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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That soil moisture is subsurface liquid water in the unsaturated zone expressed as a fraction of the total porous medium volume occupied by water. it is less than or equal to the porosity [22].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for show caves (Keyword) returned 38 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 38
MICROCLIMATIC RESEARCH IN THE SLOVAKIAN SHOW CAVES, 2002, Zelinka, Jan

The paper deals with the activities of the Cave Protection Department of the Slovak Caves Administration in the field of speleoclimatic monitoring in the Slovakian show caves since 1996. The monitoring is concentrated on detail survey of basic climatic parameters processes (temperature, relative air humidity, dew point, air velocity, atmospheric pressure etc.) in by now studied show caves during minimally one year. The essence of obtained knowledge is to enhance cave protection in the practice of show caves, better understand the geoecosystems; determine visitors' influence, the period of regeneration and evaluation of possible negative influences. The results of the monitoring are used for determining the carrying capacity of individual caves, limits for visitors, guiding the manageiant and other necessary measures. Presented caves were surveyed by priorities like: World Heritage site, ice caves, natural air mass communication with surface climate, potential threats - all in relation to cave utilization and operation. Technical eqqipment, as well as research methodology are described in detail in the paper.


Environmentally acceptable effect of hydrogen peroxide on cave “lamp-flora”, calcite speleothems and limestones, 2003, Faimon J, Stelcl J, Kubesova S, Zimak J,
Mosses, algae, and cyanobacteria (lamp-flora) colonize illuminated areas in show caves. This biota is commonly removed by a sodium hypochlorite solution. Because chlorine and other deleterious compounds are released into a cave environment during lamp-flora cleansing, hydrogen peroxide was tested as an alternative agent. In a multidisciplinary study conducted in the Katerinska Cave (Moravian Karst, Czech Republic), 12 algae- and cyanobacteria taxons and 19 moss taxons were detected. The threshold hydrogen peroxide concentration for the destruction of this lamp-flora was found to be 15 vol.%. Based on laboratory experiments in stirred batch reactors, the dissolution rates of limestones and calcite speleothems in water were determined as 3.77 x 10-3 and 1.81 x 10-3 mol m-2 h-1, respectively. In the 15% peroxide solution, the limestone and speleothem dissolution rates were one order of magnitude higher, 2.00 x 10-2 and 2.21 x 10-2 mol m-2 h-1, respectively. So, the peroxide solution was recognised to attack carbonates somewhat more aggressively than karst water. In order to prevent the potential corrosion of limestone and speleothems, the reaching of preliminary peroxide saturation with respect to calcite is recommended, for example, by adding of few limestone fragments into the solution at least 10 h prior to its application

Radon in caves, 2005, Cigna A, A.
The physical characteristics of radon are reported as well as its sources, the transport in rock and its behaviour in caves. Then, the instruments, both active and passive, used for the measurement of radon concentration are discussed by taking into account their respective advantages and disadvantages for the use in the cave environment. Since in many countries radon is the object of regulations that were adopted for radiation protection purposes, this aspect is examined and the recommendations issued by international organisations and enforced in different countries are reported. Materials, methods and other remarks on the limits implementation are also listed with the aim of providing the managers of show caves with some instruments to comply with the domestic requirements with the most convenient solution.

Microclimatic characterization of caves and analysis of the antropic impact for touristic use. PhD thesis , 2005, Ferná, Ndezcorté, S A.

The conservation and protection of caves requires suitable management tools that are based on a detailed knowledge of the environmental parameters of karst areas. The main tool for karst management is the definition and delimitation of protected areas and, in the case of tourist caves, an estimation of the visitor carrying capacity. This doctoral thesis deals with the most important methodologies related to the monitoring of cave microclimates, and focuses on show caves. The use of a great quantity of environmental data derived from different caves in southern Spain has required the use of several statistical techniques to meet the objective of simplifying and revaluating this environmental information. It is expected that the main focus of interest of this research thesis to managers of these geo-heritage sites lies in the possibility of incorporating the results of cave environmental monitoring into an integrated model of management, which also contemplates socio-economic aspects. The analysis of microclimates in each of the caves under study is dealt with in different ways depending on the type of data recorded within each one of them. Caves such as the 'Cueva del Agua' and 'Cueva de las Ventanas' are typified by the spatiotemporal behavior of the main microclimatic variables, such as the temperature and carbon dioxide content of the air. This information about the 'zero state' of the cave is complemented by an analysis of the infiltration processes and a study of the air-mass exchange phenomena. In the Sorbas karst, the design and installation of an intelligent environmental control system inside one of the potential tourist caves (System Covadura) allowed an extensive time series database to be assembled, which together with information about the spatial microclimate, comprises the base knowledge of the initial state of the cave before any tourist activities are authorized. The Giant Geode of Pulpí (Almería, Spain) represents an exceptional case with characteristics that are distinct from show caves as defined in the strictest sense of the term. The uniqueness of this site in terms of its fragility and dimension, together with the imminent need to adopt measures for its protection, resulted in the execution of an exhaustive microclimatic study in order to evaluate the possibility of opening the geode to tourists.


Microclimatic characterization of caves and analysis of the antropic impact for touristic use, PhD Thesis , 2005, Ferná, Ndezcorté, S A

The conservation and protection of caves requires suitable management tools that are based on a detailed knowledge of the environmental parameters of karst areas. The main tool for karst management is the definition and delimitation of protected areas and, in the case of tourist caves, an estimation of the visitor carrying capacity. This doctoral thesis deals with the most important methodologies related to the monitoring of cave microclimates, and focuses on show caves. The use of a great quantity of environmental data derived from different caves in southern Spain has required the use of several statistical techniques to meet the objective of simplifying and revaluating this environmental information. It is expected that the main focus of interest of this research thesis to managers of these geo-heritage sites lies in the possibility of incorporating the results of cave environmental monitoring into an integrated model of management, which also contemplates socio-economic aspects. The analysis of microclimates in each of the caves under study is dealt with in different ways depending on the type of data recorded within each one of them. Caves such as the 'Cueva del Agua' and 'Cueva de las Ventanas' are typified by the spatiotemporal behavior of the main microclimatic variables, such as the temperature and carbon dioxide content of the air. This information about the 'zero state' of the cave is complemented by an analysis of the infiltration processes and a study of the air-mass exchange phenomena. In the Sorbas karst, the design and installation of an intelligent environmental control system inside one of the potential tourist caves (System Covadura) allowed an extensive time series database to be assembled, which together with information about the spatial microclimate, comprises the base knowledge of the initial state of the cave before any tourist activities are authorized. The Giant Geode of Pulpí (Almería, Spain) represents an exceptional case with characteristics that are distinct from show caves as defined in the strictest sense of the term. The uniqueness of this site in terms of its fragility and dimension, together with the imminent need to adopt measures for its protection, resulted in the execution of an exhaustive microclimatic study in order to evaluate the possibility of opening the geode to tourists.


Management Models Development Show Caves Tourist Destinations Croatia., 2006, Boč, Ić, Neven, Lukić, Aleksandar, Opač, Ić, Vuk Tvrtko

Touristic valorisation of caves has long tradition in Croatia. Research has been conducted in order to: identify show caves in Croatia (13), make an overview of their basic geomorphologic characteristics and study their role as tourist destinations.


Long-term changes in the cave atmosphere air temperature as a result of periodic heliophysical processes, 2006, Stoeva Penka, Stoev Alexey, Kiskinova Nadya,
Climatic trends connected with short- and long-period variations of the solar activity occur as a reaction even in such conservative media as the air volumes of karst caves. The yearly mean air temperatures in the zone of constant temperatures of four show caves in Bulgaria were studied for a period of 36 years (1968-2003). The examination was made by everyday noon measurements in Ledenika, Saeva dupka, Snezhanka and Uhlovitsa cave. The caves are situated at different altitudes and geographic latitude. Seasonal fluctuations of the yearly mean air temperature in the ZCT of the explored caves have been identified by Fourier analysis. The same analysis has been applied for the Sunspot number and Apmax indices, which are representatives of the solar and geomagnetic activity, for the same period of data available. Autocorrelograms have been used for examination of the seasonal patterns of the air temperatures in the ZCT in every cave and in Sunspot number and Apmax indices. Cross-spectrum analysis has been applied for retrieving the correlations between air ZCT temperatures in the caves and solar and geomagnetic activity. It has been found that the correlation between ZCT temperature time series and sunspot number is better than that between the cave air temperature and Apmax indices. It has been found that is rather connected with the first peak in geomagnetic activity, which is associated with transient solar activity, i.e., coronal mass ejections (CMEs) than with the second one, which is higher and connected with the recurrent high speed streams from coronal holes (Webb, D.F., 2002. CMEs and the solar cycle variation in their geoeffectiveness. In: Wilson, A. (Ed.), Proceedings of the SOHO 11 Symposium on From Solar Min to Max: Half a Solar Cycle with SOHO, 11-15 March 2002, Davos, Switzerland. ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, 2002, ISBN 92-9092-818-2, pp. 409-419). This work can contribute to studying the mechanisms of atmospheric circulation changes and calibration of long-period climatic data read from cave speleothems and deposits

Das Gamslcher-Kolowrat-Salzburgerschacht-System (1339/1), 2006, Zehetner G. , Zagler G. , Klappacher W.
Untersberg (subgroup 1339 in the Austrian Cave Register), south of the regional capital of Salzburg, is a cave-rich limestone massif in the border region between Salzburg and Bavaria. Beneath the highest peaks of the Salzburg region the 'Geiereck' (1807 m) and the 'Salburger Hochthron' (1853 m) lie the entrances to the cave system described here. The caves 'Kolowrathhle' and 'Gamslcher' belong to the earliest discovered caves in Untersberg. After an entrance to the 'Kolowrathhle' was blasted through the steep crossing of the 'Nebel' rift, the caves experienced a rush of tourists and can therefore be described as the oldest show caves in the Salzburg region. In 1876 a steep path, the 'Dopplersteig', was struck through the rock wall known as the 'Dopplerwand', allowing easier access to the 'Gamslcher', which are visible from far away. It has been told that a large repository of cave-bear bones was found in the 'Gamslcher'; a repository that stretched into the 'Kolowrathhle'. The 'Salzburgerschacht', was explored in 1935 by Gustave Abel and his companions with rope ladders to a depth of 170 m. At the time it was known as the deepest vertical cave in the Salzburg region. In the middle of 1970, an international expedition (Belgians, Germans, Poles and local Austrians) successfully explored the 'Salzburgerschacht' to a depth of 606 m. Further exploration of the 'Gamslcher' took place in 1979. In the same year, explorers found a path joining the 'Kolowrathhle' with the 'Gamslcher'. Between 1979 and 1992, the Gamslcher-Kolowrat System was explored and surveyed to a length of 17,524 m. In 2004, a young group of cavers following G. Zagler found the long-awaited connection between the Gamslcher-Kolowrat system and the 'Salzburgerschacht'. The total length of the Gamslcher-Kolowrat-Salzburgerschacht-System is now known to be 25,244 m and its vertical difference grew to 790 m.

Long-term changes in the cave atmosphere air temperature as a result of periodic heliophysical processes, 2006, Stoeva P. , . Stoev A. , Kiskinovab N. .

Climatic trends connected with short- and long-period variations of the solar activity occur as a reaction even in such conservative media as the air volumes of karst caves. The yearly mean air temperatures in the zone of constant temperatures of four show caves in Bulgaria were studied for a period of 36 years (1968–2003). The examination was made by everyday noon measurements in Ledenika, Saeva dupka, Snezhanka and Uhlovitsa cave. The caves are situated at different altitudes and geographic latitude. Seasonal fluctuations of the yearly mean air temperature in the ZCT of the explored caves have been identified by Fourier analysis. The same analysis has been applied for the Sunspot number and Apmax indices, which are representatives of the solar and geomagnetic activity, for the same period of data available. Autocorrelograms have been used for examination of the seasonal patterns of the air temperatures in the ZCT in every cave and in Sunspot number and Apmax indices. Cross-spectrum analysis has been applied for retrieving the correlations between air ZCT temperatures in the caves and solar and geomagnetic activity. It has been found that the correlation between ZCT temperature time series and sunspot number is better than that between the cave air temperature and Apmax indices. It has been found that View the MathML source is rather connected with the first peak in geomagnetic activity, which is associated with transient solar activity, i.e., coronal mass ejections (CMEs) than with the second one, which is higher and connected with the recurrent high speed streams from coronal holes (Webb, D.F., 2002. CMEs and the solar cycle variation in their geoeffectiveness. In: Wilson, A. (Ed.), Proceedings of the SOHO 11 Symposium on From Solar Min to Max: Half a Solar Cycle with SOHO, 11–15 March 2002, Davos, Switzerland. ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, 2002, ISBN 92-9092-818-2, pp. 409–419). This work can contribute to studying the mechanisms of atmospheric circulation changes and calibration of long-period climatic data read from cave speleothems and deposits.


Cave Geology, 2007, Palmer A. N.
Cave Geology is the definitive book on the subject by an internationally recognized authority. It can be easily understood by non-scientists but also covers a wide range of topics in enough detail to be used by advanced researchers. Illustrated with more than 500 black-and-white photographs and 250 diagrams and maps, this book is dedicated to anyone with an interest in caves and their origin. Topics include: CONTENTS Preface 1 Speleology the science of caves Cave types Cave exploring Nationwide speleological organizations Searching for caves Cave mapping Preparation of a cave map Cave science Underground photography Show caves Cave preservation and stewardship 2 Cave country Geologic time Landscape development Surface karst features Paleoleokarst Pseudokarst The scale of karst features Distribution of karst and caves The longest and deepest known caves 3 Cavernous rocks Rock types Soils and sediments Stratigraphy Highly soluble rocks Rock structure Rock and mineral analysis A brief guide to rock identification 4 Underground water in karst Types of underground water Vadose flow patterns Phreatic flow patterns Aquifers Nature of the karst water table The freshwater-seawater interface Groundwater hydraulics Flow measurements Use of flow equations in cave interpretation Measuring the flow of springs and streams Groundwater tracing Interpreting groundwater character from tracer tests and flood pulses Quantitative dye tracing 5 Chemistry of karst water Simple dissolution Dissoltion of limestone and dolomite How much rock has dissolved? pH Undersaturation and supersaturation Epigenic and hypogenic acids Chemical interactions Dissolution rates Dissolution of poorly soluble rocks Microbial effects on chemistry Isotopes and their use Analysis of spring chemistry A chemical cave tour Chemical field studies 6 Characteristics of solution caves Cave entrances Passage types Passage terminations Cave rooms Cave levels Cave patterns Minor solution features in caves Interpreting flow from scallops Cave sediments Bedrock collapse Cave biology 7 Speleogenesis: the origin of caves Basic concepts Development of ideas about cave origin Comprehensive views of cave origin Rates of cave enlargement Insight from computer modeling Life cycle of a solution cave 8 Control of cave patterns by groundwater recharge Sinkhole recharge: branchwork caves The problem of maze caves Floodwater caves Caves formed by diffuse flow Hypogenic caves Polygenetic caves Influence of climate 9 Influence of geology on cave patterns Distribution of soluble rocks Influence of rock type Influence of geologic structure Relation of caves to landscape evolution A guide to cave patterns 10 Cave minerals Origin and growth of cave minerals Origin of common cave minerals Speleothem types Speleothem growth rates Speleothem decay 11 Caves in volcanic rocks Volcanic processes and landscapes Types of lava caves Origin and character of lava-tube caves Speleogens and speleothems in lava caves Time scale of lava caves 12 Cave meteorology and internal weathering Composition of cave air Cave temperatures Air movement Evaporation and condensation Weathering in the cave atmosphere Chemical zones in air-filled caves 13 Caves and time Relative and numerical ages Determining cave ages Studies of past climates Caves through the ages 14 Geologic studies of caves Field mapping Calibrating survey instruments Geologic interpretions Testing interpretations for validity Detailed analysis of a cave Further goals 15 Application of cave geology to other geosciences The problem of sampling bias Water supply Engineering applications Land management Interpretation of geologic processes Petroleum geology Mining Scientific frontiers The limits of discovery Glossary References Index Conversion between U.S. and metric units

Characterization of cave aerophytic algal communities and effects of irradiance levels on production of pigments, 2008, Mulec J. , Kosi G. , And Vrhovek D.
Aerophytic algae grow on various substrata under favourable ecological conditions. In the illuminated parts of caves, where relative humidity reaches 100%, they colonize sediments, rocky surfaces, and artificial materials. An aerophytic algal community from the cave entrance is composed almost exclusively of cyanobacteria, in contrast to lampenflora where green algae become more dominant. In the later stage of species succession in the lampenflora community, cyanobacteria are more abundant and thus community structure becomes more similar to the community from the cave entrance. Absence of correlation between photon flux density and chlorophyll a concentration indicates that substratum characteristics at the micro level notably influence algal growth. Chl a concentration per surface unit in the case of the epilithic algae from the cave entrance is lower (max. 1.71 mg cm22) compared to that for the lampenflora algae (max. 2.44 mg cm22). At cave temperatures, the light saturation point is quickly reached. At 9.0 uC and frequent low photon flux densities in a cave entrance and around lamps in show caves, biosynthesis of accessory photosynthetic pigments for two typical cave aerophytic organisms, cyanobacterium Chroococcus minutus and green alga Chlorella sp., is considerably elevated.

Groundwater contamination in caves: four case studies in Spain, 2008, Jimnezsnchez M. , Stoll H. , Vadillo I. , Lpezchicano M. , Domnguezcuesta M. , Martnrosales W. And Melndezasensio M.
Groundwater quality was monitored in four Spanish caves using concentrations of nitrate, potassium, phosphorus and in some cases total organic carbon. Three of the caves are located in NW Spain and contain prehistoric cave paintings and hence have special conservation interest. Of these, two are open show caves (Tito Bustillo and Pindal Caves), while the other one (Herreras Cave) is not managed for tours and is partially closed off to public access. The fourth cave (Las Maravillas Cave) is located in SW Spain and is opened to the public because of its geological features and natural beauty. In this paper, we compare two sampling methodologies used in the four caves. In Pindal and Herrerias Cave high temporal resolution is achieved with a dripwater collector that collects discrete samples every 48 hours. In Tito Bustillo and Las Maravillas Caves a higher spatial resolution is achieved (16 sampling points in each one), but with a frequency of sampling ranging from 15 days to 6 months. Wastewater and livestock waste appear to be the principal sources of contamination to cave waters. Caves with concentrated livestock (stables) or urban and residential wastewater systems directly situated above the cave exhibit the highest level of contamination detected in elevated concentrations of nitrogen species and in some cases depressed oxygen availability in waters

Groundwater contamination in caves: four case studies in Spain, 2008, Jimnezsnchez M. , Stoll H. , Vadillo I. , Lpezchicano M. , Domnguezcuesta M. Martnrosales W. And Melndezasensio M.

Groundwater quality was monitored in four Spanish caves using concentrations of nitrate, potassium, phosphorus and in some cases total organic carbon. Three of the caves are located in NW Spain and contain prehistoric cave paintings and hence have special conservation interest. Of these, two are open show caves (Tito Bustillo and Pindal Caves), while the other one (Herrerías Cave) is not managed for tours and is partially closed off to public access. The fourth cave (Las Maravillas Cave) is located in SW Spain and is opened to the public because of its geological features and natural beauty. In this paper, we compare two sampling methodologies used in the four caves. In Pindal and Herrerias Cave high temporal resolution is achieved with a dripwater collector that collects discrete samples every 48 hours. In Tito Bustillo and Las Maravillas Caves a higher spatial resolution is achieved (16 sampling points in each one), but with a frequency of sampling ranging from 15 days to 6 months. Wastewater and livestock waste appear to be the principal sources of contamination to cave waters. Caves with concentrated livestock (stables) or urban and residential wastewater systems directly situated above the cave exhibit the highest level of contamination detected in elevated concentrations of nitrogen species and in some cases depressed oxygen availability in waters.


Lampenflora algae and methods of growth control, 2009, Mulec J. And Kosi G.
Karst caves are unique natural features and habitats where specialized organisms live. Some caves are also important as cultural heritage sites. In recent decades, many caves have experienced intensified tourist visits. To attract visitors, artificial illumination was installed that changed conditions in the caves. As a result, communities of organisms called lampenflora develop in close and remote proximity to lights. These phototrophic organisms are inappropriate from an aesthetic point of view and cause the degradation of colonized substrata, which is a particular problem in caves with prehistoric art. Key factors that allow lampenflora to grow are light and moisture. Illuminated spots in caves can be quickly colonized by algae, some of which have broad tolerances for different substrata. Several phototrophs can survive in caves even at photon flux densities lower than the photosynthetic compensation point. In this paper, the pros and cons of physical, chemical, and biological methods to control phototrophic growth are reviewed and discussed. Experiences in show caves can be helpfulin controlling undesirable algal growth in other environments.

Microclimate Monitoring of Pozalagua Cave (Vizcaya, Spain): Application to Management and Protection of Show Caves, 2010, Lario Javier, Soler Vincente

This paper reports the results of a continuous monitoring program carried out in Pozalagua show cave (Vizcaya, Spain) between April 2001 and June 2004. The study focused on understanding the variations in the microclimatic parameters inside the cave to assess the effect of visitors and to design a visitor regime to minimize impact and optimize its carrying capacity. The main parameters susceptible to variations due to a massive influx of visitors are the internal temperature of the cave and the concentration of CO2 in the cave air. Proposed management measures focus on reducing the human- induced variations of both parameters.


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