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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That water hammer is an abnormally high pressure rise in a pipe when sudden changes in flow occur [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for algae (Keyword) returned 58 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 58
Ecological studies in the Mamoth Cave System of Kentucky. I. The Biota., 1968, Barr Thomas C.
The Mammoth Cave system includes more than 175 kilometers of explored passages in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. Although biologists have explored the caves intermittently since 1822, the inventory of living organisms in the system is still incomplete. The present study lists approximately 200 species of animals, 67 species of algae, 27 species of fungi, and 7 species of twilight-zone bryophytes. The fauna is composed of 22% troglobites, 36% troglophiles, 22% trogloxenes, and 20% accidentals, and includes protozoans, sponges, triclads, nematodes, nematomorphs, rotifers, oligochaetes, gastropods, cladocerans, copepods, ostracods, isopods, amphipods, decapods, pseudoscorpions, opilionids, spiders, mites and ticks, tardigrades, millipedes, centipedes, collembolans, diplurans, thysanurans, cave crickets, hemipterans, psocids, moths, flies, fleas, beetles, fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals. The Mammoth Cave community has evolved throughout the Pleistocene concomitantly with development of the cave system. The troglobitic fauna is derived from 4 sources: (1) troglobite speciation in situ in the system itself; (2) dispersal along a north Pennyroyal plateau corridor; (3) dispersal along a south Pennyroyal plateau corridor; and (4) dispersal across the southwest slope of the Cumberland saddle merokarst.

Ecological studies in the Mamoth Cave System of Kentucky. I. The Biota., 1968, Barr Thomas C.
The Mammoth Cave system includes more than 175 kilometers of explored passages in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. Although biologists have explored the caves intermittently since 1822, the inventory of living organisms in the system is still incomplete. The present study lists approximately 200 species of animals, 67 species of algae, 27 species of fungi, and 7 species of twilight-zone bryophytes. The fauna is composed of 22% troglobites, 36% troglophiles, 22% trogloxenes, and 20% accidentals, and includes protozoans, sponges, triclads, nematodes, nematomorphs, rotifers, oligochaetes, gastropods, cladocerans, copepods, ostracods, isopods, amphipods, decapods, pseudoscorpions, opilionids, spiders, mites and ticks, tardigrades, millipedes, centipedes, collembolans, diplurans, thysanurans, cave crickets, hemipterans, psocids, moths, flies, fleas, beetles, fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals. The Mammoth Cave community has evolved throughout the Pleistocene concomitantly with development of the cave system. The troglobitic fauna is derived from 4 sources: (1) troglobite speciation in situ in the system itself; (2) dispersal along a north Pennyroyal plateau corridor; (3) dispersal along a south Pennyroyal plateau corridor; and (4) dispersal across the southwest slope of the Cumberland saddle merokarst.

Black Phytokarst from Hell, Cayman Islands, British West Indies, 1973, Folk Rl, Roberts Hh, Moore Ch,
Erosion by filamentous algae, comparison with ordinary karst, scanning electron microscopy, Bluff Limestone

Carbonate rocks in the Black Sea basin: indicators for shallow water and subaerial exposure during Miocene--Pliocene time, 1979, Stoffers P. , Muller G. ,
Drilling in the Black Sea in general revealed three types of sediments: terrigenous, chemical, and biogenic. Terrigenous muds predominate in the Pleistocene whereas chemical sediments are abundant in the lower Pleistocene--Pliocene to Late Miocene sedimentary section. Biogenic constituents play a minor role only. The chemical sediments include calcite (lake chalk), Mg-calcite, aragonite, siderite and dolomite. Among these, the dolomites of Pliocene to Late Miocene age are most interesting. They were encountered in the two drill sites close to the Bosporus drilled in 2115 to 1750 m water depth, respectively. The dolomites show a great variety of criteria (e.g. intraclasts, algae mats, crusts, pellets, oolites), indicating a shallow water environment with occasional subaerial exposure and supratidal evaporitic conditions. The formation of these shallow water carbonates in the Black Sea is supposed to correlate with the Messinian salinity crisis in the Mediterranean

Lichen and algae; agents of biodiagenesis in karst breccia from Grand Cayman Island, 1985, Jones Brian, Kahle C. F. ,

'Phytokarst', blue-green algae and limestone weathering, 1986, Viles H. A. , Spencer T.

KIMMERIDGIAN TITHONIAN EUSTACY AND ITS IMPRINTS ON CARBONATE ROCKS FROM THE DINARIC AND THE JURA CARBONATE PLATFORMS, 1991, Strohmenger C. , Deville Q. , Fookes E. ,
The Upper Jurassic stratigraphy and the facies development of the Dinaric carbonate platform of Slovenia (northwest Yugoslavia) are compared with the Jura carbonate platform of southern Jura (southeast France). The similar facies development between the two platforms during the Kimmeridgian and the Tithonian, as well as a pronounced discontinuity in the same stratigraphical position (controlled by dasycladacean algae and/or ammonites), made it reasonable to correlate the two regions. This discontinuity is marked by a bauxite horizon and a karst breccia in south Slovenia (inner platform), and by a black-pebble conglomerate (inner platform) and a reef breccia (outer platform) in the southern Jura. These features are interpreted as type 1 sequence boundaries related to a global fall of sea level. In southern Jura, biostratigraphical elements situate the sequence boundary between the Eudoxus and the <> ( = Elegans) zones, most probably at the end of the Beckeri ( = Autissiodorensis) zone. Integrating this discontinuity into the eustatic sea level curve proposed by the Exxon group (version 3.1) is difficult because the only suitable sequence boundaries, SB 139 and SB 142, are respectively too young (younger than the <> zone) or too old (older than the Eudoxus zone). We therefore suggest to introduce a new sequence boundary within the upper part of the Beckeri zone which would correspond to a <> sequence boundary SB 140. The investigations further show that Clypeina jurassica FAVRE and Campbelliella striata (CAROZZI) BERNIER most likely appear in the Beckeri zone in the realm of the Jura carbonate platform. The same dasycladacean algae assemblage defines a cenozone identified as <> in Slovenia. It therefore seems possible to correlate the stratigraphic limit between <> and <> of the Dinaric carbonate platform with the beginning of the Beckeri zone

CAYMANITE, A CAVITY-FILLING DEPOSIT IN THE OLIGOCENE MIOCENE BLUFF FORMATION OF THE CAYMAN ISLANDS, 1992, Jones B. ,
Caymanite is a laminated, multicoloured (white, red, black) dolostone that fills or partly fills cavities in the Bluff Formation of the Cayman Islands. The first phase of caymanite formation occurred after deposition, lithification, and karsting of the Oligocene Cayman Member. The second phase of caymanite formation occurred after joints had developed in the Middle Miocene Pedro Castle Member. Caymanite deposition predated dolomitization of the Bluff Formation 2-5 Ma ago. Caymanite is formed of mudstones, wackestone, packstones, and grainstones. Allochems include foraminifera, red algae, gastropods, bivalves, and grains of microcrystalline dolostone. Sedimentary structures include planar laminations, graded bedding, mound-shaped laminations, desiccation cracks, and geopetal fabrics. Original depositional dips ranged from 0 to 60-degrees. Although caymanite originated as a limestone, dolomitization did not destroy the original sedimentary fabrics or structures. The sediments that formed caymanite were derived from shallow offshore lagoons, swamps, and possibly brackish-water ponds. Pigmentation of the red and black laminae can be related to precipitates formed of Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, Ti, P, K, Si, and Ca, which occur in the intercrystalline pores. These elements may have been derived from terra rossa, which occurs on the weathered surface of the Bluff Formation. Caymanite colours were inherited from the original limestone. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic evidence shows that sedimentation was episodic and that the sediment source changed with time. Available evidence suggests that caymanite originated from sediments transported by storms onto a highly permeable karst terrain. The water with its sediment load then drained into the subsurface through joints and fissures. The depth to which these waters penetrated was controlled by the length of the interconnected cavity system. Upon entering cavities, sedimentation was controlled by a complex set of variables

Activity od the scientific commission of ''Grotta Grande del Vento'' (Genga, Ancona, Central Italy)., 1994, Bertolani Mario, Cigna Arrigo A.
The Grotta Grande del Vento (the Great Wind Cave) was discovered in 1971. An administrative body (the "Consorzio Frasassi") under the control of some local authorities took care of its development and the cave was opened to tourists in 1974. A Scientific Commission formed by some experts (choosen by the Consorzio Frasassi) of different disciplines was established in 1975. During these 15 years the Commission acted as an advisory committee for the Consorzio in order to guarantee the protection of the cave environment. In particular the Commission set up a monitoring network of the most important environmental parameters (air and water temperature. air currents, relative humidity and CO2 concentration) in some suitable locations and studied the best solutions to avoid algae and other plants proliferation in the vicinity of light sources. The Commission promoted and directed researches in the karst system under a strict co-operation with the Consorzio Frasassi which funded most of them. Some scientific papers resulted from these researches.

Management of some unusual features in the show caves of the United States., 1994, Gurnee Jeanne
Protection of the unusual features in some of the 200 show caves of the U.S. have required innovative management. The sea caves of both the east and west coasts present the need for special preservation methods. Throughout the nation sometimes glass enclosures, vehicles and boats are used to separate visitors from sensitive cave features. Lighting and cleaning techniques have been studied and altered to discourage growth of algae. Some show caves are protected by double glass entrance and exit doors. Many caves, particularly on public lands, are closed during the hibernation period of endangered bats. In a number of caves, Native Americans have left artifacts and other evidences of their early visits. which have either been preserved in situ or relocated at appropriate archival sites. The paper gives in more details specific caves and methods for the preservation of particular unique features.

HOLOCENE MARINE CEMENT COATINGS ON BEACH-ROCKS OF THE ABU-DHABI COASTLINE (UAE) - ANALOGS FOR CEMENT FABRICS IN ANCIENT LIMESTONES, 1994, Kendall C. G. S. , Sadd J. L. , Alsharhan A. ,
Marine carbonate cements, which are superficially like travertines from meteoric caves, are coating and binding some intertidal sedimentary rock surfaces occurring in coastal Abu Dhabi, the United Arab Emirates, (UAE). Near Jebel Dhana these surficial cements can be up to 3 cm thick and envelope beach rock surfaces and fossils. They are also present both as thin coats and a fracture-fill cement in the intertidal hard grounds associated with the Khor Al Bazam algal flats. The thickness, microscopic characteristics, and morphology of the marine cement coatings from Jebel Dhana indicates incremental deposition of aragonite in conjunction with traces of sulfate minerals. Most of these cement coatings are micritic, but the layers which encrust the hard grounds from the algae flat of the Khor al Bazam have a more radial and fibrous micro-structure and are composed solely of aragonite. The stable isotopic composition of coatings from Jebel Dhana (delta(18)O = .35, delta(13)C = .00) falls within the compositional range for modem marine non skeletal aragonite and suggests that the marine travertine-like cements precipitate from the agitated slightly hypersaline Arabian Gulf sea water during repeated cycles of exposure, evaporation and immersion. Similar cement coatings and microfabrics are present in the tepee structured and brecciated sediments of the Guadalupe Mountains (Permian) and the Italian Alps (Triassic), in Holocene algal head cements from the Great Salt Lace, and in similar Tertiary algal heads in the Green River Formation of the western US. The petrographic similarity of these ancient ''flow stone'' like cements with Recent hypersaline marine cement coatings suggests that high rates of carbonate cementation and hypersaline conditions contribute to tepee formation and cavity fill

PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH MICROBIAL BIOFILMS IN THE TWILIGHT ZONE OF CAVES - EXAMPLES FROM THE CAYMAN ISLANDS, 1995, Jones B. ,
The twilight zone of a cave, an environment transitional between the well-illuminated environment outside the cave and the dark environment of the cave interior, is one of the most unusual microenvironments of the karst terrain. Walls in the twilight zone of caves on Grand Cayman and Cayman Brac are coated with a biofilm that incorporates a diverse assemblage of epilithic microbes and copious mucus. Most microbes are different from those found elsewhere in the karst terrains of the Cayman Islands, probably because they have adapted to life in the poorly illuminated twilight zone. None of the microbes employ an endolithic life mode, and less than 10% of them show evidence of calcification. The biofilm does, however, provide a medium in which a broad spectrum of destructive and constructive processes operate. Etching, the dominant destructive process, produces residual dolomite, residual calcite, blocky calcite, and spiky calcite. Constructive processes include precipitation of calcite, dolomite, gypsum, halite, and sylvite. Although filamentous microbes are common, examples of detrital grains trapped and bound to the substrate are rare. Destructive processes are more common than constructive ones

ORIGIN OF ENDOGENETIC MICRITE IN KARST TERRAINS - A CASE-STUDY FROM THE CAYMAN ISLANDS, 1995, Jones B. , Kahle C. F. ,
Cavities in the dolostones of the Cayman Formation (Miocene) on Grand Cayman and Cayman Brac commonly contain spar calcite cements and/or a variety of exogenetic (derived from sources external to the bedrock) and endogenetic (derived from sources in the bedrock) internal sediments. Micrite is a common component in many of these internal sediments. The exogenetic micrite, which is typically laminated and commonly contains fragments of marine biota, originated from the nearby shallow lagoons. The endogenetic micrite formed as a residue from the breakdown of spar calcite crystals by etching, as constructive and destructive envelopes developed around spar calcite crystals, by calcification of microbes, by breakdown of calcified filamentous microbes, and by precipitation from pore waters. Once produced, the endogenetic micrite may be transported from its place of origin by water flowing through the cavities. Endogenetic micrite can become mixed with the exogenetic micrite. Subsequently, it is impossible to recognize the origin of individual particles because the particles in endogenetic micrite are morphologically like the particles in exogenetic micrite. Formation of endogenetic micrite is controlled by numerous extrinsic and intrinsic parameters. In the Cayman Formation, for example, most endogenetic micrite is produced by etching of meteoric calcite crystals that formed as a cement in the cavities or by microbial calcification. As a result, the distribution of the endogenetic micrite is ultimately controlled by the distribution of the calcite cement and/or the microbes-factors controlled by numerous other extrinsic variables. Irrespective of the factors involved in its formation, it is apparent that endogenetic micrite can be produced by a variety of processes that are operating in the confines of cavities in karst terrains

Phototrophic Microorganisms of the Pamukkale, 1997, Pentecost Allan, Bayari Serdar , Yesertener Cahit
The travertines at Pamukkale contain a diverse assemblage of phototrophs: 17 species of cyanobacteria, 16 diatoms, and 5 Chlorophyceae. Two communities were recognized on the active travertines: (1) surficial mats dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria, particularly Lyngbya (Phormidium) laminosum forming soft weakly mineralized layers to 10 mm thick, and (2) a predominantly endolithic assemblage, also dominated by cyanobacteria developing 2-5 mm below the travertine surface. The distribution of these communities is determined largely by water flow and the degree of desiccation. Two further communities are briefly described from nondepositing areas. Most of the active travertine consists of alternating layers of micrite and sparite 0.25-0.75 mm in thickness, which probably result from short-term fluctuations in water flow rather than diel events (photosynthesis, temperature). The presence of needle-fiber calcite in surface samples suggests that evaporation of water may play some part in travertine formation. The phototrophs appear to influence the travertine fabric only locally, where the surficial growths contain strings of calcite crystals ad-hering to the filaments, forming irregularly laminated layers. The hot-spring water is believed to be contaminated with sewage and agricultural effluent, but there was no evidence to suggest that this is currently affecting the travertine deposits. The water is supersaturated with respect to calcite when it contacts the travertine, and precipitation is primarily the result of carbon dioxide evasion. Water chemistry and discharge measurements indicate a total travertine deposition rate of 35 tonnes per day.

ALGAE: AN IMPORTANT AGENT IN DEPOSITION OF KARSTIC TRAVERTINES: OBSERVATIONS ON NATURAL-BRIDGE YERKOPRU TRAVERTINES, ALADAĞLAR, EASTERN TAURIDS-TURKEY, 1997, Bayari C. Serdar, Kurttas Turker
Travertines are terrestrial, fresh water carbonate deposits formed by karstic springs and associated streams which are saturated with respect to calcite. Field observations form recently travertine depositing arstic springs in Aladağlar, Eastern Taurids ? Turkey indicate that the deposition process is accelerated considerably by the physical and biochemical contribution of algae which are mostly belong to classes of Cyanophyceae (blue-green algae) Chlorophyceae (diatoms), Eugleno-phyceae and Xhantophyceae. Algae conributes physically to the deposition of travertine by means of trapping of inorganically formed calcite micro-crystals by algal filaments and mucilagenous secretions and by providing proper nucleation sites for calcite precipitation. Biochemical activity of algae also forces the aquatic system to deposit travertine due to the photosynthetic removal of free carbondioxide from the solution. Field observations indicate that the rate of physical and chemical contribution to the deposition depends strongly on the hydraullic conditions. Physical and biochemical roles becomes important in high and low /velocity/energy streams, respectively. The effect of algal association over the travertine deposition can be observed apparently especially in streams where the ratio of algal mass to the rate of stream flow is substantially high. Since the climatic conditions (air temperature and insolation) have strong influence upon the abundance of algae, the rate of travertine deposited by algal contribution decreasing during winter months when algal population decreases. Similarly , the biochemical contribution shows a diurnal pattern with a maximum during a mid day because of the higher uptake of carbondioxide via photosynthesis.

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