereas EDX microprobe showed elevated concentrations of Mn (38.2 wt.%), Fe (15.2 wt.%) and Pb (8.1 wt.%). The ferromanganese oxyhydroxides occur as botryoidal aggregates overlying blades of calcite that have a visibly sugary texture. The speleogenetic model proposed describes (1) an initial phase of precipitation of hydrothermal calcite veins (of hypogenic origin) within the fissures of the host rock under phreatic conditions and (2) a subsequent vadose phase involving preferential corrosion of the carbonate host rock caused by lowering of the pH resulting from CO2 diffusion in condensed water and oxidation of Fe and Mn under aerobic conditions, probably mediated by microorganisms. It is this later phase that gave rise to the boxwork. The boxwork of the Sima de la Higuera Cave is a singular example of a formation that is generated by dissolution–corrosion of the rock due to acidification caused by oxidation of iron and manganese.


Uncommon cave minerals associated to hypogene speleogenesis in Southern France, 2013, Audra, Philippe

Five hypogenic-origin caves from Southern France are presented. Investigations using XRD, SEM and Raman spectroscopy, reveal the presence of uncommon cave minerals. Oilloki Cave is a small lead ore mine-cave containing galena, cerussite, and bismuth (present as native element or as sulfide).La Baume Cave is a hydrothermal breccia-pipe, filled with colorful (red, green, white) clays. Some of the clay minerals (clinochlore se-piolite), could originate from hydrothermal weathering of clastic material. The Mala-coste Quarry, harbors a hydrothermal chimney with enlarged vugs lined with calcite spar and filled with iron oxyhydroxides poolfingers (goethite-hematite) and manganese oxides (birnessite, todorokite). Deposition of iron and manganese oxides results of the pH-Eh evolution along the hydrothermal chimney. Pigette Cave is a hydrothermal ver-tical maze with calcite lining and small iron oxyhydroxides and manganese oxides mass-es. The hydrothermal weathering of the walls deposited grains of lithiophorite, barite, and celadonite, which could originate from glauconite. Baume Galinière Cave is a small horizontal maze originating from the oxidation of sulfide masses of pyrite. Beside the common byproducts (gypsum, goethite, sulfur), the six members of the jarosite sub-group are present: jarosite, ammoniojarosite, argentojarosite, hydronium jarosite, natro-jarosite, plumbojarosite, together with fibroferrite. In these caves, three minerals are new cave minerals (bismuth, celadonite, argentojarosite); some others have been men-tioned before only in a few caves worldwide (clinochlore, lithiophorite, ammoniojaro-site, hydronium jarosite, natrojarosite, plumbojarosite, fibroferrite). The mineralogene-sis involves different processes: (i) Deposition in mixing zone from species carried by rising deep flow (barite, galena, bismuth, birnessite, todorokite, lithiophorite); (ii) Hy-drothermal weathering of clay minerals contained in host rock or present as clastic sediments (clinochlore, sepiolite, celadonite); (iii) Oxidation of sulfide masses (goethite, cerussite, jarosite subgroup minerals, fibroferrite).


Results 16 to 30 of 33
You probably didn't submit anything to search for