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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That gour is flowstone deposit, normally of calcite, built up along the edge of a pool due to precipitation from a thin film of overflow water. once initiated, by calcite-saturated water overflowing from floor hollows, development is selfenhancing, and the gours can grow into large dams many meters high and wide. inside the gour pool, more calcite may be precipitated as crystals or pearls. large flights of gours occur in many caves, with spectacular and well known examples around the hall of thirteen in the gouffre berger, france. large travertine, gours can form in the open air, as at band-i- amir, afghanistan [9]. see also rimstone barrage; rimstone barrier; rimstone dam.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for periglacial (Keyword) returned 35 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 35
Alpine Karst in Romania, 1999, Dana Tulucan Alina, Niculita Tulucan Tiberio, Beke Laszlo

The article expresses the view, that one may speak about the Alpine karst even in the areas outside the Alps, when special requirements are met, such as presence of carbonate rocks, affected by cryo-nival processes, glacial and periglacial erosion above the tree limit and the presence of superficial and underground karst phenomena.


Eustatic sea-level and climate changes over the last 600 ka as derived from mollusc-based ESR-chronostratigraphy and pollen evidence in Northern Eurasia, 2002, Molodkov Anatoly N. , Bolikhovskaya Nataliya S. ,
We reconstruct and correlate palaeoclimatic events and deposits from shelf, glacial, periglacial, and extraglacial zones of northern Eurasia over the last 600,000 years. The chronostratigraphical correlation of identified palaeoenvironmental and sea-level events and corresponding horizons is based on electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis of subfossil mollusc skeletal remains from marine, freshwater and Acheulian-bearing cave-site deposits. Over 230 shell samples from more than 40 sites along the continental margin of Eurasian north, in the Black and Caspian sea basins and terrestrial shells from a Lower Palaeolithic cave-site in the Northern Caucasus were dated via ESR to produce a late Quaternary geochronology. The Pleistocene composite section of the loess-palaeosoil formation includes two reference sections--Likhvin and Arapovichi--from the centre of the East-European plain. The palyno-chronostratigraphic record is interpreted as the product of six warm-climate/high sea-level events including the current interglacial, and six glacial events. They are presented either as complete climatic rhythms of glacial and interglacial rank, or by considerable portions of climatic-phytocoenotic phases constituents of the rhythm. The full-interglacial conditions are centred at about 580, 400, 310, 220 and between 145-70 calendar ka. A broad correspondence between long palynological sequence, directly ESR-dated warm-climate-related events and other palaeoenvironmental records described in the literature has been noted for 11 upper oxygen isotope stages (11 to 1). The results obtained in this study exemplify the potential of integrated chrono-climatostratigraphic sequences in linking marine and terrestrial palaeoclimate records that may eventually span the whole Brunhes chron

GIS-based generation of a karst landscape soil map (Blaubeuren Swabian Alb Germany), 2002, Koberle G. , Koberle P. M. ,
The karst landscape of the Swabian Alb in southwestern Germany is characterised by a year-round humid climate with an annual precipitation of up to 1200 mm and an average temperature of VC. Infiltration ranges are 50-55%, resulting in an annual water flow into the karst aquifer up to 660 millions litres per km(2). In view of the great expanse of the karst landscape of the Swabian Alb, measuring some 200 x 40 km, this is a water reservoir of immense significance. Due to the laws of karst water movement the infiltrating water is very vulnerable to contamination. The only geogenic protection is afforded by the periglacial, loess-containing layers and evolved constituent soils covering the karst landscape. This means that geomorphology and the distribution of soils in this region is of great significance to the protection of karst water. At present only 2 of the approx. 60 topographic map sheets with a scale of 1 :25,000 that cover the Swabian Alb are available as pedological maps. Another 8 pedological map sheets are under preparation. Since the compilation of pedological maps is extremely costly both in terms of time and money, it appears improbable that a complete pedological map of the entire Swabian Alb will be available in the near future. A digital pedological map was prepared from the 1:50,000 topographic map of Blaubeuren on the basis of geomorphological knowledge as well as a morphometric analysis. For this purpose the morphometric parameters slope, profile curvature, plan curvature and topographic wetness index were calculated from a specially generated DGM (Digital Elevation Model). A maximum likelihood analysis was performed on the morphometric parameters on the basis of approx. 700 soil profiles used as training areas. The pedological maps included in the Annex were verified both in the field and on the computer. They provide an inexpensive basis for further ecosystem analyses

Pattern of karst landscape of the Cracow Upland (South Poland), 2003, Alexandrowicz Stefan Witold, Alexandrowicz Zofia

The relief of the Polish Jura Chain developed since Paleogene under climatic conditions changing considerably. Their main components are a peneplain crowned by numerous monadnocks, generated as hard-rocks on Upper Jurassic massive limestones (bioherms, carbonate buildups) surrounded by less resistant platy and bedded limestones of the same age. After the Miocene tectonic phase and following karstification deep valleys dissected the top surface of the plateau and cave levels connected with rocky terraces had been formed. During the Pleistocene the periglacial climate accelerated the congelifraction and relaxation of monadnocks. The modification of landforms and the environment in last ten thousand years, indicated by assemblages of molluscs was controlled by both climatic and anthopogenic factors. The geo- and biodiversity closely related to one another are still under the nature protection.


Ages et modalits des incursions humaines et animales prhistoriques dans ltage Cathala de la grotte dAldne (Hrault, France). Apport des analyses sdimentologiques et gochronologiques, 2004, Guendon Jeanlouis, Ambert Paul, Quinif Yves, Baumes Bernard, Colomer Albert, Dainat Denis, Galant Philippe, Gruneisen Alain, Gruneisen Nathalie
Chronologies and means of prehistoric human and animal frequentations into Aldne cave, Cathala level (Hrault, France). Sedimentology and geochronology studies - The Aldne cave forms a long network of galleries on four levels. Only the first two of these contain prehistoric vestiges. Superior level (Bousquet storey) presents a Lower Palaeolithic stratigraphy in the porch. It contained also, in the deep areas, a thick filling of clays and speleothems with bear bones, intensively quarried during the 19th and 20th centuries for phosphate ore. These workings allowed to discover the second level (Cathala storey) and, in these news galleries, human footprints trail with sooty marks on the walls, numerous animal paw prints, hyena coprolites, scratches and nests made by bears. After study establishing mesolithic age of human footprints (8 200 130 BP, 7 790 60 BP) and anteriority of animal passages, researches were directed on sedimentological and geochronological study (U/Th dating of speleothem). First, the age of the last animal presence in the second level of Aldne was precised, between 41 500 BP to 25 000 BP. Second, means and chronologies of closing of the prehistoric entrance of Cathala storey were revealed. The actual access in these galleries is only an artificial entrance opened up for phosphate mining. It begins by a cat-flap and shafts about twenty meters high. The access used by prehistoric humans and animals is completely obstructed by a very important boulder choke with speleothems interstratified, situated in North part of Cathala gallery. The studies of this boulder choke showed three principal phases of closing of this primitive access: a first collapse of the roof during Middle Pleistocene; an important bedded rock-fragments produced by frost shattering of primitive entrance porch, which filled principal gallery during periglacial stages of the Upper Pleistocene; and a second roof collapse, during Holocene. The burnt pieces of brand left on the ground allowed to recognise the last narrow passage taken by the Mesolithic humans before this last collapse finally obstructing this entrance.

Cryogenic cave calcite from several Central European caves: age, carbon and oxygen isotopes and a genetic model, 2004, Zak Karel, Urban Jan, Cilek Vaclav, Hercman Helena,
Cryogenic cave calcite (CCC), formed by segregation of solutes during water freezing, was found in three Central European caves. This calcite type forms accumulations of loose calcite grains on cave floor. The calcite grains are of highly variable crystal morphology, and of sizes ranging from less than 1 mm to over 1 cm. The most typical feature is their accumulation as loose (uncemented) crystals. U-series dating indicates the formation of CCC in the studied caves during several climatic oscillations of the Weichselian (between 61 and 36 ka BP in the Chelsiowa Jama-Jaskinia Jaworznicka cave system in Poland, between 34 and 26 ka BP in the BUML Cave in the Czech Republic, and between 26 and 21 ka BP in the Stratenska Jaskyna cave system, Slovakia). At the time of CCC formation, the studied caves were lying in a periglacial zone.Detailed C and O stable isotope study of CCC samples revealed that slow water freezing under isotope equilibrium was the dominant formational process in the studied Polish and Czech caves. Significantly higher [delta]13C values of CCC in the Stratenska Jaskyna Cave indicate either water freezing in a more opened system with continuous CO2 escape (Rayleigh fractional separation), or participation of another CO2 source. The model of slow water freezing under isotope equilibrium is supported by isolated character of the caves having limited ventilation.In contrast, modern cryogenic cave calcite powders sampled directly on the ice surface of two recently iced caves in Slovakia with high ventilation showed much higher [delta]18O and [delta]13C data, similar to cryogenic calcites obtained in experimental rapid water freezing

Morphologie et remplissage des dolines du Causse de Martel daprs les observations ralises au cours du diagnostic archologique de larodrome de Brive-Souillac (Corrze et Lot), 2006, Bruxelles Laurent, Colonge David, Salgues Thierry
Doline morphology and filling in the Causse of Martel based on the observations realized during the archaeological diagnosis of the Brive-Souillac airfield (Corrze and Lot, France) - An operation of archaeological diagnosis was led by the INRAP (national institute for preventive archaeological researches) on the Causse de Martel. On this occasion, 610 trenches with bulldozers were done, mainly localized in the bottom of dolines. The morphology of the depressions presents most often a pronounced asymmetry. We observe a gently dipping slope underlain by sandy alterites. On the opposite side, a steep corrosion rim developed in bathonian limestones. The sections show an accumulation of several meters of different sediments. At the base, we find periglacial deposits (stratified scree and yellow silt) which fossilized some archaeological remains of the middle Paleolithic. Just above an erosional unconformity, brown clays with calcareous gravel are found. Thanks to the presence of archaeological material, we date the emplacement of this level to be between the Protohistory and the medieval age. Finally, one or two meters of modern agricultural colluviums end the sequence. These observations put in evidence at least two main periods of infilling of these dolines. They correspond to two major phases of hillside imbalance. The first one has a climatic origin (Periglacial) and the second a human origin (clearings and agriculture). These accumulations are separated from the underlying deposits by distinct erosion surfaces, which can be linked to a reactivation of the karstic undercapture and the erosion of a part of the filling. This functioning corresponds to periods during which the colluviums are less abundant, indicating a certain stability of hillsides. Finally, the morphology of the rock layers and the geometry of the deposits show that the karstic landscape, which was clearly more accentuated before the Periglacial and even before Protohistory, underwent an important filling. Today, the dolines are partially filled and show with a flat bottom.

Pleistocene depositional history in a periglacial terrane: A 500ka record from Kents Cavern, Devon, United Kingdom., 2007, Lundberg, J. And Mcfarlane, D. A.
The signifi cance of the stratigraphic record in Kents Cavern, Devon, United Kingdom, to the interpretation of the British Quaternary is confi rmed on the basis of a thorough reexamination of the deposits in concert with 2 new Al-Be cosmogenic and 34 new thermal ionization mass spectrometry U-Th dates. The deposits show evidence of complex reworking in response to periglaciation, and the main fl owstone deposit is a multilayered complex spanning marine isotope stage (MIS) 11?3. The lowermost unit of fl uvial sands is Cromerian or older. The second deposit, a muddy breccia of surfi cial periglacial solifl uction material containing Acheulian artifacts, entered the cave during MIS 12 from highlevel openings to the west. Cave bears denned in the cave during MIS 11, the Hoxnian interglacial; their bones are capped by an MIS 11 calcite fl owstone layer. From MIS 11 onward, each interglacial period and the warmer interstadial periods (MIS 11, 10b, 9, 7, 6b, 5, and 3) produced calcite fl owstone deposition in the cave; MIS 9 was particularly active. Each glacial or stadial period (MIS 10c, 10a, 8, 6c, 6a, 4, and 2) caused periglacial activity in the cave, during which the thinner layers of calcite were fractured by frost heave and redistributed by solifl uction. This sequence was interrupted during MIS 3?2 with the introduction of sandy and stony clastic sediments from entrances to the east, and fi nally cemented by the uppermost layer of MIS 1 fl owstone. This is the fi rst publication of welldated and clearly documented evidence of frost heaving in interior cave passages. The Kents Cavern record of continuous, repeated sedimentation events followed by frost shattering and remobilization events over the past 500 k.y. is probably unique in the karst literature and establishes Kents Cavern as a site of international scientifi c interest.

Karst and Cryokarst, 2007,

"Karst and Cryokarst", dedicated to the memory of Teresa Wiszniowska (authority on research of large fossil mammals, cave bear especially) and Marian Pulina (authority on speleology and geomorphology), contains works covering the subjects of their broad scientific interests.
The book is a joint publication of IGU Karst Commission and UIS Commission Glacier Caves and Cryokarst in Polar and High Mountain Regions /GLACKIPR/.

Contents:
Eraso A., Domìnguez M.C.
Subpolar glacier network as natural sensors of global warming evolution
Mavlyudov B.R.
Internal drainage systems of glaciers
Schroeder J.
Moulins of a subpolar glacier seen as a thermal anomaly Domìnguez M.C., Eraso A.
Frequent systematic errors In the measurements of the glacier discharge
Domínguez M.C., Eraso A.
Substantial changes happened during the last years in the icecap of King George, Insular Antarctica
Eraso A., Domínguez M.C.
Physicochemical characteristics of the subglacier discharge in Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica
Sauro U.
Forms of mixed origin in the karst environment of the Venetian Prealps
Auly T.
Quelques morphologies de rapport karst/glaciaire dans les Pyrénées (France)
Pawłowska-Bielawska P.
Evolution of Wielka Śnieżna Cave in the light of geomorphologic observations
Dobrowolski R.
Model of glaciogenic transformation of the Lublin-Volhynia chalk karst (Poland SE, Ukraine NW)
Bieroński J., Socha P., Stefaniak K.
Deposits and fauna of the Sudetic caves ? the state of research Trofimova E.V.
Particularités du développement récent du karst calcaire de Sibérie et d'Extrême-Orient (Russie)
Cao Jianhua, Yuan Daoxian, Zhang Cheng, Jiang Zhangcheng
Karst ecosystem of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region constrained by geological setting: Relationship between carbonate rock exposure and vegetation coverage
Smieja A., Smieja-Król B.
Springs with active calcium carbonate precipitation in the Polish part of the Tatra Mountains
Parise M., Trisciuzzi M.A.
Geomechanical characterization of carbonate rock masses in underground karst systems
Piasecki J., Sawiński T.
Acoustic measurements of airflow in speleo-climatological studies
Kadebskaya O.
News in monitoring system and recommendations in development of use and protection of Kungur Ice cave
Mokrushina O.
Ordinskaya cave as new object of speleoturism

Book is available at the Department of Geomorphology University of Silesia ordering via e-mail: atyc@us.edu.pl


GEOMORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MASSIF PRENJ, 2008, Lepirica Alen
The researched area of the mountain massif Prenj with surface of 463 km2 is located in the zone of high karst of Outer Dinarides of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is circular mountain morphostructure with assymetrical transversal profile. Developed in Mesozoic subhorizontal layers of limestone and dolomite over 3500 thick, fissured by numerous reverse and normal faults. Prenj is folded-thrusted mountain massif (2103 m a.s.l.) uplifted during neotectonic phase of Dinarides development, structurally represented by three blocks. A high degree of correlation between lithology, fault structures and relief has been determinated. The main fault structures caused by rotation of Prenj blocks which were reflected on different orientations of stretching of the mountain ridges and composite valleys of Neretva, Konjika Bijela, Mostarska Bijela, Glogonica and Id-bar. Thrusts express tectonic, lithological, and morphological border of the considered mountain with inter mountain Neogene depressions in the North and South. Netectonic movements and dominanting carbonate composition of the terrain have influenced on reticular relief structure of the massif. Linear landforms of ridges formed in karst are neotectonically, rectilinearly and half-arc elongated up to 12 km. In regards to morphogenesis during the Quaternary, the massif is characterized by development: derasional, glacial, periglacial, karstic, fluviokarstic, fluviodenudational and fluvial erosional and accumulational processes and landforms. Finally, geomorphological regionalization of Prenj was made on the basis of the criteria of similarity of morpho-evolutionary, structural-lithological and orographical characteristics.

Late Pleistocene cryogenic calcite spherolites from the Malachitdom Cave (NE Rhenish Slate Mountains, Germany): origin, unusual internal structure and stable C-O isotope composition, 2008, Richter D. K. , Riechelmann D. F. Ch.
Cryogenic calcites yielded U-series ages in the range from 15.610.20 ka to 14.480.12 ka, which is the youngest age obtained so far for this type of cryogenic cave carbonates in Europe. Most of these particles of the Malachitdom Cave (NE Brilon, Sauerland, North Rhine-Westphalia) are complex spherolites usually smaller than 1 cm. They show ?13C-values between 1 and 5 VPDB and ?18O-values ranging from 7 to 16 VPDB, the ?13C-values increase and the ?18O-values decrease from centre to border. The complex spherolites are interpreted to be formed in slowly freezing pools of residual water on ice, a situation that repeatedly occurred during the change of glacial to interglacial periods in the periglacial areas of Central Europe. After the melting of the caveice, the complex pherolites make up one type of cryogenic calcite particles in the arenitic to ruditic sediment.

Late Pleistocene cryogenic calcite spherolites from the Malachitdom Cave (NE Rhenish Slate Mountains, Germany): origin, unusual internal structure and stable C-O isotope composition, 2008, Richter D. K. , Riechelmann D. F. Ch.

Cryogenic calcites yielded U-series ages in the range from 15.61±0.20 ka to 14.48±0.12 ka, which is the youngest age obtained so far for this type of cryogenic cave carbonates in Europe. Most of these particles of the Malachitdom Cave (NE Brilon, Sauerland, North Rhine-Westphalia) are complex spherolites usually smaller than 1 cm. They show δ13C-values between –1 and –5 ‰ VPDB and δ18O-values ranging from –7 to –16 ‰ VPDB, the δ13C-values increase and the δ18O-values decrease from centre to border. The complex spherolites are interpreted to be formed in slowly freezing pools of residual water on ice, a situation that repeatedly occurred during the change of glacial to interglacial periods in the periglacial areas of Central Europe. After the melting of the caveice, the complex spherolites make up one type of cryogenic calcite particles in the arenitic to ruditic sediment.


DOLINE FILLS - CASE STUDY OF THE FAVERGHERA PLATEAU (VENETIAN PRE-ALPS, ITALY), 2009, Sauro Ugo, Ferrarese Francesco, Francese Roberto, Miola Antonella, Mozzi Paolo, Rondo Gualtiero Quario, Trombino Luca & Valentini Gianna
The sedimentary fills of two dolines in the Faverghera plateau in the Venetian Pre-Alps, south of Belluno, have been investigated. This small plateau is a sub-horizontal surface about 0.5 km2 wide, located on the northeastern slope of Mt. Faverghera (1640 m a.s.l.) hosting nearly 40 karst dolines partially filled by periglacial slope deposits. Topographic survey, electric resistivity tomography (ERT), soil and pollen analyses have been carried on. The structure of the dolines and the characters of the filling deposits indicate that the evolution of these forms has been controlled by the alternation of di*erent climatic and environmental conditions during the Pleistocene. The results indicate that the dolines are filters for the sediments, more than good traps, archiving only some of the climatic and environmental changes.

HYPOGENIC ASCENDING SPELEOGENESIS IN THE KRAKW-CZESTOCHOWA UPLAND (POLAND) EVIDENCE IN CAVE MORPHOLOGY AND SURFACE RELIEF, 2009, Tyc A.

Polygenetic and multiphase karst within Upper Jurassic limestone of the Krakw-Czestochowa Upland (South Poland) is characterized by a distinct stage of speleogenesis taking place in conditions of phreatic ascending circulation. This stage (or stages) is evidenced by both cave morphology and surface relief. Morphostratigraphic studies show that the hypogenic ascending features were early forms in the caves and later became integrated into cave systems. Conditions favorable for hypogenic caves development existed during a late Cretaceous-Paleogene phase of speleogenesis when the carbonate massif was covered by low permeability Cretaceous sediments and was subject to intense tectonic Laramian movements. In spite of the significant transformation of caves and their morphology by later vadose, epigenetic speleogenesis and denudation - especially under Pleistocene glacial and periglacial conditions - features of hypogenic ascending circulation are widely observed in the region. Relics of hypogene caves are common in the walls of rock monadnocks in the highest part of the Krakw-Czestochowa Upland.


Dramatic increase in late Cenozoic alpine erosion rates recorded by cave sediment in the southern Rocky Mountains, 2010, Refsnider, Kurt A.

Apparent increases in sedimentation rates during the past 5 Ma have been inferred at sites around the globe to document increased terrestrial erosion rates, but direct erosion rate records spanning this period are sparse. Modern and paleo-erosion rates for a small alpine catchment (3108 m above sea level) in the Southern Rocky Mountains are measured using the cosmogenic radionuclides (CRNs) 10Be and 26Al in cave sediment, bedrock on the overlying landscape surface, and coarse bedload in a modern fluvial drainage. The unique setting of the Marble Mountain cave system allows the inherited erosion rates to be interpreted as basin-averaged erosion rates, resulting in the first CRN-based erosion rate record from the Rocky Mountains spanning 5 Myr. Pliocene erosion rates, derived from the oldest cave sample (4.9 ± 0.4 Ma), for the landscape above the cave are 4.9 ± 1.1 m Myr− 1. Mid Pleistocene erosion rates are nearly an order of magnitude higher (33.1 ± 2.7 to 41.3 ± 3.9 m Myr− 1), and modern erosion rates are similar; due to the effects of snow shielding, these erosion rate estimates are likely higher than actual rates by 10–15%. The most likely explanation for this dramatic increase in erosion rates, which likely occurred shortly before 1.2 Ma, is an increase in the effectiveness of periglacial weathering processes at high elevations related to a cooler and wetter climate during the Pleistocene, providing support for the hypothesis that changes in late Cenozoic climate are responsible for increased continental erosion.


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