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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That master cave is best defined as a low level trunk streamway cave with many tributaries. the old concept of the master cave being formed at the water table should be disregarded. the leck fell master cave, in the yorkshire dales, is 2km long, partly a vadose canyon, partly a drained phreatic tube and partly a submerged tube. part of it therefore lies below the water table while elsewhere its presence controls the water table. the french equivalent, 'collecteur', is more descriptive of the master cave's true role. the depth to a currently active master cave is dictated by interactions between local topography, stratigraphical factors and geological structure. in the low hill karst of england and kentucky, active master caves lie at depths of around 100m, but in monte canin, italy, and the hautla plateau, mexico, they lie at depths of 1000m. the collecteur of the gouffre berger, france, is met just 250m down but can be followed to a depth of over 1000m, down the dipping limestone beds, thus emphasizing the local dominance of stratigraphical over topographical factors [9].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for budget (Keyword) returned 36 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 36
Constraints on Black Sea outflow to the Sea of Marmara during the last glacial-interglacial transition, 2002, Major Candace, Ryan William, Lericolais Gilles, Hajdas Irka,
New cores from the upper continental slope off Romania in the western Black Sea provide a continuous, high-resolution record of sedimentation rates, clay mineralogy, calcium carbonate content, and stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon over the last 20[punctuation space]000 yr in the western Black Sea. These records all indicate major changes occurring at 15[punctuation space]000, 12[punctuation space]800, 8400, and 7100 yr before present. These results are interpreted to reflect an evolving balance between water supplied by melting glacial ice and other river runoff and water removed by evaporation and outflow. The marked retreat of the Fennoscandian and Alpine ice between 15[punctuation space]000 and 14[punctuation space]000 yr is recorded by an increase in clays indicative of northern provenance in Black Sea sediments. A short return toward glacial values in all the measured series occurs during the Younger Dryas cold period. The timing of the first marine inflow to the Black Sea is dependent on the sill depths of the Bosporus and Dardanelles channels. The depth of the latter is known to be -805 m, which is consistent with first evidence of marine inundation in the Sea of Marmara around 12[punctuation space]000 yr. The bedrock gorge of the Bosporus reaches depths in excess of -100 m (relative to present sea level), though it is now filled with sediments to depths as shallow as -32 m. Two scenarios are developed for the connection of the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara. One is based on a deep Bosporus sill depth (effectively equivalent to the Dardanelles), and the other is based on a shallow Bosporus sill (less than -35 m). In the deep sill scenario the Black Sea's surface rises in tandem with the Sea of Marmara once the latter connected with the Aegean Sea, and Black Sea outflow remains continuous with inflowing marine water gradually displacing the freshwater in the deep basin. The increase in the [delta]18O of mollusk shells at 12[punctuation space]800 yr and the simultaneous appearance of inorganic calcite with low [delta]18O is compatible with such an early marine water influx causing periodic weak stratification of the water column. In the shallow sill scenario the Black Sea level is decoupled from world sea level and experiences rise and fall depending on the regional water budget until water from the rising Sea of Marmara breaches the shallow sill. In this case the oxygen isotope trend and the inorganic calcite precipitation is caused by increased evaporation in the basin, and the other changes in sediment properties reflect climate-driven river runoff variations within the Black Sea watershed. The presence of saline ponds on the Black Sea shelf circa 9600 yr support such evaporative draw-down, but a sensitive geochemical indicator of marine water, one that is not subject to temperature, salinity, or biological fractionation, is required to resolve whether the sill was deep or shallow

Nitrogen budgets and environmental capacity in farm systems in a large-scale karst region, southern China, 2002, Hatano Ryusuke, Shinano Takuro, Taigen Zheng, Okubo Masahiko, Zuowei Li,

Storm pulse chemographs of saturation index and carbon dioxide pressure: implications for shifting recharge sources during storm events in the karst aquifer at Fort Campbell, Kentucky/Tennessee, USA, 2004, Vesper D. J. , White W. B. ,
Continuous records of discharge, specific conductance, and temperature were collected through a series of storm pulses on two limestone springs at Fort Campbell, western Kentucky/Tennessee, USA. Water samples, collected at short time intervals across the same storm pulses, were analyzed for calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, total organic carbon, and pH. Chemographs of calcium, calcite saturation index, and carbon dioxide partial pressure were superimposed on the storm hydrographs. Calcium concentration and specific conductance track together and dip to a minimum either coincident with the peak of the hydrograph or lag slightly behind it. The CO2 pressure continues to rise on the recession limb of the hydrograph and, as a result, the saturation index decreases on the recession limb of the hydrograph. These results are interpreted as being due to dispersed infiltration through CO2-rich soils lagging the arrival of quick-flow from sinkhole recharge in the transport of storm flow to the springs. Karst spring hydrographs reflect not only the changing mix of base flow and storm flow but also a shift in source of recharge water over the course of the storm

Geology and models of salt extrusion at Qum Kuh, central Iran, 2004, Talbot C. J. , Aftabi P. ,
Profiles through the summit of a small nearly axisymmetric extrusion of Oligocene and Miocene salt, and simple analogue models of it, simulate the profiles of piles of ductile nappes extruded from convergent orogens. The salt extrudes from a reactive diapir along a major strike-slip fault at about 82 mm a(-1) and rises 315 m above the central plateau of Iran. The salt has the distinctive smooth profile of a viscous fountain in which an asymmetric apron of allochthonous salt gravity-spreads over its surroundings from a summit dome. Curtain folds developed in the source layer extrude from the diapir and are refolded by major recumbent folds with circumferential axes that simulate nappes. Minor flow folds with circumferential axes refold major folds in the top 10-50 m of surficial salt. Master joints > 100 m long indicate brittle failure of dilated salt by regional stress fields. Tuned to the dimensions of Qum Kuh, analytical and analogue models of viscous extrusions constrain the dynamic salt budget and a time of extrusion of at least 42000 years. New analogue models suggest that the number, amplitude and spacing of major recumbent folds within the extruded salt (and ductile nappe piles) record the number, amount and relative timing of fluctuations in the driving forces

Groundwater Hydrology of a Coastal Conduit Carbonate Aquifer: Caribbean Coast of the Yucatán Peninsula, México, PhD Thesis, 2004, Beddows, Patricia A.

Over 500 km of horizontally extensive submerged cave passages have been explored within the density-stratified carbonate aquifer of the Caribbean coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. These drain the large inland recharge area to the coastal margin and represent important regional-scale anisotropic permeability features. However, conventional theory is inadequate to explain this aquifer where conduit flows dominate within a high permeability matrix. Cave diving and surface observations have been used to develop a regional and multi-seasonal dataset of the density-stratified water column, and the circulation within the fresh and saline waters. A sharp mixing zone (MZ; 0.3 - 4 m thick) separates a cool fresh water lens (FWL) from a warmer saline water zone (SWZ) within the conduits. The SWZ temperature is highest at the coast (~ 28.0 oC) and decreases to ~ 25.5 oC at 10 km inland, while the FWL temperature is spatially constant (25 ± 0.2 oC, n = 33). The MZ has subtle isostatic response (2 - 10 cm) to the semi-diurnal coastal tides, however it remains at an almost uniform depth (within 1 m) despite significant water table variations (> 1 m). Thus, the FWL volume changes in direct proportion to the water table elevation. Previous Yucatan water budgets indicate that 15 % of precipitation recharges the aquifer, however this study shows that > 30 % is required to provide the observed coastal discharge. At least two flow regimes occur within the SWZ. Shallow SWZ flow (to ~ 5 m below the MZ) circulates with alternating periods of net inflow and outflow depending on the mean sea level. This regional reversing flow is substantiated by the inflow of warm marine water at the coast and a pattern of decreasing temperature along the flowpath with distance inland. At greater depth below the MZ (~ 5 - 45 m), saline water flows continuously inland irrespective of sea level. It is proposed that deeper saline flows may represent a cross-platform saline circulation, driven principally by a large east-west ocean head difference (~ 20 - 40 cm).


Groundwater fluxes into a submerged sinkhole area, Central Italy, using radon and water chemistry, 2005, Tuccimei P. , Salvati R. , Capelli G. , Delitala M. C. , Primavera P. ,
The groundwater contribution into Green Lake and Black Lake (Vescovo Lakes Group), two cover collapse sinkholes in Pontina Plain (Central Italy), was estimated using water chemistry and a Rn-222 budget. These data can constrain the interactions between sinkholes and deep seated fluid circulation, with a special focus on the possibility of the bedrock karst aquifer feeding the lake. The Rn budget accounted for all quantifiable surface and subsurface input and output fluxes including the flux across the sediment-water interface. The total value of groundwater discharge into Green Lake and Black Lake (similar to 540 160 L s(-1)) obtained from the Rn budget is lower than, but comparable with historical data on the springs group discharge estimated in the same period of the year (800 90 L s(-1)). Besides being an indirect test for the reliability of the Rn-budget 'tool', it confirms that both Green and Black Lake are effectively springs and not simply 'water filled' sinkholes. New data on the water chemistry and the groundwater fluxes into the sinkhole area of Vescovo Lakes allows the assessment of the mechanism responsible for sinkhole formation in Pontina Plain and suggests the necessity of monitoring the changes of physical and chemical parameters of groundwater below the plain in order to mitigate the associated risk. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

Sediment storage and yield in an urbanized karst watershed, 2005, Hart Evan A. , Schurger Stephen G. ,
In karst watersheds, sinkholes and other drainage features control the temporal and spatial pattern of sediment storage across the landscape. However, studies dealing with sedimentation in karst watersheds are scarce and the sediment storage function of sinkholes and caves has not been investigated using a sediment budget approach. In this study, we use estimates of channel erosion, sinkhole sedimentation, and suspended sediment yield to examine changes in sediment storage in the 9 km2 Upper Pigeon Roost Creek fluviokarst watershed near Cookeville, TN. The study watershed has undergone urbanization over the last ~ 50 years, and sinkholes and caves in the area show signs of recent sedimentation (buried tree roots, buried cultural artifacts, etc.). While sinkholes are generally considered to be sediment sinks, sinkholes examined in this study are shown to cycle between periods of net sediment storage and net sediment loss. Using copyright dates on trash items buried in sinkhole deposits, we estimated the residence time of sinkhole-stored sediment to range from 6 to 10 years. However, other evidence indicates that some sinkholes may store sediment for several centuries. We propose that sediment storage within sinkholes is controlled by several factors including sinkhole drainage area, sinkhole morphology, and basin sediment yield. In addition, changes in sediment storage in karst watersheds are contingent upon random events such as sinkhole collapses. Annual sediment yield was estimated to be 111 Mg km- 2 year- 1 for the entire study watershed and ranged from 11 to 128 Mg km- 2 year- 1 for 3 sub-watersheds. Sediment eroded from the watershed, perhaps during historic settlement of the area, is stored within a large cave system underlying the city. However, the results of a partial sediment budget indicate that the cave is presently a net sediment source. Overall, the findings indicate that the sediment storage function of caves and sinkholes varies spatially and temporally, and that these changes need to be incorporated into sediment budgets for karst watersheds

Reversibility of forest conversion impacts on water budgets in tropical karst terrain, 2006, Chandler Dg,
A conceptual model of the control of tropical land use and vegetative cover on bedrock recharge is developed for highly permeable geologic substrates. A case study of water budgets is then developed from field data and simple modeling for upland sites with three different vegetative covers (cropland, intensively grazed pasture and forest regrowth) in Leyte, Philippines. Water budget model results show that annual precipitation is divided primarily between evapotranspiration and overland flow for the pasture, but apportioned more to evapotranspiration and inputs to bedrock storage for the crop and forest sites. Modeled evapotranspiration from the forest (1906 mm) was not sufficiently greater than that for either the crop (1661 mm) or pasture (1476 mm) sites to offset the greater overland flow from those sites. The differences in overland flow are related to depth profiles of soil bulk density, which decreased between crop and forest and increased between crop and pasture, and drainable porosity, which increased between crop and forest and decreased between crop and pasture. Dry season streamflow is assumed to be primarily base flow and dependent on wet season bedrock recharge, which was dramatically lower for the pasture (106 mm) than for the crop (1134 mm) or forest covers (1320 mm), for 2946 mm of rainfall. The results support the premise that for landscapes with adequate storage in bedrock fractures, forest regrowth can increase recharge to perched aquifers, and hence dry season baseflow, relative to cropping and that dramatic reductions in overland flow and increases in dry season baseflow may be achieved by reforestation of compacted pastures. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Quantifying submarine groundwater discharge in the coastal zone via multiple methods, 2006, Burnett Wc, Aggarwal Pk, Aureli A, Bokuniewicz H, Cable Je, Charette Ma, Kontar E, Krupa S, Kulkarni Km, Loveless A,
Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is now recognized as an important pathway between land and sea. As such, this flow may contribute to the biogeochemical and other marine budgets of near-shore waters. These discharges typically display significant spatial and temporal variability making assessments difficult. Groundwater seepage is patchy, diffuse, temporally variable, and may involve multiple aquifers. Thus, the measurement of its magnitude and associated chemical fluxes is a challenging enterprise.A joint project of UNESCO and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has examined several methods of SGD assessment and carried out a series of five intercomparison experiments in different hydrogeologic environments (coastal plain, karst, glacial till, fractured crystalline rock, and volcanic terrains). This report reviews the scientific and management significance of SGD, measurement approaches, and the results of the intercomparison experiments. We conclude that while the process is essentially ubiquitous in coastal areas, the assessment of its magnitude at any one location is subject to enough variability that measurements should be made by a variety of techniques and over large enough spatial and temporal scales to capture the majority of these changing conditions.We feel that all the measurement techniques described here are valid although they each have their own advantages and disadvantages. It is recommended that multiple approaches be applied whenever possible. In addition, a continuing effort is required in order to capture long-period tidal fluctuations, storm effects, and seasonal variations

Identifying Late Miocene episodes of connection and isolation in the Mediterranean-Paratethyan realm using Sr isotopes, 2006, Flecker R, Ellam Rm,
After decades of research, the timing and nature of Late Miocene connections between the Mediterranean, Paratethys and the global ocean are still speculative. The hydrologic flux implications of exchange or isolation are central to all hypotheses for generating the major lithological changes that represent the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Moreover, differences in the hydrologic fluxes envisaged are the primary distinction between models. Despite this, these fluxes remain largely unconstrained. This paper describes the basis for using Sr isotope data innovatively combined with salinity data through hydrologic budget modelling to determine the timing and nature of Mediterranean hydrologic connectivity. We examine the hypotheses for three Late Miocene events to illustrate how this approach allows us to test implied hydrologic scenarios and exclude incompatible models. 1) Pre-evaporite restriction of the Mediterranean; 2) the initiation of salt precipitation; 3) connection between the Sea of Marmara and both Paratethys and the Mediterranean during the Messinian. This process suggests that the Atlantic-Mediterranean exchange was significantly reduced up to three million years before evaporite precipitation. It also indicates that end-member hypotheses for initiating salt precipitation in the Mediterranean (desiccation and connected basin models) are inconsistent with Sr isotope data. A contrasting model where evaporite formation was triggered by Atlantic transgression into a strongly evaporation-dominated Mediterranean is shown to be more compatible with available datasets. The application to Sea of Marmara samples indicates that salinity changes in the basin were not caused by changes to the amount of inflow from either Paratethys or the Mediterranean. Other possible as yet untested applications important for constraining different aspects of the Messinian Salinity Crisis are highlighted

The role of condensation-corrosion in thermal speleogenesis: Study of a hypogenic sulfidic cave in Aix-les-Bains, France, 2007, Audra P. , Hoblea F. , Bigot J. Y. , Nobecourt J. C.

Condensation-corrosion is an active speleogenetical process in thermal caves where high thermal gradient drives air convection. Wall retreat rates are greater than in meteoric caves. Conversely, evaporation produces depositional processes by replacement of limestone by gypsum and by aerosol decantation leading to the formation of popcorns. The Chevalley Aven belongs to Aix-les-Bains thermal-sulfidic cave system. Condensation occurs at the contact of cool walls of large spheres; conversely, evaporation occurs at the output of the narrow passages where the air sinks down from the upper sphere. A weathered layer and biofilms are present where slow condensation occurs. Corrosion distribution varies according to thermal rock conductivity and causes the sphere to develop upwards, laterally, and divergent. This mor­phodynamic pattern favors the development of stacked spheres, isolated by narrow necks, and arranged in a bush-like pattern. This development is clearly active in the vadose zone above the thermal water table. We propose that some avens above wa­ter table hypogenic caves, like Villa Luz (Mexico), may be of condensation-corrosion origin instead of phreatic. Future de­velopment will collect physical and chemical data to calculate the condensation-corrosion budget and assess its role in cave development.


Ground-water storage calculation in karst aquifers with alluvium or no-flow boundaries, 2008, Raeisi E.
The determination of water-budget parameters, such as change in storage and subsurface inflow and outflow, is costly and unreliable due to heterogeneities of karst aquifers. Some karst aquifers may have one or a combination of boundaries such as impermeable formations, alluvial aquifers, and known ground-water divides. Karst water only discharges through springs or flows to the adjacent alluvium. A new procedure is proposed to estimate volume of storage in region during the dry season in these settings. The subsurface inflow and outflow can be measured in the adjacent alluvium using equipotential and flow lines, cross-sectional area, and transmissivity of the alluvial aquifer. The dry season makes it possible to calculate the karst spring recession coefficient and karst aquifer dynamic volume at the beginning and end of the hydrological year. The change of storage is the difference between the dynamic volumes of the karst aquifer at the beginning and end of the hydrological year. The volume of water which flows to the adjacent alluvium or spring is measured by plotting the discharge as a function of time and estimating the recession coefficient at the beginning (or end) of the hydrological year. Known equations are used to calculate the dynamic volume of springs. A general equation is proposed to calculate the dynamic volume of a karst aquifer when there is a combination of springs, and subsurface inflow and outflow from the karst aquifer. The proposed method is applicable to the Zagros Folded Zone in Iran.

TIME SERIES ANALYSIS, MODELLING AND ASSESSMENT OF OPTIMAL EXPLOITATION OF THE NEMANJA KARST SPRINGS, SERBIA, 2010, Jemcov I. , Petri? M.
The time series analysis was applied in the case-study of a karst aquifer in Serbia in order to study its functioning, hydrodynamic behavior and hydraulic properties. Focusing on the definition of groundwater budget, due to very complex functioning of karst systems the correlation and spectral analyses were used to emphasize the importance of transforming the input data precipitation to effective infiltration. Thee characterization of karst aquifer was further improved by separating the output component discharge to base flow and flatfoot components. Additionally, the importance of these transformations was proved in application of the regression model for the simulation of discharges based on the effective infiltration functions. A recharge-discharge model was applied in accordance with the active groundwater management, defining optimal exploitable regimes, which included the analyses of storage changes in karst water reservoirs under natural conditions, and calculation of the potential exploitation conditions.

Conceptual modelling of brine flow into aquifers adjacent to the Konarsiah salt diapir, Iran, 2010, Zarei Mehdi, Raeisi Ezzat

The Konarsiah salt diapir is located in the Simply Folded Zone of the Zagros Mountain, south Iran. Salt,extruding from two vents along a fault, spreads downslope as a salt glacier over the adjacent formations. Eight small permanent brine springs emerge from the Konarsiah salt body, with average total dissolved solids of 327.3 g/L. The diapir is in direct contact with several aquifers, namely, the karstic Eastern and Western Sarvak, karstic Eastern Asmari, Firouzabad, Konarsiah Plain and Shour. It is also surrounded by a number of impermeable formations. The springs and seepage sections emerging from the aquifers adjacent to the diapir are unexpectedly saline or brackish. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, flow rate, temperature and major ion concentrations were measured monthly from September 2007 to August 2008 at 37 sampling sites, including springs, surface waters, boreholes and wells.
The study indicates that the source of salinity of the adjacent aquifers is halite dissolution of the diapir. Conceptual models of groundwater flow are proposed for the adjacent karst aquifers based on the geological setting, water budget, local base of erosion, isotope data and the profile of the water table. The share of the diapir brine in the Eastern Sarvak aquifer, the Western aquifers (Sarvak, Asmari and Shour) and Konarsiah Plain are 1.8 L/s, 0.8 L/s and 9.1 L/s, respectively. Most of this brine ultimately releases into the Firouzabad River and changes the TDS of this river from 9.21 g/L to 11.61 g/L.
To drain the brine flowing into the Eastern Sarvak aquifer and hence reduce the aquifer's salinity it might be feasible to construct a qanat (a man-made underground gallery transferring groundwater to the surface by gravity) at the aquifer's contact with the Konarsiah diapir. To exploit the fresh karst water of the Western Sarvak aquifer before it is contaminated by the Konarsiah brine, several wells could be constructed well away from the diapir.


Time‐lapse microgravity surveys reveal water storage heterogeneity of a karst aquifer, 2010, Jacob T. , Bayer R. , Chery J. , Le Moigne N.

Time‐lapse microgravity surveying combined with absolute gravity measurements is  used to investigate water storage changes in a karst aquifer of ∼100 km2 area. The survey  consists of 40 gravity stations measured with a relative gravimeter; absolute gravity is  measured at three stations for each survey. In total, four gravity surveys are performed over  a 2 year time period during consecutive wet and dry periods. Survey precisions range  between 2.4 and 5 mGal, enabling statistically significant detection of 10 mGal change, i.e.,  ∼0.25 m equivalent water level change. Observed gravity changes are coherent between  consecutive survey periods, i.e., net water withdrawal and net water recharge is observed,  reaching changes as high as 22 mGal. Observed gravity changes allow refining  evapotranspiration estimates, which may serve to improve the water budget of the aquifer.  High‐and low‐gravity amplitude zones characterize the karst system, demonstrating  spatially variable storage behavior. Geomorphologic considerations are invoked to explain  the location of preferential zones of water storage, and a conceptual model of water storage  is discussed for the studied karst. 


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