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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That debris karren is these are pinnacles that form in limestones with a thin sheet structure that soon fall into smaller fragments [3]. see also pinnacles.?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for origins (Keyword) returned 67 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 67
SOUTHERN AFRICA AND MODERN HUMAN ORIGINS, 1992, Deacon Hj,
This paper argues that southern Africa was a remote part of the Old World in the late Pleistocene (125-10 ka ago). Because of this isolated position there was continuity without significant replacement in the resident population. Isolation and the relatively recent spread of agriculture to the region has allowed a section of this population to survive into the present. They are the Bushmen (San). Studies of geographic patterning in conventional genetic markers and mitochrondrial DNA indicate that the Bushman clade has a long evolutionary history in southern Africa. Estimates of more than 100 ka for the continued presence of this population in the region are supported in archaeological investigations of sites with long sequences such as Klasies River main site and Border Cave. Human remains dating to the earlier part of the late Pleistocene have been recovered from these sites and the samples form a morphological series with the Klasies River remains possibly 20 ka older than those from Border Cave. There is no fossil record for the later Pleistocene, however, at a period when selection for a gracile morphology may have been pronounced. The cultural associations in the earlier late Pleistocene are with the Middle Stone Age. Expressions of cultural 'style' and the occurrence of similar artefact design types in the Middle and Later Stone Ages can be interpreted with reference to the ethnographic present. Temporal continuity can be shown in the geographical distribution of stylistic markers and this suggests participation in a shared cognitive system. The inference is that the people in the earlier late Pleistocene had cognitive abilities that are comparable to those shown by their Holocene and modern descendants. The presence of the ancestors of a modern population in the earlier late Pleistocene in this region is perhaps expected if modern people had their origins in Africa

STABLE ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF METEORIC CALCITES - EVIDENCE FOR EARLY MISSISSIPPIAN CLIMATE-CHANGE IN THE MISSION CANYON FORMATION, MONTANA, 1993, Smith T. M. , Dorobek S. L. ,
The Lower Mississippian Mission Canyon Formation of central to southwestern Montana was deposited under dominantly semiarid to arid climatic conditions during Osagean to early Meramecian times. Following deposition, a pronounced climatic shift to more humid conditions occurred during middle Meramecian times. This climatic change is indicated by extensive, post-depositional karst fabrics and in the stable isotopic composition of early, meteoric calcite cements and diagenetically altered sediments. Early meteoric calcite cement in Mission Canyon limestones is generally nonluminescent and fills intergranular and fenestral porosity. Petrographic data indicate that this cement formed during intermittent subaerial exposure of the Mission Canyon platform during Osagean times. This initial generation of meteoric calcite cement has deltaO-18 values from -8.1 to -2.6 parts per thousand PDB. These data, and the oxygen isotopic values from nonluminescent skeletal grains and micrite in host limestone indicate that Osagean meteoric water may have had deltaO-18 values as low as -6.0 parts per thousand SMOW. A second generation of petrographically similar, but isotopically distinct, calcite cement fills biomolds and porosity within solution-collapse breccias in the Mission Canyon Formation. This cement generation postdates earlier nonluminescent Osagean calcite cement and is volumetrically most abundant near the top of the Mission Canyon Formation. DeltaO-18 values from these cements and from nonluminescent lime mudstone clasts and matrix in solution collapse breccias range from -13.8 to -8.2 parts per thousand PDB. These data indicate that Meramecian meteoric water may have had deltaO-18 values as low as - 12.0 parts per thousand. However, a higher-temperature burial overprint on the deltaO-18 values of the calcite cement cannot be ruled out. The more positive deltaO-18 values of the Osagean calcite components probably indicate warm and arid conditions during short-term [10(4)(?) yr) subaerial exposure along intraformational sequence and parasequence boundaries. The more negative deltaO-18 values from Meramecian calcite components and the extensive karst associated with the post-Mission Canyon unconformity may have developed because of cooler and more humid climatic conditions and possible rain-out effects during middle Meramecian times. A dramatic shift towards cooler and more humid climatic conditions may be coincident with the onset of major continental glaciation in the Early Carboniferous. The post-Mission Canyon unconformity has been attributed to a major fall in sea level that may have glacio-eustatic origins. Growth of continental glaciers during a time of global cooling would have caused migration of polar fronts further toward the paleoequator. These polar fronts in turn, would have pushed moist, mid-latitude weather systems toward the paleoequator, resulting in cooler, more humid conditions in low-latitude settings during ''icehouse'' times

DEBATE ABOUT IRONSTONE - HAS SOLUTE SUPPLY BEEN SURFICIAL WEATHERING, HYDROTHERMAL CONVECTION, OR EXHALATION OF DEEP FLUIDS, 1994, Kimberley M. M. ,
Ironstone is any chemical sedimentary rock with > 15% Fe. An iron formation is a stratigraphic unit which is composed largely of ironstone. The solutes which have precipitated to become ironstone have dissolved from the Earth's surface, from the upper crust, e.g. the basaltic layer of oceanic crust, or from deeper within the Earth. Genetic modellers generally choose between surficial weathering, e.g. soil formation, and hydrothermal fluids which have convected through the upper kilometre of oceanic crust. Most genetic modellers attribute cherty laminated iron formations to hydrothermal convection and noncherty oolitic iron formations to surficial weathering. However, both types of iron formations are attributable to the exhalation of fluids from a source region too deep for convection of seawater. Evidence for a deep source of ferriferous fluids comes from a comparison of ancient ironstone with modern ferriferous sediment in coastal Venezuela. A deep-source origin for ironstone has wide-ranging implications for the origins of other chemical sedimentary ores, e.g. phosphorite, manganostone, bedded magnesite, sedimentary uranium ore, various karst-filling ores, and even petroleum. Preliminary study of a modern oolitic iron deposit described herein suggests that the source of iron and silica to iron formations may have been even deeper than envisioned within most hydrothermal convection models

Ring of cenotes (sinkholes), Northwest Yucatan, Mexico; its hydrogeologic characteristics and possible association with the Chicxulub impact crater, 1995, Perry Eugene, Marin Luis E. , Mcclain Jana, Velazquez Guadalupe,
A 180-km-diameter semicircular band of abundant karst sinkholes (Ring of Cenotes) in Northwest Yucatan, Mexico, coincides approximately with a concentric ring of the buried Chicxulub structure, a circular feature manifested in Cretaceous and older rocks, that has been identified as the product of the impact of a bolide. The ring, expressed in Tertiary rocks, marks a zone of high permeability as shown by (1) the sinkholes themselves, (2) breaks in the coastal dune system and high density of springs where the ring intersects the coast, and (3) water-level transects characterized by a decline in water level toward the ring. Any direct relation that exists between the Ring of Cenotes and the Chicxulub structure bears on regional hydrogeology. If the layer or zone responsible for the ring is deeply buried, it may act as a barrier to the movement of ground water across the main flow direction. Shallower zones of horizontal permeability could result in less complete diversion of ground water. Through its influence on Yucatan aquifer characteristics, the ring may provide a link between modern environmental problems and astrogeology. Possible origins for the Ring of Cenotes are (1) faulting, perhaps reactivated by post-Eocene-mid-Miocene basin loading, (2) permeability in a buried reef complex developed in the shallow Paleocene sea around the crater rim, or (3) breccia collapse occasioned by consolidation or by solution of evaporite components. If the ring developed on ancient faults, it may outline hydrothermal systems and mineral deposits produced during Paleocene cooling of the Chicxulub melt sheet

Vadose weathering of sulfides and limestone cave development-Evidence from eastern Australia., 1996, Osborne R. A. L.

Many significant limestone caves in eastern Australia (particularly New South Wales, Tasmania) are associated with sulfide deposits and other ore bodies. These deposits have a variety of origins (hydrothermal, paleokarst, volcaniclastic). The sulfides weather on exposure to oxygen - rich vadose seepage water, lowering the water pH and releasing sulfate and magnesium which can lead to the deposition of gypsum and aragonite speleothems. Removal of weathered ores and ore - bearing paleokarst sediments in the vadose zone is, in places, an important mechanism for the formation of large caverns.


Morphological affinities of the proximal ulna from Klasies River main site: Archaic or modern?, 1996, Churchill Se, Pearson Om, Grine Fe, Trinkaus E, Holliday Tw,
The Middle Stone Age (MSA) asociated hominids from Klasies River Mouth (KRM) have taken on a key role in debate about the origins of modern humans, with their craniofacial remains seen as either representing the earliest well-dated modern humans in southern Africa or orthognathic late archaic humans. Diagnostic postcranial remains from Klasies are few, but one specimen-a proximal right ulna from the lower SAS member-is useful For assessing the morphological affinities of these hominids. Canonical variates analysis using 14 proximal ulnar dimensions and comparative data from European, west Asian and African archaic humans, and Levantine Mousterian, European Upper Paleolithic, African Epipaleolithic and diverse recent modern human samples (many of recent African descent) were employed to assess the morphological affinities of this specimen. Results suggest an archaic total morphological pattern for the Klasies ulna. Analysis of diaphyseal cross-sectional geometry reveals an ulnar shaft with relatively thick cortical bone, but the specimen cannot be readily distinguished from Neandertals or early anatomically modem humans on the basis of shaft cross-sectional properties. If the isolated ulna from Klasies is indicative of the general postcranial morphology of these hominids, then the MSA-associated humans from KRM may not be as modern as has been claimed from the craniofacial material. It ii: possible also that the skeletal material from KRM reflects mosaic evolution-retention of archaic postcranial characteristics. perhaps indicating retention of archaic habitual behavior patterns, in hominids that were becoming craniofacially modern. (C) 1996 Academic Press Limited

Morphology of the border cave hominid ulna and humerus, 1996, Pearson O. M. , Grine F. E. ,
Hominid bones from Border Cave (BC) have been the subject of controversy with regard to the question of modern human origins. New dating assays suggest that while some of the BC remains are of comparatively recent age (i.e. < 20 kyr), several postcranial fragments derive from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) layers. Among the latter, a proximal ulna in comparable to one from the MSA at Klasies River Mouth, in that both have an archaic pattern of morphology in the relative height of the coronoid and olecranon processes. This configuration appears to characterize Neandertals, and is displayed also by more ancient African ulnae. The BC humeral diaphysis has moderately thick cortical bone, but us otherwise unremarkable. The proximal ulnar morphology might suggest that the MSA inhabitants of South Africa engaged in activities similar to those of Neandertals and other postcranially archaic hominids. If the modern-looking BC-1 cranium in contemporaneous with the BC postcranial bones, this would bear testament to the mosaic nature of human evolution. Alternatively, if BC-1 proves to be of recent derivation, and the postcrania are as old as the base of the BC MSA sequence has been claimed to be (c. 195 kyr), they might have been associated with more archaic crania (perhaps similar to Florisbad). Final resolution of these questions awaits determination of the absolute ages of the BC-1 cranium and the BC postcranial bones

Forum: Trow Gill gorge, Ingleborough, North Yorkshire - Its origins reconsidered, 1997, Murphy P. J.

Two Ordovician unconformities in North China: Their origins and relationships to regional carbonate-reservoir characteristics, 1997, Liu B. , Wang Y. H. , Qian X. L. ,
The two unconformities developed on the tops of the Lower Ordovician Liangjiashan Formation (UF1) and the Middle Ordovician Majiagou- or Fengfeng Formation (UF2) are essential boundaries that controlled the formation and distribution of the Lower Paleozoic karst-related reservoirs. UF1 and UF2 have been interpreted as representing short-and long-terms of tectonic uplift, respectively, but new evidence led us to conclude that they were created by different original mechanisms and therefore the related reservoirs should be predicted in different ways. UF1 was commonly interpreted as the result of southern upwarping of the basement, but sequence-stratigraphic analysis supports its origin by eustatic sea-level changes. Spatially, the most favorable regional reservoirs controlled by UF1 should be located in the central area of North China, where the carbonate sediments experienced intensive shallow-subsurface dolomitization with following meteoric water leaching. UF2 was created by tectonic event which resulted in an intra-plate downward flexure and subsequent peripheral bulge. In the depression belt of central North China the younger strata (Fengfeng Fm) were protected, but along the bulge meteoric water eroded them. As a result, the potential regional reservoirs related to UF2 are likely to be distributed along the peripheral-uplift belts, especially around the remnant of the Fengfeng Formation. Based on the analysis of these two unconformities, the Early Paleozoic tectono-sedimentary evolution of North China Plate can be largely divided into four stages: (1) the Cambrian Period, characterized by eustatic sea-level rise and tectonic subsidence; (2) early stage of the Early Ordovician, characterized by eustatic-sea-level fall exceeding tectonic subsidence and development of UF1; (3) from the late stage of the Early Ordovician to the Middle Ordovician, featured by eustatic-sea-level rise and slow tectonic subsidence;(4) from the late stage of the Middle Ordovician to the Early Carboniferous, distinguished by vigorous tectonic uplift and development of UF2

Turbidity and microorganisms in a karst spring, 1997, Nebbache S. , Loquet M. , Vinceslasakpa M. , Feeny V. ,
This study was focused mainly on relations between turbidity and bacterial contamination of a karst spring. The data from the resurgence site show that for a turbidity <1,2 NTU, the spring is benefits of good sanitary conditions. The highest degree of bacterial contamination generally coincides with increased rainfall (automn and winter). This turbidity is also a factor of enhancing survival in particular-for fecal bacteria. correlations are established between turbidity and fecal bacteria, Those data show different origins of suspended particulate matters. The latter are transfered with superficial waters and rapid throughflow, or with water stored in 'systemes annexes karstifies' (storage units) then flushed out. Following the study of the first peak of turbidity, after recession, we find that turbidity is essentially due to the P3 class of particles (4.3 to 11 mu m) and that some microorganisms are carried by the following classes of articles: ammonifiers by class P1 (<1.7 mu m), mesophilic microflora by P2 (1.7 to 4.3 mu m), fecal streptbcocci by P3 (4.3 to 11 mu m), fecal coliforms and denitrifiers by P4 (11 to 27 mu m). A knowledge of turbidity and bacterial contamination relationships suppose to take into account the stational ecological events and the hydrodynamic of the karst but also the adhesion laws between bacteria and particles

Origins of Groundwater in a Fluviokarst Basin: Bonne Femme Basin in Central Missouri, USA, 1997, Carol Mw,

Nouvelles observations sur lhydrogologie du vallon du Cruet, Haute-Savoie (France), 1998, Sesiano, Jean
Following a recent dye-tracing experiment the hydrogeological model for the Cruet valley, in the northern French Prealps has had to be modified. Faults, parallel and transverse to the valley, allow a mixing of waters from different origins. There is thus possible contamina_tion of several Cruet valley springs used for human consumption by surface pollutions.

An investigation, using the chalk karst of Haute-Normandie (France), as an example of the relationships between the surface and endokarst using a granulometric method, 1998, Lacroix M. , Leboulanger T. , Wang H. Q. , Feeny V. , Dupont J. P. , Meyer R. ,
Karst, by definition, is the result of rock dissolution. Ii the rock is not completely soluble, residues will remain ('acquired' particles). This insoluble material, present in the springs issuing From the karst body after some time lag, provides information regarding karst processes taking place within the rock body. The presence of pathways between the surface and the endokarst is reflected by an increase in the suspended particulate material (SPM) that may be considered to be 'inherited' from outside of the karst system, By the study of microgranulometric spectra the origins of the particles are differentiated and, on this basis, a classification of karst systems is proposed. The technique was applied to the chalk karat of Haute Normandie (France) by obtaining characterisations of the microgranulometric fraction of the main surface formations (clay-with-flints and loess) and that produced by dissolution of the chalk. By the comparison of these spectra with those of the SPM contained in ten karst springs, it was possible to define two types of karsts ('open' and 'closed') and their intermediates. In 'closed' karst a majority of the particles originated from the dissolution of the chalk itself, while in the 'open' karst, the majority of the particles are derived from the surface formations. This notion of 'aperture' is quite different from the conventional allogenic/authigenic karst classification which implies the formation of an impermeable residual soil that focuses surface water inputs

Mise en evidence des relations surface-endokarst par la microgranulometrie, exemple du karst crayeux haut-normand, 1998, Lacroix Michel, Leboulanger Thierry, Wang Huaqing, Feeny Veronique, Dupont Jean Paul, Meyer Robert,
Karst, by definition, is the result of rock dissolution. If the rock is not completely soluble, residues will remain ('acquired' particles). This insoluble material, present in the springs issuing from the karst body after some time lag, provides information regarding karst processes taking place within the rock body. The presence of pathways between the surface and the endokarst is reflected by an increase in the suspended particulate material (SPM) that may be considered to be 'inherited' from outside of the karst system. By the study of microgranulometric spectra the origins of the particles are differentiated and, on this basis, a classification of karst systems is proposed. The technique was applied to the chalk karst of Haute Normandie (France) by obtaining characterisations of the microgranulometric fraction of the main surface formations (clay-with-flints and loess) and that produced by dissolution of the chalk. By the comparison of these spectra with those of the SPM contained in ten karst springs, it was possible to define two types of karsts ('open' and 'closed') and their intermediates. In 'closed' karst a majority of the particles originated from the dissolution of the chalk itself, while in the 'open' karst, the majority of the particles are derived from the surface formations. This notion of 'aperture' is quite different from the conventional allogenic/authigenic karst classification which implies the formation of an impermeable residual soil that focuses surface water inputs

Origin and attributes of paleocave carbonate reservoirs, 1999, Loucks R. G.
Paleocave systems form an important class of carbonate reservoirs that are products of near-surface karst processes and later burial compaction and diagenesisOrigins of fractures, breccias, sediment fills and other features associated with paleocave reservoirs have been studied in modem and ancient cave systemsInformation about such cave systems can be used to reconstruct the general evolution of paleocave reservoirs and understand their associated scale, pore networks, and spatial complexities

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