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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That blue hole is 1. deep resurgence pool, notably in jamaica and florida, that may have a blue color due to the presence of algae. also a deep submarine cave of the bahamas. the latter type are large flooded shafts cut into the limestones of the shallow reefs and lagoon floors. many are 100 m in diameter and some are 100 m deep. opening from the shafts are flooded cave passages at various depths, some of which have been explored subhorizontally for more than 1 km. their origins are complex. extensive stalagmite deposits show that large old caves were drained when sea-levels were low during the pleistocene (when water was held in the ice sheets). they are now being modified by marine dissolution, notably at the interface between fresh and salt waters (sea littoral zone) and by powerful tidal flows between connected holes [9]. 2. (jamaican.) a major emergence where water (artesian spring) rises from below without great turbulence. 3. (bahamas.) a drowned solution sinkhole [10]. 4. caribbean expression for a major quiet up-welling karst spring inland or along the coast. the blue color is due to the scattering of sunlight by water molecules, although in some cases it may be attributed to the presence of calcareous algae [20]. synonyms: (french.) source bleue (jura), bleu-fon (south of france); (german.) blaue grotto; (greek.) galapo speleo. see also boiling spring.?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for world (Keyword) returned 427 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 427
Caves of Kiriwina, Trobriand Islands, Papua, 1968, Ollier C. D. , Holdsworth D. K.

The Trobriand group of coral islands is situated 100 miles off the northeast coast of Papua and north of the D'Entrecasteaux Islands. The largest island, Kiriwina, is 30 miles long and 12 miles across at its widest point. The authors visited Kiriwina for two separate periods of one week in 1967 and 1968 to undertake a phytochemical survey and a reconnaissance exploration of the caves. They believe that they explored all the sizeable caves from Wawela north. A DC-3 aircraft of Papuan Airlines operates a weekly flight between Port Moresby and Losuia, the Administration centre. Accommodation is provided on the island at the Trobriand Hotel, conducted by Mr. T. Ward, whose two trucks are used for local transportation on roads engineered by the US Army during World War II.


The fiftieth anniversary of the first speleological institute of the World., 1972, Orghidan Traian
Description of the activities carried out by the first speleological institute of the World, the Institutul de Spologie "Emil Racovitza", founded in 1920 at Cluj in Romania.

The fiftieth anniversary of the first speleological institute of the World., 1972, Orghidan Traian
Description of the activities carried out by the first speleological institute of the World, the Institutul de Spologie "Emil Racovitza", founded in 1920 at Cluj in Romania.

Present state of the knowledge on hypogean Histeridae., 1973, Vomero Vincenzo
The author makes some considerations on troglobitic and endogeous world Histeridae. All these species present extreme reduction of eyes or are completely blind; all are wingless and only one is brachipterous. The Histeridae described here belong to the following genera: Speleacritus Jeannel and Spelaeabraeus Moro (Abraeinae), Sardulus Patrizi, Bacanius Le Conte, Troglobacanius Vomero and Geoculus Wenzel. (Dendrophilinae, Bacanius group). Finally some considerations on troglophylic and guanobitic Histeridae are made, reporting the recent discovery of a new genus and of some new species belonging to guanobitic biocoenosis of Mexican tropical caves.

Present state of the knowledge on hypogean Histeridae., 1973, Vomero Vincenzo
The author makes some considerations on troglobitic and endogeous world Histeridae. All these species present extreme reduction of eyes or are completely blind; all are wingless and only one is brachipterous. The Histeridae described here belong to the following genera: Speleacritus Jeannel and Spelaeabraeus Moro (Abraeinae), Sardulus Patrizi, Bacanius Le Conte, Troglobacanius Vomero and Geoculus Wenzel. (Dendrophilinae, Bacanius group). Finally some considerations on troglophylic and guanobitic Histeridae are made, reporting the recent discovery of a new genus and of some new species belonging to guanobitic biocoenosis of Mexican tropical caves.

Hydrogeologic Constraints on Yucatan's Development, 1974, Doehring Do, Butler Jh,
The Republic of Mexico has an ambitious and effective national water program. The Secretaria de Recursos Hidraulicos (SRH), whose director has cabinet rank in the federal government, is one of the most professionally distinguished government agencies of its kind in the Americas. Resources for the Future, Inc., has been assisting the World Bank with a water planning study which the Bank is undertaking jointly with the Mexican government. The study is intended to provide guidelines for the development of government policies and projects designed to bring about the most efficient use of Mexico's water resources. However, to date, their study has not been directed toward the growing problems of the northern Yucataan Peninsula which are discussed here.LeGrand (13) suggested that man has inherited a harsh environment in carbonate terranes. In the case of the northern Yucatan Peninsula, the physical environment creates a set of hydrogeologic constraints to future economic and social development. Planning for intermediate and long-range land use on the peninsula must be related directly to the limited and fragile groundwater source. Continued contamination will make future aquifer management a difficult challenge for federal, state, and territorial agencies. We conclude that any strategy for long-range land use in the study area should include establishment of a regional aquifermonitoring network for long-term measurements of key hydrogeologic parameters, including precipitation, evapotranspiration, water table elevations, and water quality. Information from this network would flow into a central facility for storage, interpretation, and analysis. At present the SRH is collecting some of these data. Expansion of the existing program to provide sound information for regional planning will greatly benefit present as well as future generations. If such a program is implemented, it will represent a model for regional planning in other tropical and subtropical karstic terrains

The karst of Transvaal (South Africa)., 1976, Kavalieris I. , Martini Jacques E. J.
The Transvaal Karst is a world important example of a Karst developed on a very old dolomite. Its unique character is due to the composition of the rock and history of development. The dissolution of the dolomite is interesting and has an important effect on the character of the caves developed. The caves preserved in this area include the longest known in South Africa and are perhaps among the largest dolomite systems known in the world. They are very old and in some cases contain important palaeontological deposits (Australopithecine fauna). The caves to various degrees are in a state of de-generation, having been exposed for a very long period above the water-table. For the greater part of the Karst area, aggressive vadose waters, and long exposure has resulted in the accumulation of a thick covering of residual material. The plateau-like geomorphology and low rainfalls has prevented physical erosion and significant removal of this debris from the land surface. The caves themselves are often characterized by collapse and in general lack of formations. Massive calcite formation in the caves is usually partly or nearly completely redissolved and are relics of past colder climatic periods with winter rains. Formations active now are small, usually delicate and often due directly to evaporation. The heavy mantle of residual debris preserved under some of the more ancient of South African landsurface relics (the African Surface) poses a serious economic problem of stability, with mans' utilization of the environment. A greater understanding of the Karst, its evolution and properties is thus of considerable practical importance.

Karst Hydrogeology and Geomorphology of the Sierra de El Abra and the Valles-San Luis Potosí Region, México, PhD Thesis, 1977, Fish, Johnnie Edward

The general objective of this work was to develop a basic understanding of the karst hydrology, the nature and origin of the caves, the water chemistry, the surface geomorphology, and relationships among these aspects for a high relief tropical karst region having a thick section of limestone. The Valles-San Luis Potosí region of northeastern México, and in particular, the Sierra de El Abra, was selected for the study. A Cretaceous Platform approximately 200 km wide and 300 km long (N-S) delimits the region of interest. A thick Lower Cretaceous deposit of gypsum and anydrite, and probably surrounded by Lower Cretaceous limestone facies, is overlain by more than 1000 m of the thick-bedded middle Cretaceous El Abra limestone, which has a thick platform-margin reef. The Sierra de El Abra is a greatly elongated range along the eastern margin of the Platform. During the late Cretaceous, the region was covered by thick deposits of impermeable rocks. During the early Tertiary, the area was folded, uplifted, and subjected to erosion. A high relief karst having a wide variety of geomorphic forms controlled by climate and structure has developed. Rainfall in the region varies from 250-2500 mm and is strongly concentrated in the months June-October, when very large rainfalls often occur.
A number of specific investigations were made to meet the general objective given above, with special emphasis on those that provide information concerning the nature of ground-water flow systems in the region. Most of the runoff from the region passes through the karstic subsurface. Large portions of the region have no surface runoff whatsoever. The El Abra Formation is continuous over nearly the whole Platform, and it defines a region of very active ground-water circulation. Discharge from the aquifer occurs at a number of large and many small springs. Two of them, the Coy and the Frío springs group, are among the largest springs in the world with average discharges of approximately 24 m³/sec and 28 m³/sec respectively. Most of the dry season regional discharge is from a few large springs at low elevations along the eastern margin of the Platform. The flow systems give extremely dynamic responses to large precipitation events; floods at springs usually crest roughly one day after the causal rainfall and most springs have discharge variations (0max/0min) of 25-100 times. These facts indicate well-developed conduit flow systems.
The hydrochemical and hydrologic evidence in combination with the hydrogeologic setting demonstrate the existence of regional ground-water flow to several of the large eastern springs. Hydrochemical mixing-model calculations show that the amount of regional flow is at least 12 m³/sec, that it has an approximately constant flux, and that the local flow systems provide the extremely variable component of spring discharge. The chemical and physical properties of the springs are explained in terms of local and regional flow systems.
Local studies carried out in the Sierra de El Abra show that large conduits have developed, and that large fluctuations of the water table occur. The large fossil caves in the range were part of great deep phreatic flow systems which circulated at least 300 m below ancient water tables and which discharged onto ancient coastal plains much higher than the present one. The western margin swallet caves are of the floodwater type. The cave are structurally controlled.
Knowledge gained in this study should provide a basis for planning future research, and in particular for water resource development. The aquifer has great potential for water supply, but little of that potential is presently used.


Cave dwelling Tineid Moths: a Taxonomic Review of the World Species (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), 1980, Robinson Gaden S.

Dumanli Spring, Turkey - the largest karstic spring in the world?, 1980, Karanjac J. , Gunay G.

The Edwards Aquifer: Earth's Most Diverse Groundwater Ecosystem?, 1981, Longley Glenn
Recent studies on the Edwards Aquifer, a karstic formed cavernous system in Texas, indicate an extremely diverse community of aquatic troglobites. Sampling of wells and springs is providing new insight into the dynamics of this fascinating system, which is possibly the most diverse subterranean aquatic ecosystem known in the world today.

Abstract: Darwin and Diprotodon: The Wellington Cave Fossils and the Law of Succession IN: Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 104, 1980 for 1979:265-272, 1981, Dugan, Kathleen G.

The fossils from Wellington Caves, some of them 'giant', are well known to Australian speleologists, finds of importance for the study of Australian fauna from early discovered caves. What I think we did not appreciate was that the Wellington 'bones' have a place in the world history of science of significance also, the theme of this paper. Many of you will have watched the BBC-TV series on 'The Voyage of the Beagle'; much was made of the importance to Darwin in developing his theory of evolution of the fossils he found in southern South America. There fossils of giant relatives of sloths, llamas and armadillos helped to make clear to him the notion of the geological succession of life, a basic part of his theory along with the idea of natural selection to which the finches and the tortoises of the Galapagos Islands proved crucial. However it seems that Darwin was previously aware of the similar significance of the Wellington Caves bones for the law of succession from Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology which quotes William Clift's identifications of dasyures, wombats and kangaroos amongst them. The fact that these recently extinct animals were closely related to the distinctive modern marsupial fauna of Australia counted much against earlier conceptions such as Cuvier's catastrophic theory or Buckland's ideas of successive divine creations within a short time span. Watchers of the TV series will remember the devious role played by the palaeontologist, Sir Richard Owen, in organising public opposition to Darwin at the famous Oxford meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. This article relates the series of rearguard actions of Owen to maintain that there was a fossil elephant component in the ancient Australian fauna, damaging to Darwinism. But the growing evidence from Australia, not all of it from caves, of course, finally extinguished this red herring, started by that doctrinaire N.S.W. colonial, the Reverend John Dunmore Lang.


Tajemstv Machochy, The World's First Speleological Documentary, 1982, Coufalik Emil, Hedges James, Ondrousek Otto

A Review of World Troglopedetini (Insecta, Collembola, Paronellidae) including an identification table and description of a new species, 1982, Wilson Jane M.

Les progrs de l'exploration splologique, 1983, Chabert C. , Courbon P.
The progress of caving exploration - The authors give a brief account on caving development during the last decades. Paying attention to the deep caves throughout the world ranging over 500m, one can see they were 57 in 1972, 95 in 1976, 110 in 1978 and more than 160 at the end of 1981. Several reasons explain this exceptional increasing of discoveries: easier logistics, longer free time, technical progress, that allows caverns, unwillingly for some of them, to stand on the scientific side because passages they discover, obstacles they overcome, mean more data to be considered and questions to be solved by speleologists.

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