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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That round karren is see rundkarren.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Search in KarstBase

Your search for human activity (Keyword) returned 36 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 36
Intrudaction: Monitoring of carst caves, 2002, Kranjc, Andrej

The monitoring, a regular, continuous observation aimed to establish the state and eventual changes is an extremely important activity for protection and safeguarding of karst caves, in particular show caves. Obtained data gained by a suitable monitoring are essential for protection and conservation of natural conditions underground. For planning the tourist exploitation and appropriate management in show caves a detailed and integral knowledge of a cave is essential, knowing the natural properties and capacity of regeneration of certain natural characteristics and impact which is caused or could be caused by human activity, in a case of a show cave, by visitors mostly. These questions cannot be solved without an appropriate monitoring. Obviously a protection and conservation of a cave listed in the UNESCO World Natural Heritage is even more important, as this is not only "our" but "world" heritage. In the course of the 17th and the 18th centuries the caves have been looked upon as a very remarkable phenomenon of the Trieste surroundings. A real show cave they have become already in 1819. They have been an important starting point for Lindner's investigations for the water supply sources for Trieste, as proved by Svetina's exploration in 1839. In spite of this the major part of the caves have not been surveyed until the Caving Department of the Littoral Section of the German-Austrian Mountaineering Society has been founded in 1884. Their members reached the final siphon in 1891 and another 100 years were needed before the cave divers passed through it. In pace with exploration the tourist interest and visit grew too as well as the consciousness of safeguarding the precious natural phenomenon. Therefore Škocjanske jame have been one of the first caves being inscribed in the list of World's natural heritage of UNESCO in 1986. This fact requires much more attention oriented towards the protection and safeguarding of natural phenomenon itself than to its economic exploitation. To fulfil this the knowledge of natural state and recording of its changing is necessary. To achieve this the appropriate monitoring has to be established. At the 15th anniversary of the inscription of Škocjanske jame into the UNESCO's list, in November 2001 an international workshop on monitoring in karst caves has been organised. The initiator and the organiser too, together with Karst Research Institute from Postojna and Park Škocjanske jame, has been the Slovenian National Commission for the UNESCO. Professional papers of the workshop are very interesting and important not only for Škocjanske jame, but for the protection of caves in general. So the Editorial Board of Acta carsologica accepted with pleasure to publish the papers of the workshop in this journal.


Deep water circulation, residence time, and chemistry in a karst complex, 2003, Aquilina L, Ladouche B, Doerfliger N, Bakalowicz M,
We investigated the hydrochemistry of a complex karst hydrosystem made of two carbonate units along a coastal lagoon. Ground water emerges on the lagoon floor from a submarine spring. In addition, thermal waters circulate through the limestone and mix with karst water near the lagoon shore. A distinction between the water from the two carbonate units is related to marine influences and human activities. In one of the massifs, the data show an incongruent dissolution of dolomite with time. In the other system, a slight contamination by saline fluids from the thermal reservoir has led to high calcium and magnesium concentrations. Cl-36, C-14, and H-3 data constrain the residence time of the water, and allow for the distinguishing of four circulation types: (1) shallow surface circulation (primarily above sea level) in the karstic units with short residence times (<20 years); (2) shallow subsurface circulation (approximately 0 to -50 in) below the karstic units with residence time in the order of 50 years; (3) deep circulation at depth of 700 to 1500 m in the Jurassic limestones below thick sedimentary cover, with residence time of several thousand years for a part of the water; and (4) deep circulation at a depth of similar to2500 in, which represents the thermal reservoir in the Jurassic units with residence time of similar to100,000 years. An interpretative hydrogeological framework is based on the constraints of the geochemical analyses of the deep thermal system. and by water flow from the surface to the deep parts of the carbonate formations

Comparative estimate of resistance to drought for selected karstic aquifers in Bulgaria, 2004, Orehova Tatiana
Effective management of water resources requires adequate knowledge of groundwater system including the influence of climate variability and climate change. The drought of 1982-1994 in Bulgaria has led to important decrease of springflow and lowering of water levels. Therefore, groundwater demonstrated its vulnerability to drought. The purpose of this paper is to determine relative resistance of selected aquifers in Bulgaria to a prolonged decrease of recharge to groundwater. The drought resistance indicator has been defined for some karstic aquifers based on the method proposed in report of BRGM. The data from National Hydrogeological Network located in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology were processed. For the aim of this study, time-series of discharge for karstic springs were used. Stations with significant impact of human activity on groundwater were eliminated. The results show that most of studied aquifers in Bulgaria have moderate and weak resistance to the drought. They are vulnerable to droughts and need good management for effective use of groundwater resources.

Analysis of the geomorphology and environmental geological problems of Huzhou on the Yangtze River delta, 2004, Jiang Y. H. , Wang J. D. , Yuan X. Y. , Wang R. H. ,
Geomorphically, Huzhou, which is on the Yangtze River delta is characterized mainly by plains, with small hills. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the environmental geological hazards both natural and those incurred by human activities in different morphologic units. The authors point out that most of the regional environmental geological problems in the natural geologic-morphologic conditions, such as crustal stability, foundation of soft soil, soil waterlogging and soil erosion, have insignificant effects to the society, or related countermeasures of prevention and control have been adopted. But environmental geological problems incurred by human being's economic activities become more and more severe, for example, water and soil pollution and land subsidence in plain areas resulting from overexploitation of groundwater, and landslides, karst collapses and water and soil loss etc. caused by quarrying in hilly areas

Human influence on the choice of winter dens by European brown bears in Slovenia, 2004, Petram Welf, Knauer Felix, Kaczensky Petra,
The Slovenian brown bear (Ursus arctos ) population is the only viable population in Central and Western Europe, and it coexists with humans in a multi-use landscape. Bears are most vulnerable to human disturbances during denning. To assess the influence of humans on the choice of winter dens by bears we compared availability and use of caves suitable for denning in central Slovenia. Surprisingly, all direct measures of human influence showed no or only a small effect on the use of the caves by bears. We found that the landscape type (big dolines, canyons, river valleys, and karst plateau) was the most important variable. The less accessible a landscape type is, the more it is used. The probability that a cave in a big doline is used is about 200 times higher than on the karst plateau. Furthermore bears preferred long caves with small entrances away from villages. Bears did not use any cave caves were predicted correctly by our model of being used or unused. For conservation and human safety reasons, human activity should be banned from steep ravines and large karst dolines in winter

Stable isotope (H-2, O-18 and Sr-87/Sr-86) and hydrochemistry monitoring for groundwater hydrodynamics analysis in a karst aquifer (Gran Sasso, Central Italy), 2005, Barbieri M, Boschetti T, Petitta M, Tallini M,
This paper deals with chemical and isotope analyses of 21 springs, which were monitored 3 times in the course of 2001; the monitoring program was focused on the groundwater of the Gran Sasso carbonate karst aquifer (Central Italy), typical of the mountainous Mediterranean area. Based on the hydrogeological setting of the study area, 6 groups of springs with different groundwater circulation patterns were distinguished. The hydrogeochemistry of their main components provided additional information about groundwater flowpaths, confirming the proposed classification. The spatial distribution of their ion concentrations validated the assumptions underlying the hydrogeological conceptual model, showing diverging groundwater flowpaths from the core to the boundaries of the aquifer. Geochemical modelling and saturation index computation elucidated water-carbonate rock interaction, contribution by alluvial aquifers at the karst aquifer boundaries, as well as impacts of human activities. The analysis of O-18/O-16 and H-2/H values and their spatial distribution in the aquifer substantiated the hydrogeology-based classification of 6 groups of springs, making it possible to trace back groundwater recharge areas based on mean isotope elevations; the latter were calculated by using two rain monitoring stations. Sr-87/Sr-86 analyses showed seasonal changes in many springs: in winter-spring, the changes are due to inflow of new recharge water, infiltrating into younger rocks and thus increasing (87)sr/Sr-86 values; in summer-autumn, when there is no recharge and spring discharge declines, changes are due to base flow groundwater circulating in more ancient rocks, with a subsequent drop in Sr-87/Sr-86 values. The results of this study stress the contribution that spatio-temporal isotope monitoring can give to the definition of groundwater flowpaths and hydrodynamics in fissured and karst aquifers, taking into account their hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical setting. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

Variation of karst spring discharge in the recent five decades as an indicator of global climate change: A case study at Shanxi, northern China, 2005, Guo Q. H. , Wang Y. X. , Ma T. , Li L. X. ,
Karst in Shanxi Province is representative of that in northern China, and karst water systems discharge in the form of springs that are among the most important sources for local water supply. Since the 1950s, attenuation has been the major trend of discharge variation of most karst springs at Shanxi. Based on the case study of 7 karst springs including Niangziguan, Xin'an, Guozhuang, Shentou, Jinci, Lancun, and Hongshan springs, the discharge variation process of karst springs was divided into natural fluctuation phase and anthropogenic impact phase. Discharge attenuation of the 7 karst springs was controlled mainly by climate and human activities, with their contributions being respectively about 60% and 40%. According to the difference of the effect of climate and human activities for each spring, attenuation modes of spring discharge fall into three types: natural process dominated attenuation type, exploitation induced process dominated attenuation type, and mixed attenuation type. The total restored discharge variation of 7 karst springs matched well with the global air temperature change in 1956-2000, clearly indicating the trend of global warming and aridity in the last several decades, and the analysis of discharge variation processes of karst springs can be used as a new tool for global change studies

Karst groundwater protection: First application of a Pan-European Approach to vulnerability, hazard and risk mapping in the Sierra de Libar (Southern Spain), 2006, Andreo B, Goldscheider N, Vadillo I, Vias Jm, Neukum C, Sinreich M, Jimenez P, Brechenmacher J, Carrasco F, Hotzl H, Perles Mj, Zwahlen F,
The European COST action 620 proposed a comprehensive approach to karst groundwater protection, comprising methods of intrinsic and specific vulnerability mapping, validation of vulnerability maps, hazard and risk mapping. This paper presents the first application of all components of this Pan-European Approach to the Sierra de Libar, a karst hydrogeology system in Andalusia, Spain. The intrinsic vulnerability maps take into account the hydrogeological characteristics of the area but are independent from specific contaminant properties. Two specific vulnerability maps were prepared for faecal coliforrns and BTEX These maps take into account the specific properties of these two groups of contaminants and their interaction with the karst hydrogeological system. The vulnerability assessment was validated by means of tracing tests, hydrological, hydrochemical and isotope methods. The hazard map shows the localization of potential contamination sources resulting from human activities, and evaluates those according to their dangerousness. The risk of groundwater contamination depends on the hazards and the vulnerability of the aquifer system. The risk map for the Sierra de Libar was thus created by overlaying the hazard and vulnerability maps. (C) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Geophysical applications to detect sinkholes and ground subsidence, 2006, Dobecki Tl, Upchurch Sb,
The term sinkhole receives a lot of use, and equal amounts of abuse, in the popular media. Generally, anytime a hole or depression forms in the land surface, sometimes in a short period of time, it is called a sinkhole. Sinkholes are geologic features formed by movement of rock or sediment into voids created by the dissolution of water-soluble rock. Some sinkholes, such as the infamous Winter Park, Florida, sinkhole of 1981 (Figure 1), capture the attention of society as we view expensive homes and automobiles teetering on a precipice about to disappear into the underworld. Subsidence features caused by other processes, such as mine collapse and washouts resulting from broken water and sewer mains, are not true sinkholes, but may be equally as damaging. These features also result from rock or soil moving into a void, but the void was a result of human activities

Evaluating the impact of quarrying on karst aquifers of Salento (southern Italy), 2007, Le Rose M. , Parise M. , Andriani G. F. ,
This paper describes a case study in the Salento karst (Apulia, southern Italy) in a site that has been intensively used to quarry limestones in the last 30 years. After quarrying activity had stopped, the site was transformed into legal and illegal landfills where solid and liquid wastes have been repeatedly dumped, with serious consequences for the groundwater resources. In this paper, through a geological, petrographical and hydrogeological approach, we attempt to assess the consequences of the anthropogenic activities on the local hydrogeology, with particular regard to the surficial aquifer that is contained in the Plio-Quaternary calcarenites cropping out in the area. Application of some well-known methods to assess the vulnerability of aquifer systems to contamination by human activities (DRASTIC, SINTACS, LeGrand and GOD) highlights the limits of such an approach in karst environment, and the necessity to include in the methods data strictly related to the peculiarity of karst. This is further evidenced by application of the EPIK method, specifically designed for karst areas. The final part of the paper focuses on the need of a thorough understanding of the hydrogeological setting for a better management and policy action of karst environments

Flash flood hydrology in karstic terrain: Flumineddu Canyon, central-east Sardinia, 2010, De Waele Jo, Martina Mario L. V. , Sanna Laura, Cabras Salvatore, Cossu Quirico Antonio

In the last five winters (2004–2008) several exceptional meteorological events producing flash floods have been registered in central-east Sardinia. The first of these (December 2004) was the most severe and caused important geomorphic changes in the Riu Flumineddu watershed where the influence of human activity is limited. The hydrological characterisation of this flood is extremely difficult because of the lack of streamflow gauges and the relative paucity of meteorological stations in the region. Peak discharge of the fluviokarstic Riu Flumineddu Canyon has been estimated based on a distributed hydrological model (TOPKAPI) and on empirical methods based on geomorphic and sedimentological observations. The comparison between the results derived from these independent methods allows us to obtain the best possible estimate of peak discharge. Differences between modelled and measured peak flows can be attributed to water losses and/or gains along the river channel from interactions with the underground karst drainage network.

The December 2004 flood, with an estimated recurrence interval of at least 65 years, generated overbank flow and destroyed several bridges in upstream reaches, caused important changes in channel morphology and sediment distribution and was able to move boulders up to 1 m in diameter in downstream reaches.


Impact of chlorides, nitrates, sulfates and phosphates on increased limestone dissolution in the karst vadose zone (Postojna Cave, Slovenia) , 2011, Kogovek, Janja

Distinctive karst hydrology arises from a combination of high carbonate rock solubility and well developed secondary porosity
(fissures). Soil CO2 is the most important influence on solubility
of carbonate rock (Ford & Williams 2007). Human activity
on the karst surface results in pollution that has an important influence on water quality. Degradation of organic pollution (e.g. waste water, leachates from landfill sites) results in inorganic
acids too. These acids could have an important additional influence on dissolution of carbonate rocks in the vadose zone. In the framework of more than 20 years of research on precipitation
percolation and transfer of contaminants (direct outflow of waste water from a small military facility where about twenty troops were stationed) through the 100-m thick vadose zone of Postojna Cave, contaminated water was observed in drips and trickles in the cave (up to 60 mg Cl-/l, up to 180 mg NO3-/l, up to 2.8 mg PO43-/l, and up to 50 mg SO42-/l). At the same time the sum of calcium and magnesium (Ca+Mg) of trickles was up to two times larger than the Ca+Mg of either the uncontaminated
reference trickle or the input waste water. The amount of dissolved limestone carried by waste water to trickles and drips in the cave was directly proportional to the concentration
of contaminant anions present. This demonstrates that there is an accelerated widening of fissures below source points of wastewater. Water with contaminants can penetrate faster and deeper into the vadose zone along the increasingly permeable
fissures without losing its dissolving power, and thus significant dissolution occurs ever deeper in the vadose zone. This results in ever faster penetration of contaminants through the vadose zone. In the final phase of such development, which takes many decades or longer, relatively rapid transfer of contaminants
through the aquifer all the way to karst springs with minimal self-cleansing effects can be expected.


Development of slope and related subsoil karst: A case study from Bela Krajina, SE Slovenia , 2011, Gams Ivan, Otonič, Ar Bojan, Slabe Tadej

The relief of Bela Krajina and Semiška Reber in southeastern Slovenia is mainly a consequence of post Late Miocene tectonic movements and karstic, mostly subsoil, erosion. In the lower half of the slope at Vrtača in the northwestern part of Bela Krajina, 1.3 km northeast of the center of Semič and 15 to 25 meters above the surroundings, a 250-meter long and about 150-meter wide lateral ridge rises at an inclination of 8°. The formation of the medium-sized relief between the elevated lateral ridge and the lower elongated side depressions is most probably to a large extent the consequence of differences in the rock fissuring and the varying intensity of hundreds of thousands of years lasting corrosion related to it. Traces of subsoil formation are the prevailing feature found on hundreds of rock ribs (i.e., subsoil rock formations that are not cone-shaped like teeth but rather elongated with their longer axes largely parallel to the dip of the surface) dissecting the surface area of one of the vineyard plots on the rocky lateral ridge. This indicates they were relatively recently exposed, as a consequence of human activity when soil was removed from an abandoned plot.


Challenges for environmentally sustainable development of natural resources in the Nam Ou karst, northern Laos , 2011, Kiernan, Kevin

A very low level of social and economic development in the Nam Ou karst is in part the result of its remoteness and rugged terrain. The karst poses both opportunities and challenges for environmentally sustainable land use beneficial to the small communities scattered through the area. Negative legacies of past human activity include soil erosion and a reduction in primary forest cover due to a long history of swidden agriculture, and environmental damage generated during wartime. A variety of natural resource development projects are now planned or under way, but progress towards true sustainability is impeded by the very limited resources available to address environmental
concerns, which poses particular hazard for karst conservation and management.


Delineating Protection Areas for Caves Using Contamination Vulnerability Mapping Techniques: The Case of Herreras Cave, Asturias, Spain, 2012, Marn A. I. , Andrea B. , Jimnezsnchez M. , Dominguezcuesta M. J. , Melndezasensio

 

Diverse approaches are adopted for cave protection. One approach is delineating protection areas with regard to their vulnerability to contamination. This paper reports the main results obtained from the delineation of a protection zone for Herrerı´as Cave, declared of Cultural Interest by the Asturias Regional Government, based on assessing its vulnerability to contamination. The cave is situated in a complex karst hydrogeologic environment in which groundwater flows from southwest to northeast, following the bedrock structure. A stream flows inside the cave, emerging in a spring located to the northeast of the system. Karst recharge occurs by direct infiltration of rainfall over limestone outcrops, concentrated infiltration of surface runoff in the watershed draining the cave, and deferred infiltration of water from alluvial beds drained by influent streams. The soil and vegetation covers are natural in the majority of the test site, but land uses in the watershed, including scattered farming, stock breeding, quarrying, and tourist use, are changing the natural characteristics and increasing the cave’s vulnerability to contamination. The procedure followed for delineating protection zones is based on the method COP+K that is specifically designed for vulnerability mapping of groundwater springs in carbonate aquifers. To cover the hydrological basin included in the cave’s catchment area, the protection zones established includes two different areas, the hydrogeological catchment basin and adjacent land that contributes runoff. Different degrees of protection in the zones have been proposed to make human activity compatible with conservation of the cave, and our results show remarkable differences from the protection zone previously proposed for the same area.


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