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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That closed traverse is a traverse which begins and ends at survey points with known co-ordinates and orientation or at the same point [25].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for sand (Keyword) returned 454 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 454
Verordnung zum Schutz der Wasservorkommen im Gebiet des Sarsteins, Sandling und Loser (Salzkammergut) erlassen, 1975, Trimmel, H.

Hydrological and chemical investigations of running waters of the Schlitzerland (Western Germany). A. Springs, I. Survey., 1976, Brehm Jorg
In a Triassic sandstone woodland (Schlitzerland in Hesse, Western Germany) 17 springs were hydrologically and hydrochemically investigated throughout one year (April 1973; April 1974). Measurements were carried out on water volume, temperature, electrolytical conductivity, pH, aikalinity, chlorinity, dissolved molecular oxygen, dissolved organic material (COD), ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and free phosphate. Among the hydrochemical factors investigated the pH-value was closely related especially to the micro-climate in the spring drainage area. In particular the pH rose both with increasing length of the drainage area and within the same spring with decreasing water supply. On the other hand the pH-value diminished with increasing altitude of the drainage area. Simultaneously the highest values were found on SW-slopes and the lowest ones in NE-exposures.

The dynamics of population in the Isopod Proasellus slavus ssp.n. and the larvae of Chironomids in the hyporheic water of the river Drava with regard to pollution., 1976, Lattingerpenko Romana, Mestrov Milan, Tavcar Vlatka
If we sum up the data and observations derived from our researches on the Drava river, we conclude after consideration of surface water fauna and after comparison of chemical parameters that it influences the hyporheic water of a rough gravel-sandy alluvium more than 2 m deep, while in the compact sandy substratum it has less influence. The next conclusion is that the horizontal and vertical distribution of Proasellus slavus ssp.n. in the alluvium of the Drava river, depends upon the granulation of substratum, with reference so the largeness of interstices; that the populations vary in density and structure according to the nature of water which irrigates these alluviums; and finally upon the quantity of detritus which this water contains. Concerning the influence of the sewage waters the effect of a sudden action of very polluted water is not known but it is certain that the increasing of decaying material to the alfa-meso saprobial level of the river water does not threaten either the existence or the development of the populations of Proasellus slavus ssp.n.

The vertical distribution of stygorhithral ciliates in the Fulda-River (Contribution to the knowledge of mesopsammal ciliates in running freshwater)., 1976, Lupkes Gunther
19 species of ciliates were found in interstitial biotopes of the Fulda Headwater. Two of these were new: Haplocaulus hengsti, n.sp. and Epistylis rotti, n.sp. (Peritrichida). The number of ciliate species decreases from the surface down so deeper layers; in a depth of 50 cm, only three species were found: Haplocaulus hengsti and Epistylis rotti and another small ciliate Trachelophyllum apiculatum. There was little detritus in this layer, and so, the abundance of the ciliates was low. On the other hand, there is little predation in deeper layers of stygorhithral sand and gravel. Small, long and thin ciliates seem so be specially adapted to life in deeper regions of the stygornithral Stygorhithral ciliates are related to custygal species with respect to several characteristics of their morphology and general biology.

The ecology of Metazoa in a settling basin of the Berlin Water Works and its importance in the process of purification of percolated surface water., 1976, Ritterbusch Barbara
Based upon the hypothesis that the Metazoa (nematoda and rotifera) in the interstitial stratum of a slow sand filter are of importance in the process of purification of surface water, a filter was built to check the substrate characteristics of different grain sizes compared with the natural soil. It was found that the granulometric composition of sands as found in the settling basins did have the best comparative screening properties. This was demonstrated by chemical analyses of NH4, NO2, NO3, PO4, KMnO4-consumption and O2-saturation. Only the NO3-graph is shown here. The importance of Metazoa in the process of filtering water was studied by inoculating metazoic microorganisms into the most efficient filter. Chemical analyses of the water did not reveal a significant change of water quality over that from a non-inoculated filter. Because of this result the Metazoa do not appear to act as an important component in the water purification by sand filtration.

Sedimentation of moulding sands'' on karstified limestone surface in the middle part of Krakw-Wielu? Upland. [in Polish], 1977, Gradzi?ski, Ryszard

Summaries of papers read at The Engineering Group Regional Meeting-Cardiff 1977: Engineering Geology of Soluble Rocks, 1978,
Engineering Geology of the South Wales Coalfield and its margins--with particular reference to the Carboniferous Limestone. By J. G. C. Anderson. The stratigraphical succession of the Cardiff district ranges from Silurian to Lower Jurassic, while structurally the rocks have been affected by Caledonian, Hercynian and Alpine movements. Caledonian folding is relatively weak but powerful Hercynian (Asturian) folding and faulting took place about the end of the Westphalian; the elongate South Wales Coalfield Basin being formed at this time. Mesozoic strata, up to the Liassic, are also folded and faulted by movements which may have been as late as the Miocene. Silurian rocks which occur in the Usk and Rumney Inliers consist of sandstones, siltstones and shales (often calcareous) as well as some limestones. The argillaceous rocks often weather deeply and degenerate to clay with rock lithorelicts, consequently they pose problems in foundations and cuttings, e.g. on the east side of Cardiff. The Old Red Sandstone, both Lower and Upper divisions are present, is made up of marls, sandstones and conglomerates. Some of the sandstones are aquifers and provide water in commercial quantities. The marls, especially where steeply inclined are liable to slipping, as happened for example, in the Brynglas (M4) Tunnel at Newport. The Carboniferous Limestone surrounds the coalfield and consists mainly of limestone and dolomite (see also below). The Millstone Grit does not contain the gritty sandstones of the Pennines and is made up mainly of strong siliceous sandstones and shales. The Coal Measures show the usual lithology; a ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

Messinian event in the black sea, 1979, Hsu Kenneth J. , Giovanoli Federico,
Three holes were drilled during the 1975 DSDP Leg 42B drilling the Black Sea. A section from Hole 380, at 2107 m water depth on the western edge of the abyssal plain, is 1074 m thick, and provides the most complete stratigraphic section. Dating of the sediments is based upon (1) fossil evidence from pollen, crustaceans, benthic foraminifera, and diatoms, (2) correlation with climatic changes and with unusual isochronous events that have been dated elsewhere, (3) paleomagnetic data, and (4) estimates of sedimentation rate.The history of Black Sea sedimentation recorded by the DSDP cores includes black shale sedimentation during the Late Miocene, followed by periodic chemical sedimentation from Late Miocene to Early Quaternary, and a change to dominantly terrigenous sedimentation from the Middle Quaternary. These hemipelagic and turbiditic sediments were deposited in lacustrine and brackish marine environments. The Messinian sediments, however, consist of stromatolitic dolomite, oolitic sands, and coarse gravels, deposited in supratidal and intertidal environments. The intercalation of the shallow-water sediments in a deep-water sequence suggests a drastic lowering of the water-level within the Black Sea basin during the Messinian so that the edge of the present abyssal plain was then the edge of a shallow lake.The Messinian draw-down phase of the Black Sea was in existence for about 100,000 years during the Lago-Mare stage of the salinity crisis. The evaporated waters formed an alkaline lake before it was drowned by a brackish marine transgression correlative to the Trubi transgression of the Mediterranean

An Unusual Sandstone Cave From Northern Australia, 1979, Jennings, J. N.

The finding in recent years of much longer and more elaborate caves in quartz sandstone in South America than were known previously prompted a search for caves other than weathering caves in Arnhem Land in 1978. Though in the main unveiling for social reasons, it did lead to recognition that Yulirienji Cave, St Vidgeon Station, Northern Territory, well known for its Aboriginal rock art, is an abandoned, short river cave in quartz sandstone modified by weathering.

Fluoreszenzmikroskopische Untersuchung der Bakterienflora und Bestimmung ihrer heterotrophen Aktivitt in organisch belastetem und unbelastetem Grundwasser sandig-kiesiger Ablagerungen., 1981, Marxsen Jurgen
Bacteriological investigations were carried out in the groundwater of sandy and gravelly deposits of the river Fulda valley in an area named Johannesaue near the town Fulda (Hesse, Fed. Rep. of Germany). In January 1979 water samples were collected from 16 pumping tubes distributed in organically polluted and unpolluted areas. For characterizing the bacterial populations, methods used for surface waters were modified and, as far as the author is aware, these methods were used for the first time for investigations pertaining subterranean waters. The bacteria were counted by means of epifluorescence microscopy after staining the bacteria with the fluorochrome acridine orange. This technique renders possible the simultaneous registration of shape and size of bacteria. Parameters characterizing the heterotrophic bacterial activity were measured with 14C-labelled glucose. The number of bacteria in the groundwater collected through pumping tubes, varied from 1.4 to 11.3 million bacteria per ml. The relative glucose uptake potential vr, which was measured at one substrate concentration (600 microg glucose .1-1) where the maximum uptake velocity is almost reached, was 0.12; 0.74 microg glucose 1-1 .h-1. The corresponding specific potential was 0.02-0.18 microg glucose h-1 cell-1. The results agreed with the values of maximum uptake velocity Vmax which was measured at the same time in some of the groundwater samples. The data give first information about distribution of the number of bacteria and of heterotrophic bacterial activity in the groundwater of the investigation area. Relationships could be shown between the bacteriological parameters on the one hand and the concentration of oxygen and the values of COD measured with KMnO4 on the other hand.

The Upper Cretaceous Beartooth Sandstone of Southwestern New Mexico; a transgressive deltaic complex on silicified paleokarst, 1982, Chafetz Hs,

Lithification of peritidal carbonates by continental brines at Fisherman Bay, South Australia, to form a megapolygon/spelean limestone association, 1982, Ferguson J, Burne Rv, Chambers La,
Lithification, which commenced less than 3000 yrs BP is still active, and has formed a cavernous limestone containing megapolygons, tepees, and speleothems including pisoliths, floe aragonite, and aragonite pool deposits. The emerging waters evolved from low alkalinity waters of Pleistocene sand and clay coastal plain aquifers which passed through an underlying Tertiare marine carbonate aquifer, have high P CO2 , total carbonate, Ca, and sulfate concentrations. They are close to saturation with respect to aragonite, and their mMg (super 2) /mCa (super 2) ratios approach or exceed the critical aragonite precipitation value. Features which diagnose ancient examples of this process: primary aragonitic cements with high mSr (super 2) /mCa (super 2) values; nonmarine delta 34 S values in gypsum; two superimposed networks of surface polygons, one delineated by extensional boundaries, the other by tepees; high-water vadose-zone isopachous grain cements; interconnected, speleothem-lined cavities; and the presence of evaporites only in surface sediments. Possible ancient examples are recognized in West Texas, Lombardy, and the Atlas Mountains. The areal extent of each of these deposits suggests that the process may be a geologically important feature, and its products may be diagnostic of semi-arid or arid-zone paralic sedimentation.--Modified journal abstract

Hydrogeology of the Umm Er Radhuma aquifer, Saudi Arabia, with reference to fossil gradients, 1982, Bakiewicz W, Milne Dm, Noori M,
Much of North Africa and the Arabian peninsula, lying in the Saharan climate zone, are underlain by huge tabular sandstone and carbonate aquifers, ranging in age from Cambrian to Tertiary. These are often saturated with water of reasonable quality and form very valuable resources in an area often desperately short of water. The Palaeocene Umm Er Radhuma carbonate aquifer is one such formation which has been the subject of intensive recent investigation. The formation contains groundwater of a reasonable quality, has adequate transmission and storage characteristics and hence considerable potential for future development. The origin of the water in such aquifers is the subject of continuing controversy. It is not disputed that the water is moving under the influence of regional groundwater gradients but origins of these gradients are the subject of considerable argument. On the one hand, there are those who hold that the presently observed gradients are fossil remnants of conditions created by a much wetter climatic regime prevalent some thousands of years ago. Against this are those who maintain that the gradients, at least in part, reflect a present day system with groundwater discharge in approximate dynamic equilibrium with recharge. This paper examines the hydrogeology of a typical Middle Eastern formation of the disputed kind, the Umm Er Radhuma aquifer in Saudi Arabia, and, with the aid of analytical and numerical models, attempts to resolve the problem of the origin of the observed groundwater gradients and to discover the extent to which the past must influence present day plans for future development

Hydrogeology of the Great Nubian Sandstone basin, Egypt, 1982, Shata A. A. ,
In Egypt, the strata of major hydrogeological interest are composed of a sandstone complex ranging from Cambrian to Upper Cretaceous in age. This sandstone complex, commonly known as the Nubian Sandstone, has a thickness varying from less than 500 m to more than 3000 m and rests directly on Precambrian basement. This simple picture is complicated by a number of major structural fault and fold axes which traverse the region in a north-easterly direction. The sandstones reach their max-imum development in the Ain Dalla basin, a downthrown structural block SW of Bahariya oasis. Basement features exercise a dominant control on the structural and sedimentological form of the sandstone complex. In spite of the structural complications, the Nubian sand-stone, underlying an extensive area of Egypt, probably con-stitutes a single hydrogeological system to the W of the Gulf of Suez. To the E, on the Sinai peninsula, a second system may exist with some connection to the main western system in the N. The main western system, which extends into Libya and Sudan, comprises a multi-layered artesian basin where huge groundwater storage reserves were accumulated, principally during the pluvials of the Quaternary. The carbonate rocks overlying the Nubian Sandstone complex display karst features locally and are recharged by upwards leakage from the underlying major aquifer. Large-scale development of the Nubian Sandstone aquifer in Egypt has been under consideration since 1960. Latest proposals for the New Valley development project involve exploitation at the annual rate of 156.2 x l06m3 at El-Kharga, 509.2 at

Archaeological Investigations in Sand Cave, Kentucky, 1983, Crothers, George M.

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