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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That clusterite is see botryoid.?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for karst landscapes (Keyword) returned 50 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 50
Designation of protected karstlands in Central America: A regional assessment, 2002, Kueny, J. A. , Day, M. J.
The IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas has recognized karst landscapes as important targets for designation as protected areas, and this study is a regional inventory of the Central American karst conservation situation. Central America is a significant international carbonate karst landscape, covering ~154,000 km2, roughly a quarter of the regional land area. The karstlands exhibit considerable topographic diversity, including cockpit and tower styles, together with extensive dry valleys, cave systems and springs. Some of the karst areas are well known, but others have yet to receive detailed scientific attention. Many of them have archaeological, historical, cultural, biological, aesthetic and recreational significance, but human impacts have been considerable. Conservation and protection legislation is variable in nature and effectiveness, and enforcement is problematic. About 18% of the Central American karst landscape has been afforded nominal protection through designation as protected areas. Regional levels of karstland protection are highly variable, with significant protection in the Yucatan peninsula, Honduras, and Belize; intermediate protection in Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panama; and, as yet, no protected areas in Nicaragua or El Salvador. The situation remains fluid and the future of the Central American karstlands uncertain.

Phreatic overgrowths on speleothems: a useful tool in structural geology in littoral karst landscapes. The example of eastern Mallorca (Balearic Islands)., 2002, Fornos J. J. , Gelabert B. , Gines A. Et Al.

Faunal associates with karst landscapes: A preliminary assessment of bird observations in Belize, 2003, Day M.

Speleogenesis of selected caves beneath the Lunan Shilin and caves of fenglin Karst in Qiubei, Yunnan, 2004, Sebela S. , Slabe T. , Liu H. , Pruner P. ,
Yunnan is famous for its attractive karst landscapes especially shilins, fengcong and fenglin. The development of caves beneath the shilins in the vicinity of Liman is closely connected with the formation of shilins. Most of the waters percolating through shilins run through the caves beneath them and are responsible for their formation. The study of cave speleogenesis deepens knowledge about both the development of shilins and karst structure. ln the vicinity of the Lunan Shilin, speleological, morphological and structural geological studies of four karst caves have been accomplished. At Puzhehei, Qiubei, which is characterised by numerous fenglin, fengcong and caves, speleological and morphological studies have been performed. Cave sediments for paleomagnetic analyses have been taken from all studied areas (samples CH 1-9). Karst caves in SE Yunnan are probably much older than the age of the cave sediments (<780,000 years B.P.). The studied areas are located in the vicinity of the Xiaojiang fault (N-S direction) and the Red River fault (NW-SE direction). The general directions of both active faults are assumed to influence the direction of the most frequent fissures as well as the cave passages near the Liman Shilin. The Maojiang fault more strongly influences cave passage orientation, while the more distant Red River fault most strongly influences fissure orientation

Divergent evolution in fluviokarst landscapes of Central Kentucky, 2004, Phillips J. D. , Martin L. L. , Nordberg V. G. , Andrews W. A. ,
Central Kentucky is characterized by a mixture of karst and fluvial features, typically manifested as mosaic of karst-rich/channel-poor (KRCP) and channel-rich/karst-poor (CRKP) environments. At the regional scale the location and distribution of KRCP and CRKP areas are not always systematically related to structural, lithological, topographic, or other controls. This study examines the relationship of KRCP and CRKP zones along the Kentucky River gorge area, where rapid incision in the last 1.5 million years has lowered local base levels and modified slopes on the edge of the inner bluegrass plateau. At the scale of detailed field mapping on foot within a 4 km(2) area, the development of karst and fluvial features is controlled by highly localized structural and topographic constraints, and can be related to slope changes associated with retreat of the Kentucky River gorge escarpment. A conceptual model of karst/fluvial transitions is presented, which suggests that minor, localized variations are sufficient to trigger a karst-fluvial or fluvial-karst switch when critical slope thresholds are crossed. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd

Microbial communities in gypsum caves and soils of karst landscapes in Arkhangelsk oblast, 2004, Semikolennykh A. A. , Ivanova A. E. , Dobrovol'skaya T. G. ,
Microbial communities of actively developing karst caves, which are closely connected with the surface, differ from microbial communities of soils formed above the caves. Significant differences are found in the structure of these microbial communities, whereas their species composition remains approximately the same both in the caves and in the soils. Specific physical and climatic conditions, discrete character of substrates, and the absence of competition between species in cave habitats cause the replacement of dominants by rare species and the prevalence of oligotrophic and psychrotolerant forms

Natural and anthropogenic hazards in karst areas of Albania, 2004, Parise M. , Qiriazi P. , Sala S. ,
In Albania, about one quarter of the country is occupied by outcroppings of soluble rocks; thus, karst represents an important and typical natural environment. Today karst areas are seriously threatened by a number of hazards, of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Many problems are related to agricultural practices: the use of heavy machinery, ever-increasing in recent years, results at many sites in destruction of the original karst landscapes. Use of pesticides and herbicides, in addition, causes the loss of karst ecosystems of great biological relevance, as has been observed in the Dumre district, where about 80 lakes of karst origin are present in the evaporites of Permian-Triassic age. Agricultural practice performed on slopes with medium to high gradient is a further factor which greatly predispose the slopes to erosion. The cave heritage of Albania (estimated so far in about 1000 caves) is at risk because of the uncontrolled quarrying activities which determine the total or partial destruction of karst caves, including many of naturalistic, archaeological and speleological interest. Many caves have also become sites of illegal disposal of solid and liquid wastes, which causes pollution of the karst ecosystems and of the aquifer therein present, with heavy negative consequences on the quality of water. Even though most of the cases here mentioned are related to anthropogenic activities, the natural hazards, such as subsidence phenomena, floods, and the development of sinkholes, have not to be disregarded

An overview of the current research carried out in the French Western Alps karsts, 2004, Audra, Philippe

Current research encloses karst systems geomorphologic approach, recent advances in study of karst structures which date back from the Upper Miocene. Karst genesis in Western Alps is brought up by systemic analysis, according to a geomorphologic approach. It uses the "karst immunity" that conserves old drainage structures and their associated sediments. Karst landscapes can be sorted into horizontal and vertical forms. Speleothems are clearly connected to the presence of vegetation but they also record geomorphic crisis. Clastic sediments reveal mechanical erosion. This approach concludes with karst genesis and speleogenesis reconstruction, which blend together evolution stages, environment characterization and processes. Researchers reconsider the preponderant part previously attributed to glaciers. Karst appears immediately when a gradient exists and when the aquifer is stripped of its impervious cover. Such conditions occurred from the Upper Miocene and sometimes before. Karsts of the Pleistocene age are only met in the Inner Alps where cover stripping occurred later. Vertical systems composed of shaft series are old and become more complex. Field evidence refutes Ford's classification, which assigns a deep phreatic origin. A brief account of the present state of knowledge, according to region and researcher's scientific themes, allows establishing the last decade's advances. It also shows a disparity between the North and the South Western Alps, where Vercors appears to be one of the best studied massifs in the Alps.


Using state-wide GIS data to identify the coincidence between sinkholes and geologic structure., 2005, Florea L.
The Kentucky GIS coverage of sinkholes, completed in 2003, consists of 101,176 polygons representing the upper-most closed contour of every karst sinkhole identified using USGS 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. This resource is a useful tool for delineating karst landscapes in Kentucky because karstified limestones underlie 55% of the aerial surface of the state. For hydrologic studies, alignments of sinkholes commonly indicate preferential flowpaths for groundwater; and this information aids in large-scale planning and zoning. In this paper, I demonstrate the effectiveness of using this sinkhole coverage as a tool for delimiting structural features of Kentucky.

Protection of Karst in the Philippines., 2006, Restificar S. D. F. , Day M. J. , Urich P. B.
The article presents an overview of the current status of karst protection in the Philippines. Prior studies indicate that of the 35,000km2 of karst landscape in the country, about 29% is protected . However, protection of karst has not to date been a priority of the Philippine government, and the country has no existing legislation that is directly decreed for protection and conservation of karstlands. Most contemporary karst protection is indirect, in that the karst is located within protected areas established for other, although often related reasons, such as ecological conservation, water supply protection and tourism. However, it appears that the Philippine government is gradually recognizing explicitly the need to protect karst landscapes. The establishment of the National Caves and Cave Resources Management and Protection Act in 2001 and the inclusion of karst water resources in the countrys National Action Plan (NAP) under the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) are significant steps towards explicit protection of karst areas. Although the existing legislation only addresses specific facets of karst landscape, it may stimulate additional programs and legislation that will more broadly protect karst landscapes nationally. Philippines, karst, caves, protected areas, environmental legislation

Tiankengs in the karst of China, 2006, Zhu Xuewen, Chen Weihai
China has the most extensive and diversified karst terrains in the world and most of them are rich in caves and dolines. The cone karst (fengcong) and tower karst (fenglin) developed in the humid climate in southern China form the most distinctive karst landscapes. Tiankengs are giant dolines that are a feature in some areas of the cone karst. In recent years, more than fifty tiankengs have been discovered in the cone karst in southern China, notably in the provinces of Chongqing, Guangxi, Sichuan and Guizhou. Current research indicates that tiankengs develop in specific environments of geomorphology, geology and hydrogeology, and are therefore distinguished from normal karst dolines.

Tiankengs in the karst of China, 2006, Zhu Xuewen, Chen Weihai

China has the most extensive and diversified karst terrains in the world and most of them are rich in caves and dolines. The cone karst (fengcong) and tower karst (fenglin) developed in the humid climate in southern China form the most distinctive karst landscapes. Tiankengs are giant dolines that are a feature in some areas of the cone karst. In recent years, more than fifty tiankengs have been discovered in the cone karst in southern China, notably in the provinces of Chongqing, Guangxi, Sichuan and Guizhou. Current research indicates that tiankengs develop in specific environments of geomorphology, geology and hydrogeology, and are therefore distinguished from normal karst dolines.


Phnomnes karstiques et tourisme dans les parcs nationaux de lOuest canadien : la mise en valeur progressive dun patrimoine naturel, 2006, Hritier Stphane
The karst phenomenon and tourism in western canadian national parks: the progressive promotion of a natural heritage - Canadian national parks located in the Rockies and in the Selkirk range (Alberta and British Columbia) can be considered as places of major interest to focus research on the Canadian parks. Since the beginning of the National Park System in 1885, transcontinental railway companies have promoted tourism activities within national parks based on scenery and natural sites. With more than 10 millions visitors per year, these parks have become a favorite tourist destination for many Canadian and Americans. Nature and different natural processes, such as falls, lakes, canyons and caves, karst springs, glacial processes and postglacial landforms, are thus considered as tourist resources [Sanguin & Gill, 1990]. The present paper analyzes how karst landscapes have become a significant part of the tourist dynamics within the Canadian national parks. These landforms and processes seem to be involved in a tourism process based on the promotion of the entire environment, its dynamics and its mechanisms. The final point will be to interrogate the way in which karst processes and landforms have become subjects that offer opportunities for tourism development through the terms and conditions of their promotion as a support for parks attractivity. A century of tourism development has enlarged the scientific opportunities for visitors, introducing the latter to the geomorphologic as well as the human heritage. Since the end of the 1960s, coordinated regional programs have been developed (tourism management, interpretation, etc.) between the mountain parks and the tourism sector (railway companies, private interpreters, businesses, etc.). The use and the promotion of karst has been gradually developed, especially for endokarstic and hydrokarstic forms and processes, like mountain scenery, karst lansdcapes have become a foundation for nature tourism. As parts of national parks, the hydrokarst and the canyons are geomorphosites [Reynard & Panizza, 2005] which are protected for their ecological value. Nowadays, they are also preserved for their scientific and esthetic values but also because they are considered as significant parts of the tourism industry. Since the 1960s, scientific studies have incited actors to develop a global approach in environment management that converges on ecological integrity , a major concept for Parks Canada. In the end, the differing values (aesthetic, cultural, economic, ecological, scientific) identified by Reynard [2005] converge in the concept of heritage value, understood as the synthesis of the identified values for geomorphosites, based either on a mathematic evaluation or on a synthetic analysis. Regarding the history of karst sites promotion within the Canadian mountain parks, and the recent proposal concerning a restrictive karst policy [Horne, 2004-b], it seems the karst phenomenon has obtained a genuine economic, touristic and heritage status.

Tiankengs in the karst of China, 2006, Zhu Xuewen, Chen Weihai
China has the most extensive and diversified karst terrains in the world and most of them are rich in caves and dolines. The cone karst (fengcong) and tower karst (fenglin) developed in the humid climate in southern China form the most distinctive karst landscapes. Tiankengs are giant dolines that are a feature in some areas of the cone karst. In recent years, more than fifty tiankengs have been discovered in the cone karst in southern China, notably in the provinces of Chongqing, Guangxi, Sichuan and Guizhou. Current research indicates that tiankengs develop in specific environments of geomorphology, geology and hydrogeology, and are therefore distinguished from normal karst dolines.

The protection of karst waters. A comprehensive Slovene Approach to vulnerability and contamination risk mapping, 2007, Nataš, A Ravbar
A general approach for karst water vulnerability and contamination risk assessment has been proposed, taking into account the special characteristics of Slovene karst landscapes, suiting Slovene environmental legislation and enabling comparison across European countries. The so-called Slovene Approach has been developed on the basis of work accomplished by the European COST Action 620. It incorporates the strongly modified COP method for intrinsic vulnerability assessment by integrating temporal hydrological variability, offering a new possibility to combine surface and groundwater protection, as well as by adapting it to source vulnerability mapping. The methodology provides also comprehensive risk analyses based on the intrinsic vulnerability, hazard and (re)source importance assessments. The proposed Slovene Approach has been first applied to the Podstenjšek water source catchment. Different other methods have been applied (EPIK, PI, COP, Simplified method) and compared. For the catchment area delineation, application of different vulnerability and risk methods a holistic research of the test site has been done by means of tracer tests, detail structural-lithological and geomorphological mapping, electrical resistivity imaging, as well as detail hazard mapping. Continuous monitoring of the springs? physico-chemical characteristics has been performed for the hydrograph analyses, water balance calculation and aquifer behaviour comprehension. The resulting Slovene Approach intrinsic vulnerability, hazard and risk maps are justified and validation with tracer tests has proved the method to give plausible results. The resulting maps provide improved source protection zones determination and identification of land mismanagement, as well as reorganisation and better practices for future planning.

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