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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That organic deposit is deposits of calcareous and siliceous remains of animals [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for poljes (Keyword) returned 54 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 54
Sur lorigine des karsts du bassin de Iulliminden au Niger, 1998, Bouzoumoussa Ibrahim, Schoeneich Philippe
The carbonated and cuirass areas of the Julliminden basin plateaus show many closed-in, circular or oval depressions. Though noticed early by geologists, they have been described only recently. These depressions are similar to the known karstic forms such as dolines, ouvalas and poljes. Some of them, such as the valleys with bayonet-shaped lines and the karst with residual hillocks, are typical. The lithologic differences that characterize these plateaus make it possible to make assumptions on the origin of these pseudo-karstic forms: dissolution of limestones, sandstones (Continental terminal) and weathered rocks of the basement, and withdrawing.

Gemorphogenetics of the Classical Karst - Kras, 1998, Gams, Ivan

Between Eocene and Pliocene, erosion of flysch strata on the top of Cretaceous limestone anticlinorium in the central and western part of the Kras plateau and the Kozina-Podgrad anticline uncovered and widened - and simultanously lowered - the karst plain in the conditions of dammed karst. The largest portion of Kras plateau is covered with karst plain, its oldest part. In Pliocene, the karst plain was fractured and subsided towards the NW regardless of older folded structure; during this process, several zones of elevations were formed through slower subsiding or uplifting. Due to faster lowering of the Vipava syncline, water streams stopped running over the Kras plateau before the flysch, damming the waters from the Kras plateau to the south was removed due to the subsiding in the northern Gulf of Trieste. Thus, no fossil blind valleys or poljes are found on the Kras plateau. However, there is considerable density of dolines and the surface is stony, giving the karst its original name. Both phenomena are typical of deforrested, densely populated and cultivated Submediterranean Dinaric karst plains.


Basic phyisico-chemical Karst water properties on Notranjsko, 1998, Kogovš, Ek Janja

In 1986 and 1987 seven series of samples were taken at 36 to 47 sampling points on Babno, Loško and Cerkniško Polje and on Bloke and at Loški potok in order to find out their physico-chemical properties and their quality. Rainwater flows from the limestone and dolomite landscape around Babno, Loško and Cerkniško polje into springs feeding the sinking streams. The nitrate level at most of the springs was below 4 mg NO3-/l and chloride below 5 mg Cl-/l; the o-phosphate level varied around the value of 0.05 mg PO43-/l. The bacteriological analyses of the spring waters showed that they are not of drinking quality and only few springs were seasonally of good quality. Poorer quality was found in springs with populated catchments, such as are Pudobski Izvir, Podgorski and Mežnarjev Studenec and, obviously in all the sinking waters at swallow-holes where the nitrate and chloride level was up to 20 mg/l and phosphate up to 5 mg/l. Flowing over karst poljes this water receives pollution due to habitations and industry. As the water of these sinking streams reappears downstream in several lower-lying karst poljes this results in the transport and accumulation of pollution downstream even in springs that are captured for water supply.


Landscape evolution and the preservation of tectonic landforms along the northern Yammouneh Fault, Lebanon, 1999, Butler Rwh, Spencer S,
The Yammouneh Fault is commonly considered to be the principal active strand of the Dead Sea Transform in Lebanon -- an inference reached primarily from interpretations of the geomorphological expression of the fault on satellite images. However, new geological field observations show the Yammouneh Fault to be sealed stratigraphically by the Homs Basalt, dated using new K-Ar ages at 5.2-6.5 Ma. Drainage systems which link to the pre-Homs Basalt palaeosurface show evidence of fault disruption. Those valleys incised into the basalt show no evidence for transcurrent offsets. The inferred left-lateral displacement of c. 45 km on the Dead Sea Transform that post-dates the Homs Basalt is presumed to have bypassed to the west of Mount Lebanon. These linked geological and geomorphological studies indicate that landscape evolution can be exceptionally slow in northern Lebanon. Faceted spurs, poljes and offset drainage along the Yammouneh Fault across Mount Lebanon, evident on satellite images, are interpreted as being of Miocene age and are not indicative of Plio-Quaternary displacements on the fault. Much of the Lebanese tectonic landscape has thus remained stable for many millions of years, although locally incised during large-scale uplift of the Mount Lebanon range. Presumably landscape insensitivity reflects the arid climatic conditions together with inhibited run-off due to the regional karst system

Gypsum karst features as evidence of diapiric processes in the Betic Cordillera, Southern Spain, 1999, Calaforra Jm, Pulidobosch A,
In the Triassic evaporite deposits of the Betic Cordillera, halokinesis has played a fundamental role in the morphodynamic evolution of gypsum karst, as evidenced by the morphology and distribution of dolines and poljes, by data obtained from caves, and from the types of water associated with evaporite domes. Distribution patterns of major exokarstic forms display a subcircular array with collapse sinkholes located in the centre of the domes and solution drawdown dolines on the outer limits of the diapiric forms. In addition, the least mineralized waters are situated in association with the caprock gypsum; hypersaline waters, which are also hotter, drain deeper flow systems that flow out at the edges of the halokinetic structures. The morphodynamic and hydrogeological information constitute a valuable tool for the correct interpretation of the tectonic structure of such complex areas. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Storage reservoirs and deep wells in karst regions., 1999, Breznik M.

Karst is a dry landscape situated on a soluble rock mass with an underground flow of water. Ten per cent of the world's landscape consists of karst. During rainy periods, karst valleys and poljes are flooded, whereas in dry periods there is a lack of water.


Histoire gologique et enregistrement karstique : exemple du massif de Siou Blanc et de ses abords (Var), 2001, Blanc, Jeanjoseph
Presentation about a middle-elevated karst (625-650 m) in a temperate mediterranean climate excaved into an important limestone and dolomitic sequence (500 m to 900 m), from Bathonian to Coniacian. Tectonic and pedological factors induced the deep drainages, dolines and ouvalas alignments, vertical vadose networks. The observations applied to doline fields give a discrimination of several epikarstic morphologies: little conic- shaped dolines, lobate, bucket, circular or elliptical dolines pits, asymetrical-falling dolines, collapsed-dolines, ouvalas elongated along the fault lines and megadolines. These states are the results of various processes from the Upper Miocene to actual time. Suspended and disconnected poljes (Limate, Valbelle) were at the origin induced by paleo-networks with an orientation from East to West, at the Miocene; then, these formations were slightly shifted by the reactivation of the fault displacement (Messinian) in relation to a volcanic event (Evenos). The karstification of Siou Blanc massif and its environments, after the bauxitic paleo-karst (Albian), shows an exceptional polygenic evolution in relation to the dynamic of the mediterranean margins.

Reconstitution morpho_lo_gique du Causse du Larzac (Aveyron, France), rle des formations superficielles dans la morphogense karstique, 2001, Bruxelles, Laurent
The study of post-Jurassic deposits, superficial formations which stay on the plateau or are preserved in caves permits us, together with the morphologies of landscape, to reconstitute the main steps of morphological evolution of this part of the Larzac. In particular, the discovery of numerous witnesses of cretaceous cover, marine and continental, let us know the first morphogenesis of the Grands Causses. After the bauxite episode, coniacian transgression fossilized a differentiated palaeotopography under one hundred meters of sandy limestone. After, the erosion of this deposits and the transit of various alterites, allogene or autochthonous, show further morphological steps. Theses formations can constitute a real cover and contribute to the development of karstic levellings. Residual formations, associated with levels of shelves, regulate lowering of karstic surface between Eocene and Miocene, before the canyon digging and the development of karstic recules. Then, between Miocene and Quaternary, karst declogging changes radically the evolution of the plateau surface and let appear poljes, dolines and underground network. Only some specific areas can keep their cover of alterites and maintain, temporally, an old functioning.

Conditioning factors in flooding of karstic poljes - the case of the Zafarraya polje (South Spain), 2002, Lopezchicano A. , Calvache M. L. , Martinrosales W. , Gisbert J. ,
The Zafarraya polje undergoes periodical flooding, of which the last episode (1996-1997) was analysed in detail on this paper. On the basis of the retention curves of the two lakes that formed in the northwestern and southwestern sectors, we calculated the total infiltration capacity of the polje to have a maximum value of 3 - 3.5 m(3)/s and so we infer that when the flow of the Arroyo de la Madre exceeds this figure, there will be a risk of flooding in the polje. We also propose a model for the 1996 flood that can be extended to other similar occurrences in this and other poljes where we can establish the role played by groundwater and surface water during this flood. In response to the heavy precipitation, the flow of the Arroyo de la Madre rose abruptly, exceeding the infiltration capacity of the main swallow holes on the polje, causing first the northern lake and then the southern lake to form with only surface water supply. The water table of the karst aquifer rose sharply, reaching a situation of equilibrium between the level in the lakes and the water table in this sector of the karst aquifer that prevented infiltration through the swallow holes. In the case of the southern lake, there were even cases of swallow holes that began to operate as estavelles. During this phase of maximum flooding, one single lake was present, which was divided into two once more when the water table of the karst aquifer in the polje sector began to fall and surface supply also began to decrease. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Submarine karst of Croatia - evidence of former lower sea levels, 2002, Surić, Maš, A

During the last, Late Pleistocene-Holocene transgression, rising sea flooded a vast part of the Dinaric karst. Due to prevalence of carbonate rocks in the drainage area of most of the rivers on Eastern Adriatic coast, those rivers carry only approximately 20% of particulates as suspended matter and the rest is dissolved. Consequently, many typical karst features such as karrens, dolines, poljes, caves, pits and river valleys and canyons as well, presently under the sea, can still be recognized. Beside these simply drowned features, some new ones were formed by the sea level rise. Those are submarine springs, so called vruljas, brackish coastal springs and marine lakes. The most significant evidences of former subaerial conditions are speleothems in submerged caves and calc tufa deposits of drowned paleo rivers. Both of them could be used for determination of the former low sea level stands.


Effects of the tectonic movements on the karstification in Anatolia, Turkey, 2003, Atalay, Ibrahim

Turkey has several types of karstic land-forms containing lapies (karren), caves, dolines, uvalas and poljes. Karstification is related also to the tectonic movements. Well-developed karstic features such as wide poljes, ground water and cave system are widespread in/on the Mesozoic comprehensive limestone in the Taurus Mountains. Karstification begun to develop towards the end of the Mesozoic by the uplift movements of the Taurus Mountains in general. Some large poljes were occupied by the Neogene lakes in which lime and clay accumulated. The fresh water lakes such as Lake Beyeehir and Egirdir are found in the tectonic-karstic depressions. Underground river systems are found between the Lake Region (western Taurus) and Mediterranean coast. These river systems have been shifted towards the deeper parts of the limestone as the result of the progress of karstification and the vertical uplift of the Taurus Mountains (upper Tertiary, Early Quaternary). Caves formed as the result of vertical tectonic movements. These movements caused the lowering of the base level. So the karstification process have shifted from the upper level to deeper parts of the Taurus.


A little contribution to the karst terminology : special or aberrant cases of poljes?, 2003, Nicod, Jean

A usual definition of polje states that it is "great closed karst basin with flat bottom, karstic drainage and steep peripheral slopes". But the Dinaric karst shows a wide range of poljes. The article discusses the main criteria of polje definition and the different degrees of evolution of the polje are emphasised. The essentials are gathered in the table with new tentatives on classification of poljes and comparing the Dinaric karst with other Mediterranean and Alpine countries.


Formation of the Cerkniščica and the flooding of Cerkniško polje, 2003, Š, Uš, Terš, Ič, France, Š, Uš, Terš, Ič, Simona

Detailed study of the upper Cerkniščica's catchment and its sediments in Cerkniško polje revealed that the river turned this direction in the middle Würm, while in the more remote past, the input to Cerkniško polje (and to the caves) was completely karstic. Its alluvial fan cut the main vertical ponors, and deflected the main polje outflow westwards, indirectly into Planinsko polje. Consequently, recent hydrogeological conditions in Planinska jama are a direct consequence of development in Cerkniško polje.


Poljes, 2004, Bonacci O.

Dinaride Poljes, 2004, Milanovi? P.

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