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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That calcite is 1. the commoner, more stable, mineral form of calcium carbonate, caco3. it is the dominant component of all limestones and, due to its dissolution and reprecipitation by natural waters at normal temperatures, it is also the dominant mineral of chemical cave deposits including stalactites and stalagmites. it is white or colorless when pure but may be stained, most commonly to yellows and browns, by included impurities such as iron oxides. its uninterrupted growth in a pool may allow development of good crystals, shaped as elongate scalenohedral pyramids of trigonal habit. growth in stalactites and stalagmites is either in masses of fine parallel or radiating needles, or in a mosaic of larger rhombic crystals, easily identified by their well developed cleavage surfaces. calcite is also the dominant vein mineral in limestones [9]. 2. a mineral composed of calcium carbonate (caco3) like aragonite but differing in crystal form; the principal constituent of limestone and other speleothems [10].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for plants (Keyword) returned 50 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 50
Characteristics of karst ecosystems of Vietnam and their vulnerability to human impact, 2001, Tuyet D. ,
Karst in Vietnam covers an area of about 60,000 km(2), i.e. 18 % of the surface of the country. The country has an annual average temperature of 24 degreesC, an annual average rainfall of 2300 nun and a relative humidity of about 90%. Karst in Vietnam is typified by peak cluster-depression landscapes ranging in elevation from 200 to over 2000 m. Tower and coastal karst landscapes also exit. Because of naturally favourable conditions, karst ecosystems are diverse and very rich. Higher plants(cormophytes) are abundant. They are represented by approximately 2000 species, 908 genera, 224 families, 86 orders and 7 phyla. They form a thick vegetation cover of evergreen tropical rainforest. Knowledge about lower plants is limited. The fauna is rich and diverse. Phyla such as Protozoa, Vermes, Mollusca and Arthropoda are yet ill known. Preliminary results show that the phylum Chordata is represented by 541 species from 80 families, 40 orders and 5 classes. There exist many precious and rare mammals, in particular some endemic species such as Trachypithecus poliocephalus, T. delacouri, Rhinopithecus avanculus, Rhinolophus rouxi, Seotoma dineties and Silurus cuephuongensis. The class Insecta has about 2000 species. The fast population growth, particularly in the mountainous areas of the country, triggers an increasing demand for land and therefore threatens the ecosystem. To obtain land for farming, people have cut, burned and destroyed natural forest cover; resulting in occurrence of hazards such as soil-loss, water-loss, flash floods, mud-rock flows, rock-falls, severe drought, water logging and changes of karstic aquifers etc. Poaching precious animals and illegal logging are increasing. In contrast to other natural systems, karst ecosystems cannot be reestablished once damaged. Living karst landscapes will become rocky desert ones without life. Conservation of karstic environmental systems in general and karstic ecosystems in particular should not be the sole vocation of scientists but also a duty and responsibility of authorities and people from all levels. A good example of a multidisciplinary approach to karst-related problems is the implementation of the Vietnamese-Belgian Karst Project (VBEKAP): 'Rural development in the mountain karst area of NW Vietnam by sustainable water and land management and social learning: its conditions and facilitation'. The aim of this project is to improve living conditions of local people and sustained protection and management of the karst environment and ecosystem

Investigations of microbial origin of karst corrosion of soils depending on different temperatures, 2001, Zambo L. , Horvath G. , Telbisz T. ,
The acids accumulating in soils and controlling the solution of carbonates including the predominant CO2, mostly derive from three processes: i) root respiration of higher plants; ii) decomposition of soil organic matter by microorganisms (microbiota) and iii) other decomposition processes not associated with microbial activities. The solution effect under rendzina soils is primarily used for the dissolution of the enclosed limestone fragments and thus here the solution of bedrock is of limited scale. Below karst soils of high clay content the corrosion of bedrock is more intensive than under rendzinas. On the whole, the amount of carbonates dissolved and transported Into the depths of the karst is smaller than below rendzinas. In each soil type studied the solution caused by microbial activities manifold exceeds the rate of solution resulting from temperature factor but there is a manifest dropping trend from rendzina to clays

Physical Mechanisms of River Waterfall Tufa (Travertine) Formation, 2001, Zhang David Dian, Zhang Yingjun, Zhu An, Cheng Xing,
Waterfall tufa is widely distributed around the world, especially in tropical and subtropical karst areas. In these areas river water is generally supersaturated with respect to calcite, and the precipitation occurs mainly at waterfall and cascade sites. Development of waterfall tufa has been described as simply being the result of water turbulence. We believe, however, that three physical effects can lead to tufa deposition at waterfall sites: aeration, jet-flow, and low-pressure effects. The three physical effects are induced by two basic changes in the water: an accelerated flow velocity, and enlargement of the air-water interface area. These two changes increase the rate of CO2 outgassing and the SIc, so that a high degree of supersaturation is achieved, which then induces calcite precipitation. These 'waterfall effects' have been simulated in laboratory and field experiments, and each of them can accelerate, or trigger, calcite precipitation. Field measurements of river water chemistry also show that tufa deposition occurred only at waterfall sites. In these experiments and observations, waterfall effects play the most important role in triggering and accelerating CO2 outgassing rates. Field and laboratory observations indicate that plants and evaporation also play important roles in tufa formation. Growth of algae and mosses on tufa surfaces can provide substrates for calcite nucleation and can trap detrital calcite, accelerating tufa deposition. However, the prerequisite for such deposition at waterfall sites is a high degree of supersaturation in river water, which is mainly caused by waterfall effects. Evaporation can lead to supersaturation in sprays and thin water films at a waterfall site and cause the precipitation of dissolved CaCO3, but the amount of such deposition is relatively small

Altered lignin structure and resistance to pathogens in spi 2-expressing tobacco plants, 2002, Elfstrand M, Sitbon F, Lapierre C, Bottin A, Von Arnold S,

Cambial growth of Swietenia macrophylla King studied under controlled conditions by high resolution laser measurements, 2003, Dunisch O, Schulte M, Kruse K,
The kinetics of phloem and xylem formation of two-year-old plants of Swietenia macrophylla King (true mahogany) was studied in a model system along the shoot circumference (experiment 1) and along the shoot axis (experiment 2). The radius increment of the shoot was registered by high resolution laser measurements (accuracy: 2 mum) in a spatial resolution of 7.8 to 41.3 mum along the stem circumference and 1.5 mm along the stem axis. The temporal resolution of the measurements was 2 s in experiment 1 and 20 s in experiment 2. The radius increment of the shoot detected by the laser measurements was predominately due to the radial enlargement of the phloem and xylem derivatives. On the phloem side the reinitiation of radial cell enlargement after a cambial dormancy occurred first in sieve tubes with contact to ray parenchyma cells, while on the xylem side the radial cell enlargement of vessels and paratracheal parenchyma was induced almost simultaneously along the shoot circumference. In the phloem and xylem derivatives, which were formed first after the cambial reactivation, radial cell enlargement was induced almost simultaneously along the shoot axis. In more advanced phases of phloem and xylem formation, radial cell enlargement of phloem and xylem derivatives was induced shoot downwards with a rate of approximately 13 mm per min. The mean rate of radial cell enlargement of the phloem and xylem derivatives was 2.26 and 4.37 mum per min, respectively. These findings suggest that the kinetics of cambial growth of tropical tree species differ significantly from kinetics observed in trees from temperate regions. The laser measurements might provide a useful experimental approach for studies of cambial activity in situ

The influence of hydroelectrical development on the flow regime of the karstic river Cetina, 2003, Bonacci O, Rojebonacci T,
The Cetina River is a typical karst watercourse in the deep and well-developed Dinaric karst. The total length of the Cetina River open streamflow from its spring to the mouth is about 105 km. Estimated mean annual rainfall is 1380 mm. The Cetina catchment is built of Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous carbonate strata. The western part of the catchment by the Cetina River is referred to as the 'direct' or topographic catchment. It was defined based on surface morphologic forms, by connection between mountain chain peaks. This part of the catchment is almost entirely situated in the Republic of Croatia. The eastern part of the catchment is referred to as the 'indirect' catchment, and is mainly situated in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Water from the 'indirect' catchment emerges from the western 'direct' catchment in numerous permanent and temporary karst springs. Since 1960, numerous hydrotechnical works have been carried out on the Cetina River and within its catchment. Five hydroelectric power plants (HEPPs), five reservoirs, and three long tunnels and pipelines have been built. Their operation has significantly altered the natural hydrological regime. The Cetina River is divided into two hydrological reaches. In the 65 km upstream, the hydrological regime was redistributed within the year: low flows had increased and high flows had decreased, although the mean annual discharge remained the same. Part of the Cetina watercourse downstream from the Prancevici Reservoir lost the majority of its flow. The mean annual discharges dropped from 100 m(3) s(-1) to less than 10 m(3) s(-1) because of the Zakucac HEPP development. Copyright (C) 2003 John Wiley Sons, Ltd

Air Pollution Zones and Harmful Pollution Levels of Alkaline Dust for Plants, 2003, Liblik Valdo, Pensa Margus, Tsep Aavo,

A note on the distribution of plants in Scoska Cave, North Yorkshire, and their relationship to light intensity, 2004, Pentecost Allan, Zhang Zhaohui

20 years of speleothem paleoluminescence records of environmental changes: an overview, 2004, Shopov Yavor
This paper discusses advance of the research on Speleothem Paleoluminescence Records of Environmental Changes after it have been first introduced by the author 20 years ago. It is demonstrated that most of the progress in this field was made in result of the operation of the International Program "Luminescence of Cave Minerals" of the commission on Physical Chemistry and Hydrogeology of Karst of UIS of UNESCO. Potential, resolution and limitations of high resolution luminescence speleothem proxy records of Paleotemperature, Solar Insolation, Solar Luminosity, Glaciations, Sea Level advances, Past Precipitation, Plants Populations, Paleosoils, Past Karst Denudation, Chemical Pollution, Geomagnetic field and Cosmic Rays Flux variations, Cosmogenic Isotopes production and Supernova Eruptions in the Past, Advances of Hydrothermal Waters, and Tectonic Uplift are discussed. It is demonstrated that speleothems allow extremely high resolution (higher than in any other paleoclimatic terrestrial archives) and long duration of records. Some speleothems can be used as natural climatic stations for obtaining of quantitative proxy records of Quaternary climates with annual resolution.

Current issues and uncertainties in the measurement and modelling of air-vegetation exchange and within-plant processing of POPs, 2004, Barber Jl, Thomas Go, Kerstiens G, Jones Kc,
Air-vegetation exchange of POPs is an important process controlling the entry of POPs into terrestrial food chains, and may also have a significant effect on the global movement of these compounds. Many factors affect the air-vegetation transfer including: the physicochemical properties of the compounds of interest; environmental factors such as temperature, wind speed, humidity and light conditions; and plant characteristics such as functional type, leaf surface area, cuticular structure, and leaf longevity. The purpose of this review is to quantify the effects these differences might have on air/plant exchange of POPs, and to point out the major gaps in the knowledge of this subject that require further research. Uptake mechanisms are complicated, with the role of each factor in controlling partitioning, fate and behaviour process still not fully understood. Consequently, current models of air-vegetation exchange do not incorporate variability in these factors, with the exception of temperature. These models instead rely on using average values for a number of environmental factors (e.g. plant lipid content, surface area), ignoring the large variations in these values. The available models suggest that boundary layer conductance is of key importance in the uptake of POPs, although large uncertainties in the cuticular pathway prevents confirmation of this with any degree of certainty, and experimental data seems to show plant-side resistance to be important. Models are usually based on the assumption that POP uptake occurs through the lipophilic cuticle which covers aerial surfaces of plants. However, some authors have recently attached greater importance to the stomatal route of entry into the leaf for gas phase compounds. There is a need for greater mechanistic understanding of air-plant exchange and the 'scaling' of factors affecting it. The review also suggests a number of key variables that researchers should measure in their experiments to allow comparisons to be made between studies in order to improve our understanding of what causes any differences in measured data between sites. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

Further dates of heavy metal content on the soil and vegetation of Aggtelek Karst (Hungary), 2004, Kaszala Rita, Bá, Rá, Nykevei Ilona, Polyá, K Klá, Ra

During the previous investigation of the Aggtelek Karst we published physical and chemical parameters of the soils and the microelement content of the greenery. The presentation now gives further information about the soil (e.g. EDTA soluble heavy metal content), and the greenery (more species, more elements). The presentation shows the relationship between the heavy metal content of the karstic soil, and the sprout of plants.


Do woody plants affect streamflow on semiarid karst rangelands?, 2005, Wilcox B. P. , Owens M. K. , Knight R. W. , Lyons R. K. ,
There is considerable public and political pressure to reduce woody plant cover on rangelands as a means of increasing water yield, despite the lack of studies documenting that such a strategy is effective. In the Texas Hill Country, runoff from the Edwards Plateau recharges the highly productive and regionally vital Edwards Aquifer. The dominant woody plant on the Plateau is Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei Buchholz). To understand how woody plant cover may affect the amount and timing of runoff in this region, we monitored streamflow from nine small (3- to 6-ha) watersheds over a 13-year period. After the first two years (initial observations), 100% of the shrub cover was removed from three of the watersheds and similar to70% from another three. Following these treatments we continued to monitor runoff for four years, suspended monitoring for four and a half years, and then resumed monitoring for an additional three years. Runoff from these nine first-order watersheds generally accounted for <5% of the total precipitation and occurred entirely as stormflow (there was no baseflow before or after treatment). Some runoff was generated as subsurface flow, as indicated by hydrographs showing prolonged runoff (typically lasting hours longer than the rainfall). We evaluated the influence of woody plant cover on streamflow by comparing streamflow during the four-year treatment period with that during the posttreatment period (when considerable recovery of woody plants had taken place). Our findings indicate that changes in woody plant cover had little influence on the amount, timing, or magnitude of streamflow from these watersheds. On the basis of this work and other observations in the region, we hypothesize that, for small watersheds, changes in shrub cover will have little or no effect on streamflow except where springs are present

The Upper Valanginian (Early Cretaceous) positive carbonisotope event recorded in terrestrial plants, 2005, Grocke D. R. , Price G. D. , Robinson S. A. , Baraboshkin E. Y. , Mutterlose J. , Ruffell A. H.

Our understanding of the ancient ocean-atmosphere system has focused on oceanic proxies. However, the study of terrestrial proxies is equally necessary to constrain our understanding of ancient climates and linkages between the terrestrial and oceanic carbon reservoirs. We have analyzed carbon–isotope ratios from fossil plant material through the Valanginian and Lower Hauterivian from a shallow-marine, ammonite-constrained succession in the Crimean Peninsula of the southern Ukraine in order to determine if the Upper Valanginian positive carbon–isotope excursion is expressed in the atmosphere.d 13 Cplantvalues fluctuate around 23xto 22xfor the Valanginian–Hauterivian, except during the Upper Valanginian where d 13 C plantvalues record a positive excursion to ~ 18x. based upon ammonite biostratigraphy from Crimea, and in conjunction with a composite Tethyan marined 13 Ccarb curve, several conclusions can be drawn: (1) thed 13 Cplantrecord indicates that the atmospheric carbon reservoir was affected; (2) the defined ammonite correlations between Europe and Crimea are synchronous; and (3) a change in photosynthetic carbon–isotope fractionation, caused by a decrease in atmosphericpCO2, occurred during the Upper Valanginian positived 13 C excursion. Our new data, combined with other paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic information, indicate that the Upper Valanginian was a cool period (icehouse) and highlights that the Cretaceous period was interrupted by periods of cooling and was not an equable climate as previously thought.


Karst research in the 19th century - Karl Deman's (1821-1889) work., 2006, Juni?, S.
Karel Demans research of the karst phenomena was examined. Among his works the cave research, description of Proteus, other cave animals and plants were found. A special concern was put on Demans sources dealing with Proteus research. As the custodian of the Land Museum of Ljubljana, Deman promoted the Ljubljanian natural history research of his time. His scientific works are not very well known because he did not follow the political line of the official Slovenian national representatives.

Evaluation of the effect of oven roasting at 340 gradC, bleach, 30% H2O2, and distilled/deionized water on the delta13C value of speleothem carbonate, 2006, Elkins J. T. , Railsback L. B.
Organic compounds derived from plants are found in many cave formations, which are collectively speleothem CaCO3 have distinct ratios of the stable isotopes of carbon (12C and 13C) that are expressed as ?13C values. Values of ?13C in the organic compounds are lower than ?13C values of speleothem calcium carbonate and could affect the ?13C values of speleothems with high organic conventionally used to destroy organic matter in carbonates prior to geochemical analysis were evaluated in this study. The treatments were oven roasting at 340 C, soaking in bleach, soaking in 30% H2O2, and soaking in distilled deionized water. There is no statistically significant difference between results from untreated and treated samples. These results suggest that the treatments do not affect the ?13C value of speleothems calcium carbonate. The treatments might be helpful in removing organic matter in speleothems that have high concentrations of organic matter. However, most speleothems have low organic carbon concentrations that do not affect the ?13C value of the speleothem, even if left untreated. Ultimately these treatments only need to be applied to speleothems with unusually high concentrations of organic matter.

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