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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That intake area, recharge area is the surface area in which water is absorbed into an aquifer eventually to reach the zone of saturation [10].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for gypsum (Keyword) returned 450 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 450
Origin of castiles on the Gypsum Plain of Texas and New Mexico, 1980, Kirkland D. W. , Evans R.

The Role of CO2 In Gypsum Speleogenesis: First contribution., 1981, Forti Paolo, Rabbi Ernesto
Starting from direct observation carried out inside gypsum caves around Bologna (Italy), the authors develop a new theory about the role played by CO2 in gypsum karstification. Such a theory agrees with the presence of calcite sinters inside gypsum caves without any source of calcium carbonate (cover or interbedding layer). Moreover, starting from this theory, gypsum speleogenesis has to be always considered as a hyperkarstic phenomenon (more than 3 components at the equilibrium).

The shape of 'gypsum bubbles', 1981, Breisch R. L. , Wefer F. L.

Lithification of peritidal carbonates by continental brines at Fisherman Bay, South Australia, to form a megapolygon/spelean limestone association, 1982, Ferguson J, Burne Rv, Chambers La,
Lithification, which commenced less than 3000 yrs BP is still active, and has formed a cavernous limestone containing megapolygons, tepees, and speleothems including pisoliths, floe aragonite, and aragonite pool deposits. The emerging waters evolved from low alkalinity waters of Pleistocene sand and clay coastal plain aquifers which passed through an underlying Tertiare marine carbonate aquifer, have high P CO2 , total carbonate, Ca, and sulfate concentrations. They are close to saturation with respect to aragonite, and their mMg (super 2) /mCa (super 2) ratios approach or exceed the critical aragonite precipitation value. Features which diagnose ancient examples of this process: primary aragonitic cements with high mSr (super 2) /mCa (super 2) values; nonmarine delta 34 S values in gypsum; two superimposed networks of surface polygons, one delineated by extensional boundaries, the other by tepees; high-water vadose-zone isopachous grain cements; interconnected, speleothem-lined cavities; and the presence of evaporites only in surface sediments. Possible ancient examples are recognized in West Texas, Lombardy, and the Atlas Mountains. The areal extent of each of these deposits suggests that the process may be a geologically important feature, and its products may be diagnostic of semi-arid or arid-zone paralic sedimentation.--Modified journal abstract

Origin of gypsum deposits in Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, 1982,

Splogense hydrothermale dans les Bibans (Atlas Tellien, Algrie), 1983, Collignon, B.
HYDROTHERMAL SPELEOGENESIS IN THE BIBANS (ATLAS TELLIEN, NORTH ALGERIA) - The Azrous are two small limestone mountains jutting out from wide marl spaces (the Tellian sheets) in the region of the Bibans. Their surface is not really a karst but they contain many caves, which have been caused by thermal waters. The seepage is so weak that these caves have been very well preserved and so we can study old geothermal carbonate aquifers. This study shows the main morphological, structural, sedimentological and mineralogical features of such caves.

Le karst mconnu du domaine aride et semi-aride, 1983, Jennings, J. N.
Knowledge of semiarid-arid karst is poor, especially as regards process rates. Explanation of well-developed karst here must then depend on independent environmental history. Impoverishment in carbonate karst with decreasing rainfall is demonstrable but the factor of inadequate cave exploration has to be weighed. Distinction between desert and karst factors presents problems. Individuality in dryland karst is more a question of changing relative importance of phenemena found more widely than of distinctive forms. Such process studies as exist suggest wide variation. Gypsum karst develops as well in semiarid as humid climate and halite karst is expressed best in arid.

Les karsts du gypse dans la dpression de l'Ebre, 1985, Guttierez M. , Ibanez M. J. , Pena J. L. , Rodriguez J. , Soriano M. A.
A FEW EXAMPLES OF GYPSUM KARSTS IN THE EBRO DEPRESSION (SPAIN) - Three areas where dissolution processes in gypsum formations have taken place, are studied. They show different geologic arrangements, one of them being folded, another in a flat--lying strata, and the third one covered by a thick unit of alluvials of the Ebro river. The climatic conditions are similar for these areas. Several kinds of dolines morphology, uvalas and large depressions similar to poljes can be distinguished. It seems to be established in the origin of some of these landforms, an interrelation between the fluvial processes and the dissolution ones.

Les karsts de gypse italiens ( propos du Symposium inter-national sur les karsts des vaporites), 1986, Choppy, J.
ITALIAN GYPSUM KARSTS - Synthesis of field observations and bibliographic data on shallow and deep gypsum karsts in Italy; these karsts are located in Trias (Emily) and in Messinian (continental Italy, especially near Bologna, and Sicily). The author describes clints of Sicily, the features of erosion and filling in underground caves.

Les aiguilles de gypse du Verneau (Doubs), 1986, Couturaud, A.
THE GYPSUM NEEDLES OF THE VERNEAU SYSTEM (DOUBS) - These crystals are both exceptionally long (up to 225mm) and very well preserved. They were discovered on the floor of an old choked passage close to a large gallery and a collector. They appear to have grown during a flooded period where the Triassic or paleokarstic gypsum was re-dissolved.

The speleogenetic role of air flow caused by convection. First contribution., 1986, Cigna Arrigo A. , Forti Paolo
In the past some authors described the speleogenetic role of convection in phreatic conditions. Similar effects exist also in the air-fiLled part of vadose passages of caves as a consequence of an air circulation due to a relevant temperature gradient; the effects can be enhanced by the presence of some acids as, e.g., H2S, H2SO4, etc. In this paper the conditions matching convection and condensation which produce typical forms, very similar to those found under phreatic conditions, are discussed both for limestone and gypsum caves.

Subsidence and foundering of strata caused by the dissolution of Permian gypsum in the Ripon and Bedale areas, North Yorkshire, 1986, Cooper Ah,
Underground dissolution of thick gypsum beds in the Edlington Formation and Roxby Formation of the Zechstein sequence in North Yorkshire, England, has resulted in a 3 km-wide and 100 km-long belt of ground susceptible to foundering. Within this belt a large subsidence depression at Snape Mires, near Bedale, was largely filled with lacustrine deposits in the later part of the Late Devensian and during the Flandrian. South of Snape Mires the Nosterfield-Ripon-Bishop Monkton area has suffered about 40 episodes of subsidence in the past 150 years, and the presence of several hundred other subsidence hollows indicates considerable activity from the later part of the Devensian onwards. The linear and grid-like arrangement of these subsidence hollows indicates collapse at intersections in a joint-controlled cave system. Linear subsidence features at Snape Mires are also joint-controlled. The transition from anhydrite at depth to secondary gypsum near surface marks the down-dip limit of the subsidence-prone belt. Cavities are propagated upwards by roof collapse of caverns in the gypsum, leading to the formation of breccia pipes. Choking of the pipes can reduce the surface expression of the underground collapse, but the larger cavities are liable to produce pipes that reach the surface even at the eastern boundary of the 3 km-wide belt described. Further subsidence in the Ripon area is predicted and some suggestions for remedial measures are given

Des aiguilles de gypse dans les grottes algriennes, 1987, Collignon, B.
Gypsum needles in algerian caves

Les phnomnes karstiques des quartzites d'Afrique du Sud, 1987, Martini, J.
KARST FEATURES IN QUARTZITE OF SOUTH AFRICA - The author describes karst features developed in quartzite and also, but to a lesser extent, in weathered diabase and in wad. In quartzite, the karst is due to weathering along joints and bedding planes, producing softer areanaceous boundaries. Later, vadose caves form by piping in the weathered material, starting at a spring and progressing upstream. The karst features include dolines, swallow-holes, and caves, grouped in very localised systems. Over most of the quartzite plateaus, however, real karst features are absent and the drainage remains superficial. The only ubiquitous features, reminiscent of lapies, consist of pinnacles left after erosion of sand. As most of the time they are not associated to deep karst systems, the author proposes that they should not be considered as karst features. Other caves are developed in weathered diabase and dolomite (wad), sandwiched between resistant quartzite layers. They result from the erosion of these soft layers. The author is of the opinion that the term karst rather than pseudokarst should be used to describe this morphology developed in silica and silicate rocks. The reason is that not only the features produced compare well with the ones observed in " soluble rocks " (limestone, gypsum, etc.), but that the genetical process is very similar. It is suggested that the term pseudokarst should be used only in cases were the genesis is different.

Le gouffre de Tourettes (Var), ou la montagne qui accouche d'un trou (de souris), 1987, Salomon, J. N.
The Tourettes shaft (Var) About a 45m-deep collapse sinkhole in gypsum

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