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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That soil water is see soil moisture.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for rocks (Keyword) returned 671 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 671
Genesis of the Ordovician zinc deposits in east Tennessee, 1965, Hoagland Alan D. , Hill William T. , Fulweiler Robert E. ,
Zinc occurs in low-iron sphalerite associated with gangue dolomite in dissolution breccias and collapse structures in dolomitized limestone and interbedded fine-grained 'primary' dolomite. These breccias and collapse structures were developed as part of a karst-sinkhole complex formed at depths up to 800 feet below the top of the Knox Dolomite during widespread emergence at the end of Early Ordovician time. Mineralization was completed before the rocks were tilted, and clearly antedates the Appalachian orogeny. Source of hydrothermal solutions is not known

Calcium and Magnesium In Karst Waters, 1965, Douglas, I.

The basic textbooks and reference sources in speleology (Kunsky, 1954; Trombe, 1952 and Warwick, 1962) describe the process of solution of carbonate rocks in terms of the system CaCO3 - H20 - CO2, making little or no reference to the role of MgCO3 in the solution process. The widespread occurrence of dolomitic rocks amongst the older sedimentary formations of Australia, e.g., at Buchan, Victoria, and Camooweal, Queensland, makes some knowledge of the complexity of solution processes in rocks containing dolomite highly desirable for the understanding of the development of caves in this continent. This paper is intended to review the scattered literature on this topic and to describe what is known of the behaviour of the system CaO - Mg0 - CO2 - H20.


Occurrence and Movement of Ground Water in Carbonate Rocks of Nevada, 1966, Maxey George B. , Mifflin Martin D.

The formation of bauxite on karst topography in Eufaula District, Alabama, and Jamaica, West Indies, 1966, Clarke Om,
Bauxite deposits are formed on karst topography because the sinkholesentrap aluminous materials subject to laterization. In the Jamaican deposits, these primary aluminous materials are mainly residuum from the White Limestone Formation, but may include some volcanic ash. In the Eufaula deposits, the source materials were kaolinitic claysderived from weathering of crystalline rocks of the Piedmont. The sinkholes provide downward drainage, and deposits formed in them are protected from erosion

The ecological classification of cave and fissure water in the underground water habitats., 1967, Husmann Siegfried
Bodies of waters in caves and in crevices of rocks are distinguished from the other subsoil water ecosystems ("eustygon", "stygorhithron", "stygopotamon") under the names "troglostygon" and "petrostygon". The colonisation of subsoil water biotopes involves a fundamental principle which controls the development of the main biotopes for the stygobiont undergroundwater organisms. According to this ecological rule, which is described in detail and formulated, the several interstitial biotopes (for example "eustygopsammal," "rhithrostygopsammal," "potamostygopsephal") are to be considered as the real biotopes of the stygobiont subsoil water organisms; waters in caves, on the contrary, are secondary biotopes of these animals. Caves which contain marine water are described as ecostystem "Thalassotroglon" in their relation to "limnotroglon" (= "stygotroglon"). In this why the contact between "limnospeology" and "thalassospeology" is established, and the limnic and marine microcavernal biotopes; "thalassopsammal" and "thalassopsephal"; are also taken in consideration. "Limnospeology" and "thalassospeology" as limnological and thalassological investigations of subsoil water are characterized as biological fields of work, which serve for the investigation of an ecological unit.

The ecological classification of cave and fissure water in the underground water habitats., 1967, Husmann Siegfried
Bodies of waters in caves and in crevices of rocks are distinguished from the other subsoil water ecosystems ("eustygon", "stygorhithron", "stygopotamon") under the names "troglostygon" and "petrostygon". The colonisation of subsoil water biotopes involves a fundamental principle which controls the development of the main biotopes for the stygobiont undergroundwater organisms. According to this ecological rule, which is described in detail and formulated, the several interstitial biotopes (for example "eustygopsammal," "rhithrostygopsammal," "potamostygopsephal") are to be considered as the real biotopes of the stygobiont subsoil water organisms; waters in caves, on the contrary, are secondary biotopes of these animals. Caves which contain marine water are described as ecostystem "Thalassotroglon" in their relation to "limnotroglon" (= "stygotroglon"). In this why the contact between "limnospeology" and "thalassospeology" is established, and the limnic and marine microcavernal biotopes; "thalassopsammal" and "thalassopsephal"; are also taken in consideration. "Limnospeology" and "thalassospeology" as limnological and thalassological investigations of subsoil water are characterized as biological fields of work, which serve for the investigation of an ecological unit.

Hydrology of carbonate rock terranes -- A review , : With special reference to the United States, 1969, Stringfield V. T. , Legrand H. E. ,
Limestone and other carbonate rocks are characterized by many unusual features and extreme conditions, either involving the hydrologic system within them or wrought by hydrologic conditions on them or through them. Perhaps there could be little agreement as to what is typical or average for the many features of carbonate rocks, as indicated by the following conditions: bare rock and thin soils are common, but so are thick soils; very highly permeable limestones are common, but so are poorly permeable ones; and rugged karst topographic features with underlying solution caverns are common, but so are flat, nearly featureless topographic conditions. Some conditions of carbonate terranes are suitable to man's needs and interests, such as the use of some permeable aquifers for water supply and the exploitation of caves for tourist attractions. On the other hand, many problems may exist, including: permeability too low for adequate water supply or so high that the aquifer retains too little water for use during periods of fair weather, soils too thin for growing of crops and for adequate filtration of wastes near the ground surface, instability of the ground for buildings and foundations in sinkhole areas, and unusually rugged topography. Some of the many variable conditions are readily observable, but others can be determined only by careful geologic and hydrologic studies.The need for knowing the specific geologic and hydrologic conditions at various places in limestone terranes, as well as the variations in hydrologic conditions with changing conditions and time, has resulted in many published reports on local areas and on special topical problems of limestone hydrology. Many of these reports have been used to advantage by the present writers in preparing this paper.The concept that secondary permeability is developed by circulation of water through openings with the accompanying enlargement of these openings by solution is now universally accepted in limestone terranes. Emphasis is placed on the hydrogeologic framework, or structural setting, in relation to the ease or difficulty of water to move from a source of recharge, through a part of the limestone, to a discharge area. Parts of the limestone favored by circulating ground water tend to develop solution openings, commonly in the upper part of the zone of saturation; as base level is lowered (sea level or perennial stream level), the related water table lowers in the limestone leaving air-filled caverns above the present zone of saturation in sinkhole areas. Reconstruction of the geologic and hydrologic history of a limestone area aids in determining the extent of development and the positions of fossil and present permeability. References are made to the hydrology of many limestone regions, especially those of the United States

Classification of groundwaters and rocks ? a basis for hydrogeologic mapping and regionalization (in Russian), 1971, Zaitzev I. K. , Tolstikhin N. I.

Stratigraphy of and Characteristics of Cavern Development in the Carbonate Rocks of New Jersey, 1972, Dalton Richard, Markewicz Frank J.

Seminar on Karst Denudation - Solution intensity on various types of Calcareous Rocks in Czechoslovakia, 1972, Stelcl O.

Subsidence problems in route design and construction, 1972, Malkin Alexander Bernard, Wood John Charles,
The paper reviews the main causes of ground subsidence as it affects route design and construction in the United Kingdom. Investigation techniques and remedial measures are discussed in relation to both natural and mining subsidence. In addition to the common occurrence of subsidence problems in the coalfields, emphasis is placed on their presence elsewhere in the country. Natural subsidence problems are associated mainly with carbonate and saliferous rocks but mining activity has taken place at various times at numerous geological horizons for a variety of minerals. Future mining activity is likely to involve fewer minerals but will still be dominated by the coal industry. Experience has shown that the conflicting interests of route planners and mineral operators can usually be resolved by negotiation, accompanied in some cases by compensation

The Spider communities in tropical caves (Aranaea)., 1973, Brignoli Paolo Marcello
The so called "tropical" caves (most of which are also geographically "tropical") are distinguished from the "temperate" caves by the much larger trophic resources. Spiders are common in both kinds of caves, but the groups present in one kind are mostly absent in the other (notwithstanding that many families are distributed over at least one temperate and one tropical region). As in all temperate caves more or less the same groups of spiders can be found, so the tropical caves have a typical spider fauna, composed of different groups (often also more than those present in the temperate caves). In the temperate caves the most typical groups are the Leptonetidae, the Dysderidae, many Araneoidea and some Agelenidae; these groups are either absent or rare in the tropical caves. In these the typical groups are some Orthognatha and many primitive spiders of the Haplogynae (Oonopidae, Tetrablemmidae, Ochyroceratidae, Scytodidae, Pholcidae, Telemidae) with a few Araneoidea (Theridiosomatidae and Symphytognathidae). From an ecological point of view, the detriticolous groups are not common in temperate caves, but are exceedingly common in tropical caves. In these live also often some groups which could be considered not strictly detriticolous, but more exactly "microcavernicolous" (i.e. living "normally" in more or less permanent crevices etc. of soil and rocks). In temperate caves are on the other hand more common groups living typically on vegetation, not very close to the soil. Ethologically, in tropical caves the existence of groups is possible which either ambush their prey or search for it actively whereas most spiders of temperate caves capture it with a web.

The Spider communities in tropical caves (Aranaea)., 1973, Brignoli Paolo Marcello
The so called "tropical" caves (most of which are also geographically "tropical") are distinguished from the "temperate" caves by the much larger trophic resources. Spiders are common in both kinds of caves, but the groups present in one kind are mostly absent in the other (notwithstanding that many families are distributed over at least one temperate and one tropical region). As in all temperate caves more or less the same groups of spiders can be found, so the tropical caves have a typical spider fauna, composed of different groups (often also more than those present in the temperate caves). In the temperate caves the most typical groups are the Leptonetidae, the Dysderidae, many Araneoidea and some Agelenidae; these groups are either absent or rare in the tropical caves. In these the typical groups are some Orthognatha and many primitive spiders of the Haplogynae (Oonopidae, Tetrablemmidae, Ochyroceratidae, Scytodidae, Pholcidae, Telemidae) with a few Araneoidea (Theridiosomatidae and Symphytognathidae). From an ecological point of view, the detriticolous groups are not common in temperate caves, but are exceedingly common in tropical caves. In these live also often some groups which could be considered not strictly detriticolous, but more exactly "microcavernicolous" (i.e. living "normally" in more or less permanent crevices etc. of soil and rocks). In temperate caves are on the other hand more common groups living typically on vegetation, not very close to the soil. Ethologically, in tropical caves the existence of groups is possible which either ambush their prey or search for it actively whereas most spiders of temperate caves capture it with a web.

Distribution of Indiana cavernicolous crayfishes and their ecto-commensal Ostracods., 1975, Hobbs Iii Horton H.
Six species and subspecies of crayfishes and four species of entocytherid ostracods are known to inhabit the subterranean streams of southern Indiana. Cambarus (E.) Iaevis (troglophile) appears to be the most widely distributed crayfish and occurs in both karst areas within the State. The troglobite, Orconectes inermis (2 subspecies), is restricted to the larger karst area in solution cavities of Mississippian carbonate rocks. The remaining crayfishes, Orconectes immunis, Orconectes propinquus and Orconectes sloanii, are not common inhabitants of cave waters and are probably trogloxenes. All of the crayfishes except O. sloanii were found to host at least one species of ostracod. From data presented, Sagittocythere barri might be expected to be found commonly in association with Orconectes inermis, Donnaldsoncythere donnaldsonensis, Uncinocythere xania and Dactylocythere susanae, however, are more commonly associated with C. (E) laevis, indicating a near host-specific relationship among these taxa. Whether these are host-specific associations or ones imposed by certain ecological parameters will require additional investigations. Although a fair understanding of the distribution of these crustaceans in the larger, Mississippian limestone belt has been obtained, additional field work on the perimeter of the spelean ranges of the several species will probably prove productive. Furthermore, considerable cave exploration and biospeleological surveys are needed in the Silurian-Devonian limestones of southeast Indiana before our knowledge of these crayfishes, entocytherids and other cave-dwelling species approaches that for the Mississippian karst of the State.

Sweden: Caves in Crystalline, Insoluble, Igneous Rocks, 1977, Tell, Leander

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