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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That solution lake is a lake whose origin is attributed largely to solution of underlying rock.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for collapse (Keyword) returned 433 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 433
Flow of fossil groundwater, 1977, Bourdon Dj,
The great groundwater basins of North Africa and Arabia extend over an area of some 6.5 million square kilometres. Gradients on the isopiezometric surfaces of their confined ground-waters are generally interpreted as indicating present-day flow of groundwater. Can such flow occur in basins where most or all of the groundwater is fossil and where effective infiltration and recharge may have ceased some 10 000 years ago? Assuming that there is indeed no current recharge in these arid and sem-arid regions, the paper identifies seven groups totalling 12 possible mechanisms which can contribute in varying degrees to maintaining flow of groundwater long after effective recharge has ceased. These are: (i) Residual heads; (ii) Tilting of basin; (iii) Compaction effects, in terms of sediment loading, basalt loading and water loading/unloading; (iv) Thermal drive; (v) Gas drive; (vi) Lowering of discharge level, by tectonic displacement, by pressure bursts and by collapse of cover; and (vii) Evaporation in the discharge zone, such as lowering of lake levels and evaporation from sabkhas. Nine additional mechanisms were considered but rejected. Combinations of these mechanisms can produce heads inducing flow of fossil groundwater, but appear to be insufficient to account for present hydraulic regimes without some current surface recharge. The findings have direct application to studies leading to the development, use and management of these major water resources of the arid zones of the Sahara and Arabia

Karst development in Ordovician carbonates: Western Platform of Newfoundland, Master of Science (MS) Thesis, 1978, Karolyi, Marika Sarolta

The Appalachian fold belt system in Newfoundland is divided into three tectonic divisions: Western Platform; Central Mobile Belt; Avalon Platform Rocks of the Western Platform range in age from Precambrian to Carboniferous. Major karst areas are found there is Ordovician and Carboniferous rocks. Karst features of the study area (Goose Arm to Bonne Bay Big Pond) are in the Ordovician carbonates of the undivided St. George and Table Head Formations, covering a few hundred square kilometers. Features include karren, sinkholes, sinking streams, and karst springs, caves and other solutional and collapse features.
In the study area multiple fold and faulting episodes complicate the geology. Extensive and probably repeated glaciations have produced rugged terrane with U-shaped valleys and as much as 300m relief on the carbonates. There is variable but thick till cover. A class or classes of ice-scoured closed depressions with internal drainage are recognized. Postglacial karst forms are limited to varieties of karren (mainly littoral), small sinkholes, and cave systems that are inaccessively small in most instances. Distribution of all karst features is highly irregular.
Hydrologic patterns follow fluvial, fluviokarstic and holokarstic drainage. Large number of sinking ponds have seasonal overflow channels. The ground water drainage routes are generally short and shallow, with varied hydraulic gradients. Few instances of ground water route integration to regional springs is found.
The water chemistry of the area displays a tight normal distribution of hardness. This is attributed to the ponding effect. Seasonal trends show an overall increase in total hardness and other parameters, with some ponds showing linear increases and others cyclic variations.
Karst type and distribution is complex and irregular, but both glaciokarstic and karstiglacial development is present. The majority of karst forms point to karstiglacial development where previous karst forms have been modified by ice. Karstification is controlled by geology, rock lithology, hydraulic gradients and glacial scour and infill. Karstic processes continue to operate today, modifying the scoured basins and creating new karst forms.


Structure, Sediments and Speleogenesis at Cliefden Caves, New South Wales, 1978, Osborne, R. Armstrong L.

The Cliefden Caves have developed in the Late Ordovician Cliefden Caves Limestone mainly by solution in the phreatic zone. Speleogenesis has been inhibited in steeply dipping thinly bedded limestone and shows a high degree of structural control. Collapse has been significant in late stage development of the caves. Much sediment has been deposited in the four caves studied in detail - Main Cliefden, Murder, Boonderoo and Transmission. Formed in the phreatic zone, layered clay fill is the earliest sediment deposited and occurs in all but Transmission Cave. The phosphate mineral heterosite is found in these sediments. Subaqueous precipitation deposits deposited in the phreas or vadose pools are distinguished from speleothems by their texture. Aragonite is inferred to have been deposited in these sediments and to have since inverted to calcite. Friable loam and porous cavity fill are the most common vadose deposits in the caves. Vadose cementation has converted friable loam to porous cavity fill. Speleothem deposits are prolific in Main Cliefden, Murder and Boonderoo Caves. Helictites are related to porous wall surfaces, spar crystals result from flooding of caves in the vadose zone and blue stalactites are composed of aragonite. Cliefden Caves belong to that class proposed by Frank (1972) in which deposition has been more important than downcutting late in their developmental history.


Mayan Urbanism: Impact on a Tropical Karst Environment, 1979, Deevey Es, Rice Ds, Rice Pm, Vaughan Hh, Brenner M, Flannery Ms,
From the first millennium B.C. through the 9th-century A.D. Classic Maya collapse, nonurban populations grew exponentially, doubling every 408 years, in the twin-lake (Yaxha-Sacnab) basin that contained the Classic urban center of Yaxha. Pollen data show that forests were essentially cleared by Early Classic time. Sharply accelerated slopewash and colluviation, amplified in the Yaxha subbasin by urban construction, transferred nutrients plus calcareous, silty clay to both lakes. Except for the urban silt, colluvium appearing as lake sediments has a mean total phosphorus concentration close to that of basin soils. From this fact, from abundance and distribution of soil phosphorus, and from continuing post-Maya influxes (80 to 86 milligrams of phosphorus per square meter each year), which have no other apparent source, we conclude that riparian soils are anthrosols and that the mechanism of long-term phosphorus loading in lakes is mass transport of soil. Per capita deliveries of phosphorus match physiological outputs, approximately 0.5 kilogram of phosphorus per capita per year. Smaller apparent deliveries reflect the nonphosphatic composition of urban silt; larger societal outputs, expressing excess phosphorus from deforestation and from food waste and mortuary disposal, are probable but cannot be evaluated from our data. Eutrophication is not demonstrable and was probably impeded, even in less-impacted lakes, by suspended Maya silt. Environmental strain, the product of accelerating agroengineering demand and sequestering of nutrients in colluvium, developed too slowly to act as a servomechanism, damping population growth, at least until Late Classic time

Determining Doline Origins; A Case Study, 1980, Jennings J. N. , Haosheng Bao

Cases where there is clear evidence about the origin of a doline are less frequent than those where the indications are uncertain. Three dolines above Murray Cave, Cooleman Plain, which are at first sight familiar but which in fact include both solution and collapse dolines, are examined to illustrate the strengths and limitations of different kinds of evidence for doline origin. Wherever possible, underground evidence should be sought.


Damawewe Cave, Alotau, Papua New Guinea, 1981, Pain C. F. , Ollier C. D.

Damawewe Cave is a cave formed in Quaternary limestone near Alotau, Papua New Guinea. It consists of three sets of passages: the uppermost (and oldest) are the largest and the lowermost (active) are the smallest. Although the cave is mainly vadose, there is evidence of enlargement by corrosion and by collapse (in the uppermost level), and the sequence of cave formation has been interrupted by at least one phase of cave fill by clay and gravels.


Taylor Creek Silcrete Cave, North of Melbourne, Central Victoria, 1983, Webb J. A. , Joyce E. B.

Taylor Creek Cave is formed within sediments of the Red Bluff Sand, a Pliocene unit overlain by Newer Volcanics. The cave consists of a single low chamber, 12m long and 5m wide, that has been excavated in friable sandstone under a resilient silcrete roof; it has formed by an unusual combination of piping and stream erosion. Taylor Creek initially exposed the silcrete surface, then piping below the silcrete caused tunnel formation in the sandstone. Collapse of overlying material into this tunnel captured Taylor Creek, causing it to flow beneath the silcrete and thereby enlarge the cave to its present size.


Grottes de lave et volcano-karst de surface dans la rgion basaltique du Golan (lsral), 1984, Inbar, M.
Lava caves and surface volcano-karst features in the basaltic area of the Golan Heights (Isral) - Caves are formed endogenically as lava tubes and exogenically by erosion of the interlayer lava flows; calcitic speleothems are found in the basaltic caves. Surface depressions may have been formed by collapsed caves or by volcanic explosions. The drainage density is low and surface morphology locally resembles karst karren fields.

Genesis of paleokarst and strata-bound zinc-lead sulfide deposits in a Proterozoic dolostone, northern Baffin Island, Canada, 1984, Olson R. A. ,
Society Cliffs Formation; episodes of karstification since its deposition. During the first karst episode an evaporite solution-collapse breccia formed ubiquitously on the western Borden Peninsula. During the second karst episode a holokarst developed and an integrated cave system was formed. The caves subsequently were filled with sulfides and carbonate minerals; several interesting sedimentary structures exist in the zinc-lead sulfide deposits. The ore fluid and contained metals are postulated to have been derived during a late-stage dewatering of the black shale that underlies the Society Cliffs Formation. Sulfide deposition may have been caused by chemical reduction of sulfate that existed in the ore fluid when the fluid entered hydrocarbon-filled caves. During the third and fourth episodes of karstification, only merokarst developed in the Society Cliffs Formation. Karst effects which formed during these episodes include oxidized sulfide deposits and surface solution corridors.--Modified journal abstract

The Origin of the Kelly Hill Caves, Kangaroo Island, S.A., 1984, Hill, A. L.

The Kelly Hill caves in soft, homogenous, extremely porous dune limestone differ markedly in morphology from those in the more usual, dense, bedded limestones. Solution occurs at depth with great lateral spread through swamps overflowing into the base of the hill. Development occurs by roof breakdown as areas of solution become so large that the roof cannot support the weight; a theory of the mechanics is presented. Domes and tunnels of collapse rise above the watertable; at maturity there are isolated infalls from the surface. Water percolating down from the surface only builds secondary calcite deposits.


Formes de relief pseudokarstiques sur Mars, 1985, Battistini, R.
PSEUDOKARST LANDFORMS ON MARS - There are many morphologic features on Mars looking like karstic features, principally in aeolian, glacio-eolian and volcanic formations: etch-pitted terrain, sinkholes aligned along fractures, sinuous alignments of large cavities similar to megadolines, etc. Some of these features are probably collapse features, and some others probably thermokarstic features but it is difficult to understand exactly the process of their genesis, in some cases very different from the process of terrestrial morphologic features. We may evoke the possibility of an underground karst on Mars.

Phases d'effondrements aux grottes prhistoriques, du Wrm l'Holocne dans le Midi de la France, 1985, Blanc, J. J.
SEQUENCES OF COLLAPSES FROM WRM TO HOLOCENE IN PREHISTORIC CAVES (SOUTH-EAST OF FRANCE) - Multivariates methods (factorial and discriminant analysis) applied to many accurate stratigraphy and sedimentary sequences files deal just-dated cave-collapses observed into cavity and rock-shelters in the SE of France, show some detailed interpretations about the mechanism inducing the blocks-falls. This work places in a prominent position the various influences relative to cold climates and wet environments, degree of rock jointing of cave-walls and the sismo-tectonic impacts.

Quelques aspects du karst en Chine, 1985, Tricart, J.
Some characteristic features of karst in China Karst terrain is widespread in China: some 2,000,000km2, corresponding to 20-25% of the whole surface of the country. It occurs at very different altitudes and under quite different climates, from the region of Zhoukoudian, where has been found the skull of the Pekin Man, to the Tibet Plateau, where there is presently permafrost conditions, and up to southern tropical moist China, near Canton and Guilin. Recent chinese investigations have proved that most karst features are old. In Southern China a tropical karst (tower-karst or "mogotes" karst) is associated with lacustrine deposits containing the well-known Hipparion Fauna, of Miocene age. Its predates the intensive uplift of the Himalaya and of the Tibet, which has begun during the Pliocene and has continued during all the Pleistocene. The same fossils have been found in this tropical karst in present permafrost areas, above 5,000m. In the region of Guilin (Guangxi Province), this tropical karst has been described. There is evidence for the former existence of a covered karst, where limestones and dolomitic limestones were covered by a thick layer of reddish residual clays, with limonite. This mantle has been stripped during different periods of drier and probably cooler climate, has suggested by pollen spectra. In some places, these residual products have been trapped into pits, cracks, and caves. We have observed a small quantity of red clay painting limestone stalactites and sinters (Chuanshan and Leng Yin Yen Caves, in the surroundings of Guilin). They present sometimes a mining interest and some extractive industries are presently active (limonite, cassierite, etc.). Many caves have been surveyed by the Institute of Karst geology, in Guilin. Some have been equiped for tourism, around Guilin. All these caves are old. Some radiocarbon dating of speleothems yield ages of 33,000 year BP. The famous carving of the Leng Yen Cave have not been affected by calcite deposition from dripping since at least 500 years. The large caves that have been surveyed should correspond to a long evolution span. Along the Lijiang River, at least two terraces can be observed. They are built with gravels and pebbles, covered with thinner sand and loam, suggesting climatic changes, also attested by the changes of fauna and vegetation. These past cooler periods are characterised by an opened vegetation, with the striping of the old weathering cover of the former tropical karst. These karst terrains have been investigated in China for management purposes. Groundwater oscillations have frequently resulted in land subsidences damaging buildings, and in dramatic collapses destroying fields, roads. Sometimes, underground collapse plugged caves and dammed underground rivers, resulting in floodings. The caves are frequently used as reservoirs for irrigation and power plants.

Des cavits dans la couverture limoneuse des plateaux nivernais (Nivre), 1986, Chabert, C.
CAVES IN THE SOFT COVER OF THE PLATEAUX DU NIVERNAIS (NIEVRE, FRANCE) - North of the Massif Central, around Nevers, the jurassic limestones are covered with a mio-pliocene silt mantle characterised by different caves: collapse dolines in relation with the crypto-karst situated into the underlying limestones and little holes developing in the silt mass (ex.: ponor of Bois de la Grange, length: 11 m). The tertiary mantle and the forests take a prominent part in the regulation and the physico-chemistry of karst waters.

Les grandes cavits souterraines, tudes et applications, 1986, Gilli, E.
As part of a research contract with Electricit de France, 28 large karstic chambers have been studied. For each of them, a map, a geological survey and observations about stability have been made with simple ways. The study shows that 450 metres large examples exist. Three natural evolution ways are considered: by dissolving, by dissolving and collapse, and by washing away and collapse. The last part is about artificial caves; some propitious geological surroundings for large artificial chambers are defined.

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