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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That shall sand is sand containing considerable amounts of clay and shale [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for cave level (Keyword) returned 66 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 66
Pattern of karst landscape of the Cracow Upland (South Poland), 2003, Alexandrowicz Stefan Witold, Alexandrowicz Zofia

The relief of the Polish Jura Chain developed since Paleogene under climatic conditions changing considerably. Their main components are a peneplain crowned by numerous monadnocks, generated as hard-rocks on Upper Jurassic massive limestones (bioherms, carbonate buildups) surrounded by less resistant platy and bedded limestones of the same age. After the Miocene tectonic phase and following karstification deep valleys dissected the top surface of the plateau and cave levels connected with rocky terraces had been formed. During the Pleistocene the periglacial climate accelerated the congelifraction and relaxation of monadnocks. The modification of landforms and the environment in last ten thousand years, indicated by assemblages of molluscs was controlled by both climatic and anthopogenic factors. The geo- and biodiversity closely related to one another are still under the nature protection.


Nowranie Caves and the Camooweal Karst Area, Queensland: Hydrology, Geomorphology and Speleogenesis, with Notes on Aquatic Biota, 2003, Eberhard, Stefan

Development of the Nowranie Caves includes both phreatic and vadose components, with prominent influences on cave geomorphology exerted by joints, bedding and past changes in watertable levels. Active circulation is occurring within a phreatic conduit at moderate depth (22-30 m) below the level of the present watertable. Slugs of flood water can penetrate well into the flooded section of the cave, and it appears that dissolutional enlargement of the conduit may be occurring under present conditions. Speleogenesis in Nowranie Caves incorporates deeper phreatic processes in addition to shallow phreatic (i.e. watertable) processes. A series of three fossil, or occasionally re-flooded, phreatic horizontal levels in the Nowranie Caves correspond with similar levels in other Camooweal caves, and reflect a regional pattern and multi stage history of watertable changes linked with cave development. The stacked series of cave levels may reflect episodic uplift, wetter climatic episodes, or a combination of both - possibly dating from early to mid Tertiary times. Caves and dolines are the major points for groundwater recharge in the Camooweal area, and these are susceptible points for injection of contarninants into the groundwater system. A climatic and distributional relict, and locally endemic, fauna is present in the groundwater. The Nowranie Caves, and Camooweal area generally, has conservation significance as a karst hydrogeological and ecological system that has preserved a history of regional landscape and faunal evolution in northern Australia during the Quaternary.


Spelologische Charakterisierung und Analyse des Hochschwab-Plateaus, Steiermark., 2004, Plan, L.
The Hochschwab is one of the major karst massifs of the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA), situated in the north of the Austrian province of Styria and provides freshwater for the city of Vienna. Karstmorphological mapping of 44 km of its plateau brought the discovery of 770 new caves. Together with formerly recorded caves and possible caves detected on aerial photographs a total of 1284, mainly vertical objects are integrated into a GIS. In combination with additional digital datasets, statistical analyses are performed considering the spatial distribution of cave density as well as the dependence on altitude and lithology. Beside this, the most important caves within the study area are characterised. The investigated caves are mainly pits and vertical canyons which developed in the vadose zone. Phreatic cave levels associated with former valley floors, which are common in the NCA, do not exist in the Hochschwab. A few caves of phreatic origin developed above aquitard geological units. The average cave density in the investigation area is 24 objects/km. In glacially strongly overprinted areas it increases to more than 400 caves per km. Remarkable facts of the dependence on lithology are that the limestone of the Dachstein Formation does not show an increased cave density. In contrast, the diverse facies of the limestones of the Wetterstein Formation exhibit major differences.[Hundsbodenschacht (1744/11), G'hacktsteinschacht (1744/14), Furtowischacht (1744/310), Sargdeckelschacht (1744/363), TremmelSchacht-413 (1744/413), EBNK-Schacht (1744/426), Schrgschacht (1744/442), Hirschgrubenhhle (1744/450), Melkbodeneishhle (1745/1), Eis-Schacht-39 (1745/39), Spaltenschacht (1745/43)]

The effect of the Messinian Deep Stage on karst development around the Mediterranean Sea. Examples from Southern France, 2004, Audra P, Mocochain L, Camus H, Gilli E, Clauzon G, Bigot Jy,
It is difficult to explain the position and behaviour of the main karst springs of southern France without calling on a drop in the water table below those encountered at the lowest levels of Pleistocene glacio-eustatic fluctuations. The principal karst features around the Mediterranean are probably inherited from the Messinian period ('Salinity crisis') when sea level dropped dramatically due to the closing of the Straight of Gibraltar and desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea. Important deep karst systems were formed because the regional ground water dropped and the main valleys were entrenched as canyons. Sea level rise during the Pliocene caused sedimentation in the Messinian canyons and water, under a low hydraulic head, entered the upper cave levels. The powerful submarine spring of Port-Miou is located south of Marseille in a drowned canyon of the Calanques massif. The main water flow comes from a vertical shaft that extends to a depth of more than 147 in bsl. The close shelf margin comprises a submarine karst plateau cut by a deep canyon whose bottom reaches 1,000 in bsl. The canyon ends upstream in a pocket valley without relation to any important continental valley. This canyon was probably excavated by the underground paleoriver of Port-Miou during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Currently, seawater mixes with karst water at depth. The crisis also affected inland karst aquifers. The famous spring of Fontaine de Vaucluse was explored by a ROV (remote observation vehicle) to a depth of 308 in, 224 m below current sea level. Flutes observed on the wall of the shaft indicate the spring was formerly an air-filled shaft connected to a deep underground river flowing towards a deep valley. Outcroppings and seismic data confirm the presence of deep paleo-valleys filled with Pliocene sediments in the current Rhone and Durance valleys. In the Ardeche, several vauclusian springs may also be related to the Messinian Rhone canyon, located at about 200 in below present sea level. A Pliocene base level rise resulted in horizontal dry cave levels. In the hinterland of Gulf of Lion, the Cevennes karst margin was drained toward the hydrologic window opened by the Messinian erosional surface on the continental shelf

Palaeomagnetic and U-series dating of cave sediments in Baradla Cave, Hungary, 2004, Bosá, K Pavel, Hercman Helena, Kadlec Jaroslav, Mó, Ga Já, Nos, Pruner Petr

Fine-grained siliciclastic sediments from the main gallery and upper cave level show nearly uniform composition and sedimentary textures. Palaeomagnetic analysis indicates normal magnetic polarisation of all samples, i.e. the age younger than Brunhes/Matuyama boundary at 780 ka. Flowstone/stalagmite covering siliciclastics in the upper cave level contains reverse polarised samples dated by U-series method to about 114ý115 ka, which can be identified as the Blake Event. The uniform composition of sediments can indicate the infill of the cave during a single event caused by the blockage of drainage routes due to geological (collapse) or palaeoclimatic (ice) changes, which took part before ca 130 to 150 ka as indicating by the oldest U-series data from the whole DomicaýBaradla Cave System.


Spelologische Charakterisierung und Analyse des Hochschwab-Plateaus, Steiermark, 2004, Plan, L.
The Hochschwab is one of the major karst massifs of the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA), situated in the north of the Austrian province of Styria and provides freshwater for the city of Vienna. Karstmorphological mapping of 44 km of its plateau brought the discovery of 770 new caves. Together with formerly recorded caves and possible caves detected on aerial photographs a total of 1284, mainly vertical objects are integrated into a GIS. In combination with additional digital datasets, statistical analyses are performed considering the spatial distribution of cave density as well as the dependence on altitude and lithology. Beside this, the most important caves within the study area are characterised. The investigated caves are mainly pits and vertical canyons which developed in the vadose zone. Phreatic cave levels associated with former valley floors, which are common in the NCA, do not exist in the Hochschwab. A few caves of phreatic origin developed above aquitard geological units. The average cave density in the investigation area is 24 objects/km. In glacially strongly overprinted areas it increases to more than 400 caves per km. Remarkable facts of the dependence on lithology are that the limestone of the Dachstein Formation does not show an increased cave density. In contrast, the diverse facies of the limestones of the Wetterstein Formation exhibit major differences.

Karsthydrogeologisch-spelologische Untersuchungen in der Hallsttter Zone von Ischl - Aussee (Obersterreich, Steiermark)., 2005, Laimer, H. J.
The paper deals with the karst of the Hallstatt unit, stretching from Bad Ischl to Bad Aussee and northern and western boundaries, respectively. As such, it is meant as both a survey of karstgeomorphology and an analysis of karsthydrology. Data were collected during the field work for a PhD thesis about karst water vulnerability mapping on the basis of a specific method developed in Austria. Triassic and Malm formations of limestone blocks in the Hallstatt unit are underpinned by layers of marl and evaporites. The hydrogeological situation leads to conditions of shallow karst with poor storage capacity in the aquifers. The karst morphology is governed by a type of karst that is predominant in alpine foothills and, as it is subject to constant lithological change, leads to the formation of contact karst. In shallow karst, ponor dolines and active water caves, which are linear oriented, assume major karsthydrological importance. In the Hallstatt unit most water caves drain small autochthonous recharge systems. The cave-systems show multi phase genesis without large cave levels.[Junihhle (1615/4), Htterschacht (1514/6), Wasserloch (1614/6), Groes Knerzenloch (1615/7), Hherstein Wasserhhle (1615/1)]

Die Gamskar-Eishhle (1511/709) im Tennengebirge - In nur zwei Jahren zur Riesenhhle., 2005, Pointner, P.
In 1998, some entrances of a new cave were found in the northern part of the Tennengebirge at 1600 m a.s.l. First explorations increased the length to 1 km. After five years of stagnation in exploration, the main continuation was found and explored by G. Schwarzenberger sen. and P. Pointner. Big, heavily drafted and dry galleries lead southward. More than 5 kilometers mainly horizontal galleries were explored, evidently belonging to the giantcave level. The highlight of the exploration was the discovery of the Olympiahalle, which is 85 m in length and 75 m in width. At some places in the cave potholes and allochthone sediments, mainly in form of quartz, can be found. This gives an indication for a former heavy water flow through the cave system. [Gamskar-Eishhle (1511/709), Gesamtlnge: 5304 m, Hhenunterschied: 249 m (+115 m, -134 m), Grundriss, Aufriss]

Geomorphic history of Crystal Cave, Southern Sierra Nevada, California., 2005, Despain J. D. , Stock G. M.
Cave development in mountainous regions is influenced by a number of factors, including steep catchments, highly variable allogenic recharge, large sediment fluxes, and rapid rates of canyon downcutting. Caves can help to quantify this latter process, provided their ages are determined. Here we investigate the history of 4.8 km long Crystal Cave, a complex, multiple level cave in the Sierra Nevada, through detailed geomorphic and geochronologic investigations. Crystal Cave is composed of six major levels spanning 64 m in elevation. The levels are comprised of large, low gradient conduit tubes, and are connected by numerous narrow, steeply descending canyon passages. Passages in the upstream end of the cave are significantly modified by collapse, while in the downstream section they are intact with an anastomotic maze overprinting. Dye tracing confirms that the cave stream originates from partial sinking of Yucca Creek to the north. Passage gradients, wall scallops, and sediment imbrication indicate that groundwater flowed consistently southeast through time, forming cave levels as bedrock incision of Cascade Creek lowered local base level. Although modern cave stream discharges are restricted to ~0.03 m3 s?1, likely due to passage collapse near the sink point ca. 0.5 million years ago (Ma), bedrock scallops and coarse clastic sediment in upper levels indicate paleodischarges as much as three orders of magnitude greater prior to that time. Infrequent high discharge flood events played an important role in passage development and sediment transport. Cosmogenic 26Al/10Be burial dating of sediment suggest that the majority of Crystal Cave formed rapidly between ca. 1.2 and 0.5 Ma; rates of cave development approach theoretical maximums, presumably due to a combination of allogenic recharge highly under-saturated with respect to calcite, and physical erosion by transported sediment.

Karsthydrogeologisch-spelologische Untersuchungen in der Hallsttter Zone von Ischl - Aussee (Obersterreich, Steiermark), 2005, Laimer, H. J.
The paper deals with the karst of the Hallstatt unit, stretching from Bad Ischl to Bad Aussee and northern and western boundaries, respectively. As such, it is meant as both a survey of karstgeomorphology and an analysis of karsthydrology. Data were collected during the field work for a PhD thesis about karst water vulnerability mapping on the basis of a specific method developed in Austria. Triassic and Malm formations of limestone blocks in the Hallstatt unit are underpinned by layers of marl and evaporites. The hydrogeological situation leads to conditions of shallow karst with poor storage capacity in the aquifers. The karst morphology is governed by a type of karst that is predominant in alpine foothills and, as it is subject to constant lithological change, leads to the formation of contact karst. In shallow karst, ponor dolines and active water caves, which are linear oriented, assume major karsthydrological importance. In the Hallstatt unit most water caves drain small autochthonous recharge systems. The cave-systems show multi phase genesis without large cave levels.

Die Gamskar-Eishhle (1511/709) im Tennengebirge - In nur zwei Jahren zur Riesenhhle, 2005, Pointner, P.
In 1998, some entrances of a new cave were found in the northern part of the Tennengebirge at 1600 m a.s.l. First explorations increased the length to 1 km. After five years of stagnation in exploration, the main continuation was found and explored by G. Schwarzenberger sen. and P. Pointner. Big, heavily drafted and dry galleries lead southward. More than 5 kilometers mainly horizontal galleries were explored, evidently belonging to the giantcave level. The highlight of the exploration was the discovery of the Olympiahalle, which is 85 m in length and 75 m in width. At some places in the cave potholes and allochthone sediments, mainly in form of quartz, can be found. This gives an indication for a former heavy water flow through the cave system.

Architecture of air-filled caves within the karst of the Brooksville Ridge, west-central Florida., 2006, Florea, L. J.
Air-filled caves surveyed in the Brooksville Ridge of west-central Florida provide insight into the organization of karstic permeability within the unconfined portions of the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The morphology of the passages that compose these caves in geologically young, high-permeability limestones is strikingly different from caves found in ancient carbonates far from the influence of the coast. Cave passages in west-central Florida are laterally extensive and tiered. Principal horizons of cave development occur between +3 m and +5 m, +12 m and +15 m, and +20 m and +22 m above modern sea level. The primary guide of cave passage orientations within these cave levels is widespread fractures oriented approximately NE-SW and NW-SE. Cave passages of human dimensions form at the intersection of the laterally extensive cavities and fractures and often acquire a characteristic plus-sign shape. The walls of cave passages in west-central Florida are porous and complex, with small-scale solution features such as pockets and tafoni structures extending into the host bedrock. Additionally, these cave passages often end in blind pockets, ever-narrowing fissures, sediment fills, and collapses. The passages do not appear to represent an integrated system of conduits between aquifer inputs and outputs.

La grotte de Saint-Marcel (Ardche) : un rfrentiel pour lvolution des endokarsts mditerranens depuis 6 Ma, 2006, Mocochain Ludovic, Bigot Jeanyves, Clauzon Georges, Faverjon Marc Et Brunet Philippe
Saint Marcel Cave: an important site for the evolution of the mediterranean endokarst in the last 6 million years - The plateau of Saint-Remze is a mesozoic carbonate platform located close to the Rhne valley. This carbonate platform is intensely karstified, as proven by Saint-Marcel Cave, which is 53 km long. It displays several horizontal levels. The upper and middle levels are dry most of the time. They are composed of large horizontal conduits extending over several kilometers. The lowermost third level is active and partly drowned. Scuba divers have reached a depth of 65 m below the Ardche. The horizontal levels are not controlled by geological structure. Consequently, the distribution of the horizontal levels depends only on the base level which constrains the whole organisation of the Ardche karst. Around the Ardche Canyon and the Rhne Valley, the identification of the marks made by the messinian salinity crisis allows to reconstruct the evolution of the local base level. This reconstruction allowed us to study the Saint-Marcel Cave in a geodynamical and chronological frame over the last six million years. The morphological investigations in the cave, combined with the study of the base level change, have shown three main stages of speleogenesis and two main types of water flow. Following entrenchment of the deep messinian canyons during the salinity crisis, cave levels developed according to the very deep base level of that time. At the end of the crisis, at 5.35 Ma, the Pliocene transgression caused a sudden rise of the base level. The messinian valleys as well as the karst outflows were flooded. This hydraulic change produced a per ascensum genesis of some shafts that are called chimney-shafts. This per ascensum genesis of chimney-shafts repeated itself at each stage of the Pliocene base level rise. During the Pliocene (5.32 to 2 Ma), the infilling of the messinian canyons by fluvial sediments shows that the Ardche river had several long stages of base level stability, allowing the development of new cave levels. The karst system was fed by both local recharge from the Saint-Remze Plateau and large underground shortcuts through the Ardche river meanders. The detailed study of the main levels in Saint-Marcel Cave reveals the existence of intermediate stages in the evolution of the base level, allowing us to refine its knowledge.

Cave Geology, 2007, Palmer A. N.
Cave Geology is the definitive book on the subject by an internationally recognized authority. It can be easily understood by non-scientists but also covers a wide range of topics in enough detail to be used by advanced researchers. Illustrated with more than 500 black-and-white photographs and 250 diagrams and maps, this book is dedicated to anyone with an interest in caves and their origin. Topics include: CONTENTS Preface 1 Speleology the science of caves Cave types Cave exploring Nationwide speleological organizations Searching for caves Cave mapping Preparation of a cave map Cave science Underground photography Show caves Cave preservation and stewardship 2 Cave country Geologic time Landscape development Surface karst features Paleoleokarst Pseudokarst The scale of karst features Distribution of karst and caves The longest and deepest known caves 3 Cavernous rocks Rock types Soils and sediments Stratigraphy Highly soluble rocks Rock structure Rock and mineral analysis A brief guide to rock identification 4 Underground water in karst Types of underground water Vadose flow patterns Phreatic flow patterns Aquifers Nature of the karst water table The freshwater-seawater interface Groundwater hydraulics Flow measurements Use of flow equations in cave interpretation Measuring the flow of springs and streams Groundwater tracing Interpreting groundwater character from tracer tests and flood pulses Quantitative dye tracing 5 Chemistry of karst water Simple dissolution Dissoltion of limestone and dolomite How much rock has dissolved? pH Undersaturation and supersaturation Epigenic and hypogenic acids Chemical interactions Dissolution rates Dissolution of poorly soluble rocks Microbial effects on chemistry Isotopes and their use Analysis of spring chemistry A chemical cave tour Chemical field studies 6 Characteristics of solution caves Cave entrances Passage types Passage terminations Cave rooms Cave levels Cave patterns Minor solution features in caves Interpreting flow from scallops Cave sediments Bedrock collapse Cave biology 7 Speleogenesis: the origin of caves Basic concepts Development of ideas about cave origin Comprehensive views of cave origin Rates of cave enlargement Insight from computer modeling Life cycle of a solution cave 8 Control of cave patterns by groundwater recharge Sinkhole recharge: branchwork caves The problem of maze caves Floodwater caves Caves formed by diffuse flow Hypogenic caves Polygenetic caves Influence of climate 9 Influence of geology on cave patterns Distribution of soluble rocks Influence of rock type Influence of geologic structure Relation of caves to landscape evolution A guide to cave patterns 10 Cave minerals Origin and growth of cave minerals Origin of common cave minerals Speleothem types Speleothem growth rates Speleothem decay 11 Caves in volcanic rocks Volcanic processes and landscapes Types of lava caves Origin and character of lava-tube caves Speleogens and speleothems in lava caves Time scale of lava caves 12 Cave meteorology and internal weathering Composition of cave air Cave temperatures Air movement Evaporation and condensation Weathering in the cave atmosphere Chemical zones in air-filled caves 13 Caves and time Relative and numerical ages Determining cave ages Studies of past climates Caves through the ages 14 Geologic studies of caves Field mapping Calibrating survey instruments Geologic interpretions Testing interpretations for validity Detailed analysis of a cave Further goals 15 Application of cave geology to other geosciences The problem of sampling bias Water supply Engineering applications Land management Interpretation of geologic processes Petroleum geology Mining Scientific frontiers The limits of discovery Glossary References Index Conversion between U.S. and metric units

Hypogenic speleogenesis within Seven Rivers Evaporites: Coffee Cave, Eddy County, New Mexico, 2008, Stafford K. W. , Land L. , Klimchouk A.

Coffee Cave, located in the lower Pecos region of southeastern New Mexico, illustrates processes of hypogenic speleogenesis in the middle Permian Seven Rivers Formation. Coffee Cave is a rectilinear gypsum maze cave with at least four stratigraphically-distinct horizons of development. Morphological features throughout the cave provide unequivocal evidence of hypogenic ascending speleogenesis in a confined aquifer system driven by mixed (forced and free) convection. Morphologic features in individual cave levels include a complete suite that defines original rising flow paths, ranging from inlets for hypogenic fluids (feeders) through transitional forms (rising wall channels) to ceiling half-tube flow features and fluid outlets (cupolas and exposed overlying beds). Passage morphology does not support origins based on epigenic processes and lateral development, although the presence of fine-grained sediments in the cave suggests minimal overprinting by backflooding. Feeder distributions show a lateral shift in ascending fluids, with decreasing dissolutional development in upper levels. It is likely that additional hypogenic karst phenomena are present in the vicinity of Coffee Cave because regional hydrologic conditions are optimum for confined speleogenesis, with artesian discharge still active in the region.


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