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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That specific gravity is the weight of a particular volume of water that a given body of rock or soil will hold against the pull of gravity to the volume of the body itself. it is usually expressed as a percentage [6].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for fault (Keyword) returned 376 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 376
Karst development and the distribution of karst drainage systems in Dejiang, Guizhou Province, China, 1983, Song Linhua, Zhang Yaoguang, Fang Jinfu, Gu Zhongxong,
The nature of karstification of two contrasting areas on the north Guizhou Plateau (south China) is shown to be controlled by structure, lithology, geomorphic history and tectonics, and causes significant differences to arise in the subsurface drainage systems of the areas.The Shaqi area lies in a syncline of Permo-Triassic limestones underlain by an insoluble sandy shale which forms the local base level. Karst landforms are strongly influenced by the presence of four erosion levels corresponding to four periods of rejuvenation of the drainage systems. Drainage is concentrated along the syncline axis, and one system (Naoshuiyan) has been pirating another (Lengshuiyan) by headward retreat. Cave passages are typically phreatic.The Dejiang Town area lies in an anticline of Cambrian dolomite and Ordovician limestone. Three large subsurface drainage systems have developed along parallel faults, and have typically vadose cross-sections

The role of the subcutaneous zone in karst hydrology, 1983, Williams Paul W. ,
The subcutaneous zone is the upper weathered layer of rock beneath the soil, but above the permanently saturated (phreatic) zone. It is of particular hydrological importance in karst because of its high secondary permeability, arising from the considerable chemical solution in this zone. However, corrosional enlargement of fissures diminishes with depth; thus permeability decreases in the same direction with the result that percolation is inhibited, except down widened master joints and faults. Storage of water consequently occurs in this zone, particularly after storms. The upper surface of this suspended saturated layer in the subcutaneous zone is defined by a perched water table, which slopes towards points of rapid vertical percolation. The potential induces lateral water movement converging on the most permeable areas such as beneath dolines. Leakage from the subcutaneous store sustains slow percolation in the vadose zone. Cross-correlation of rainfall with percolation rates in caves in New Mexico, U.S.A., and New Zealand reveal response lags of 2-14 weeks with no apparent relationship to depth below the surface. Other percolation sites show no correlation with rainfall; interpreted as being a consequence of considerable friction in tight fissure networks. The recognition of storage and rapid as well as very slow percolation from the subcutaneous zone requires re-interpretation of the components of hydrographs from karst springs and of some conceptual models of karst aquifers. The importance of subcutaneous storage in sustaining baseflow discharge at some sites must be recognised, as must the contribution of subcutaneous water to flood hydrographs. Methods of estimating the volumes of subcutaneous and phreatic components of karst-spring flood hydrographs are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the significance of subcutaneous hydrologic processes for an understanding of karst geomorphology. The desirability of explaining karst landform evolution in terms of hydrologic processes is stressed

Hydrogologie karstique des Alpes-Maritimes, 1984, Baissas, P.
Karst hydrogeology in the Alpes-Maritimes - In the Marguareis, the systems penetrate very quickly by transverse faults, to reach the impermeable basement and then follow the dip. All the waters, even those on the French side, belong to the P basin. In the Roya arc, underflows are to be found going round the base of the Argentera-Mercantour. In the Nice arc, the karstification depends principally on tectonic factors and according to the places, the water follows either the overlaps or transverse faults. In the Grasse plateaus, the galleries follow at the outset the slopes and the dips of the synclinal hinges; the tectonic factors determine the location of the resurgences ; at depth, the karst is always phreatic, with relations between tectonic compartments during floods. In the cover of the Tanneron-Esterel basement and Barrot Dome, lithological factors determine flow.

Karsts alpins et notectonique, 1984, Julian, M.
ALPINE KARSTS AND NEOTECTONIC: A BRIEF OVERVIEW - Several problems are studied at the light of new investigations: 1) the deepening of the karstic network related to orogenic uplifts and the corresponding levels of the caves; 2) the tectonic deformations (faults) described upon some karstic surfaces or into some caves; 3) the pseudo-tectonic deformations like toppling failures and other tension-cracks parallel to the vertical cliff faces.

Un haut plateau jurassien : le plateau des Molunes (Jura), 1984, Neyroud, M.
LARGE KARSTIC DEPRESSIONS AND ANTICLINAL STRUCTURES ON A HIGH JURASSIC TABLE-LAND: THE SOUTH OF THE PAYS MOLUNOIS (JURA, FRANCE) - On a high Jurassic table-land, the Pays molunois, close to the Monts Jura (Crt de la Neige, 1717m), large karstic depressions are studied in connection with anticline structures. Along a single anticline crest, a great diversity of forms is explained by the character of strike-slip faults (direct tectonic control), the glacial heritage (regional ice-cap), the tardiglacial evolution (peat-bogs or molunes), the lithological context (minor morphology) and at last unequal anthropic action. The morphogenesis of an original type of small anticlinal valleys, the closed anticline valleys-poljes is considered dating from geomorphologic evolution of the area and particular tectonic context.

Les massifs karstiques des Alpes occidentales, trame structurale et bioclimatique, 1984, Nicod, J.
THE KARSTIC MASSIFS OF WESTERN ALPS: structural and bioclimatic framework - The structural conditions determine several types of karst units: the northern Prealps (thrusts), the southern Jura (folded or tabular), the southern Prealps (faulted and folded plateaus), the complex land of Low Provence, and the high karsts of Inner Alps. The bioclimatic framework explains the altitudinal sequence of current processes. The value of the runoff, the part of the snow, and the biochemical parameters (vegetation, CO2), have particularly holded the attention. The specific dissolution reaches its maximum in the wooded mountain karsts. Heritages also determine the landforms (glacial, periglacial, terra-rossa).

Spider Cave, Jenolan - A Fault Controlled System, 1984, Cox Guy, Welch Bruce

Spider Cave is an influent cave, representing one stage in the progressive capture of the surface flow of the Jenolan River by a cave system. It consists principally of a rarely-active inlet passage, largely of phreatic form, which descends to join the large passage carrying the Jenolan Underground River. Both the position and the form of the inlet passage have been strongly influenced by the presence of a fault, which has also influenced the course of the surface river, and given rise to a large cliff - Frenchmans Bluff. The fault-line has also affected the development of the main underground riverway.


Le massif du Parmelan, Haute-Savoie, relations fractura-tion-karstification, 1985, Masson, M.
THE MASSIF OF PARMELAN, HAUTE-SAVOIE, FRANCE: RELATIONS BETWEEN FRACTURATION AND KARSTIFICATION - The massif of Parmelan (Haute-Savoie), encloses a well-karstified and highly organised perched aquifer. Its simple geological structure and easy-speleological penetration (more than 45km are known) have allowed a statistical study of the fracturation and karstification parameters at different scales. This study shows that the karst has developed on the most frequent fracturation directions (study of the cumulated lengths), whereas its directional distribution in frequency is relatively homogeneous; the most used fractures are the tension faults, linked with the folding of the massif.

Hydrogologie de la rgion entre Araches et Flaine (Haute-Savoie), 1985, Sesiano, J.
NEW HYDROGEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIoNS IN THE Massif de Plat BETWEEN ARACHES AND Flaine (HAUTE-SAVOIE, FRANCE) - During 1983 and 1984 several dye-tracing experiments have been performed in the French Prealps (Haute-Savoie). The studied area covered about 30 km2, with altitudes ranging between 500m and 2500m. An underground drainage model has been set up, taking into account the fact that there is a common water outlet. The model is based upon the regional tectonic setting, the drainage pattern following thrust and fault planes

Karst and Caves of the Nam Lang - Nam Khong Region, North Thailand, 1985, Dunkley, John

The Nam Lang - Nam Khong Karst Region, located in a thinly populated, remote part of Mae Hong Son Province, north-west Thailand, comprises about 1,000km2 of massive Permian limestone. Over much of the area is developed a characteristic polygonal karst dominated by over 3,000 depressions, with an assemblage of forms including dolines, uvalas, poljes, streamsinks, through caves, springs and blind valleys. Speleological exploration commenced only in 1983 and the major discovery is the Tham Nam Lang, the longest cave reported on the mainland of south-east Asia with nearly 7km of passages. Cave development is strongly influenced by regional strike and fault orientation and by base level incision into impermeable sediments underlying the limestone. The largest caves are formed where aggressive water collects on impervious rocks before entering the limestone. Elsewhere cave development is limited. Several caves are important archaeological sites, and a number have tourist potential.


Prsentation du Causse Comtal (Aveyron), 1987, Solier, P.
THE " CAUSSE COMTAL " (AVEYRON, FRANCE): GEOLOGY, HYDROGEOLOGY AND INVENTORY OF MAIN CAVES - The " Causse Comtal " (S = 265 km2) forms a sedimentary bridge between the " Causses du Quercy " in the west and the " Grands Causses " in the east. With a middle humid climate (P = 1000 mm/y, T = 9,4 C, Evap. = 450-500 mm/y), this plateau karst presents two aquifer levels in the Lower and Middle Jurassic separated by a marly layer. These formations cover a paleozoic basement (sandstone, argillite from Carboniferous and Permian, crystalline rocks). The hydrogeological basins are controlled by E-W reverse faults due to the N-S pyrenean compression. The main spring is near Salles-la-Source in the western part (average discharge: 840 l/s; flood : 10 m3/s); it drains a 50-55 km2 area. The morphological and speleological evolution is subordinated to an erosion surface from Upper Cretaceous - Tertiary. Often stopped up (blocking), the numerous fossil caves probably date from the end of Cenozoic era. The large subterranean passages (active or semi-actives galleries; ex.: Tindoul de la Vayssire) are plio-quaternary.

Le karst pliocne de la rgion de Safi (Maroc atlantique), 1987, Weisrock A. , Lunski S.
POST-PLIOCENE KARST OF SAFI AREA (ATLANTIC MOROCCO) - The karst of Safi area is developed in bioclastic calcarenites of Plio-Moghrebian upon Mesozoic limestones, marls and gypsum. Dolines, uvalas and poljes are found along faults N170-N195, N040-N070, N080-N115, which are mainly " Mesetian " and " Atlasic " tectonic directions of Atlantic Morocco. Two points are developed upon this karst genesis: 1/ the relations between post-pliocene karstic landforms and paleokarst in limestones and gypsum; 2/ the recent karstic developments occur during the periods wetter than today (310 mm/y), for example Upper Pleistocene, as it is showed by dating of charcoal in dolines filling.

Relationships between the internal and external evolution of the Monte Cucco Karst Complex. Umbria, Central Italy., 1987, Guzzetti Fausto
The relationships between the internal and external evolution of the Mt. Cucco karst complex are studied. A classic set of equations, involving the oxidation of hydrogen sulphide, originated at depth in an evaporitic formation, is used to explain the presence of massive gypsum deposits in the Mt. Cucco and the Faggeto Tondo caves. The distribution and the morphology of more than 30 caves in the system, the presence of gypsum, always located along faults, and the presence of broken stalactites and columns, suggest that the evolution of the karst system has been controlled by tectonic movements. Relationships between the development of the caves and the geomorphic evolution of the area are proposed.

Thermal aspects of the East Midlands aquifer system, 1987, Wilson N. P. , Luheshi M. N. ,
A case study of a heat flow anomaly in the E Midlands of England is reported. The anomaly has been suggested to be an effect of water movement at depth within the E Midlands basin, with recharge to the Lower Carboniferous limestones in their outcrop, eastward movement and ascent of water up a steep faulted anticline at Eakring where the heat flow measurements were made. Numerical modelling of heat and fluid flow has been undertaken for a section running from the Peak District through Eakring to the coast. The results indicate that, although an anomaly is expected for reasonable values of hydrological parameters, its magnitude is less than that observed. The geological structure at Eakring is such that three-dimensional flow is likely to be important, and this could easily account for the discrepancy between the modelling results and the observations. The regional water flow regime has other effects on heat flow, notably the depression of heat flow above the Sherwood Sandstone aquifer

Cave dams of the Guanyan System, Guangxi, China, 1987, Smart P. L. , Waltham A. C. ,
With well over 1 million km2 of carbonate rocks exposed at the surface, and a history of exploitation spanning in excess of 2000 years, the Chinese probably have more experience than any other people in developing the water resources of carbonate aquifers. Interestingly, many of the smaller scale projects are carried out by local farmers and co-operatives, with little recourse to the advice of professional engineers and hydrologists, although even in large regional schemes, much local expertise and labour is involved (see for example Hegtkcar 1976). While recently some of the Chinese work on karst hydrology has become available in the west (Song 1981; Song et al 1983; Yuan 1981, ) much of the practical experience resulting from these local and small scale developments remains unpublished even in China. We were therefore very fortunate to be able to examine the engineering works associated with the Guanyan cave system, just south of Guilin, Guangxi Province, SE China, during a recent joint venture with the Institute of Karst Research, Ministry of Geology, Guilin. The Guanyan (Crown Cave) system is developed in a sequence of relatively pure, predominantly finegrained limestones and dolomites over 2600 m thick, and ranging from Devonian to Carboniferous in age (Yuan 1980). These are folded into thrust faulted, NW-SE-trending folds, but dips are generally less than 30{degrees}. The underlying impermeable shales, siltstones and sandstones form a mountainous terrain rising to 1400 m above sea-level east of the limestone, and provide the headwaters for streams feeding into the caves (Fig. ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

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