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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That float gage is a device that indicates or records water levels with a float [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for dinaric karst (Keyword) returned 68 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 68
Cave diving explorations in the spring of Rjecina., 1999, Kuhta M.
The spring of Rjecina is one of the biggest springs in the area of Dinaric Karst. It is situated approximately 10 km in the North from the town of Rijeka. As a part of the last hydrogeological explorations cave diving team of SK from Zagreb performed the cave diving investigation of the water covered cave canals of the spring. The total length of the spring karstic system has been increased on 260 m with final reached point on depth of 50.5 m. Based on the results of cave diving exploration as well as on analysis of all the former investigations the major conclusions can be made. First of all, upper and lower inlet canals of the spring are hydraulically quite separated. Further, it can be supposed that in the background, they are in continuation of the separated retention areas. In the dry period both underground canals have no direct connection with the retention areas and the water present in the spring is only the rest of the last flowing out "captured" in the underground caves. It means that the possibilities of obtaining considerable quantities of the groundwater in the spring itself (in the dry period) by overpumping, i.e. by considerably lowering the water level in spring, are very small and the investigations should be directed towards another solutions. Although the mentioned conclusions are based on the data obtained at complete hydrogeological processing, it is important to stress the considerable contribution of the speleologic and cave diving investigations. It has been proved that these investigations are very important in karst areas. With undoubtedly important information concerning morphology of underground, which is the supposition for planning and performing the investigation works and other operations, speleologic and cave diving observations con contribute better understanding of the complex hydrogeological relations.

Alpine (?) karst of Eastern Serbia, 1999, Zlokolicamandić, Milena, Ć, Alić, Ljubojević, Jelena

Eastern Serbia abounds in various karst features which could be classified into different traditionally determined types (tropical, alpine...), although it does not have either climatic or elevation parameters characteristic for those types. After introducing the basic postulates of the pure karst model, as well as the theories of inception and development, the fact which becomes evident is that, for example, Alpine and Dinaric karst differ only in dimensions and frequency of features, but not in the basic morphological characteristics. Eastern Serbia is an area which was explored more than a hundred of years ago (the area of classical explorations done by Jovan Cviji }). On the basis of the knowledge of that time, the karst of Eastern Serbia was determined as an example of the Jura type. In recent explorations, however, many entirely new facts have been established regarding sorts, dimensions, frequency and development factors of karst features. That is to say that the main difference lies in the extent of exploration and level of knowledge of an area, or, in other words, whether the karst is explored or unexplored.


Some geological observations in Slovačka jama cave (-1268m) in Velebit mountain, Croatia, 1999, Lacković, Damir, Š, Mida Branislav, Horvatinč, Ić, Nada, Tibljaš, Darko

During three speleological expeditions the Slovačka jama cave has been explored to the depth of 1268m. In the cave there are several channels with phreatic forms. The highest relict phreatic channel is probably due to sinkholes formed on the karst uvala Veliki Lubenovac at the time of uvala formation. Lower, recent and subrecent, phreatic horizons at the cave bottom are probably a part of the underground route of the Lika river which sinks on the north-eastern side of Velebit mountain and flows through the mountain to the submarine springs in the Adriatic sea. Other channels are mostly shafts and channels with meandering vadose forms. 14C isotope analysis of speleothems shows that the oldest are situated in both ancient and subrecent phreatic channels, while younger ones are found in the vadose meandering channel.


Hotspots of Subterranean Biodiversity in Caves and Wells, 2000, Culver, D. C. , Sket, B.
We documented 18 caves and two karst wells that have 20 or more stygobites and troglobites. Crustacea dominated the aquatic fauna. Taxonomic composition of the terrestrial fauna varied, but Arachnida and Insecta together usually dominated. Geographically, the sites were concentrated in the Dinaric Karst (6 caves). Sites tended to have high primary productivity or rich organic input from the surface, be large caves, or have permanent groundwater (phreatic water). Dokumentirala sva 18 jam in dva kraka vodnjaka, iz katerih je znanih 20 ali vec vrst troglobiontov in stigobiontov. V vodni favni preladujejo raki. Taksonomski sestav kopenske favne je raznolik, vendar pajkovci in zuzelke skupaj navadno prevladujejo. Najvec taknih jam (est) je v Dinarskem krasu. Nadpovprecno so zastopane jame z lastno primarno produkcijo ali bogatim vnosom hrane s povrja, obsezne jame in jame, ki vkljucujejo tudi freatsko plast.

Interpretation of groundwater level monitoring results in karst aquifers: examples from the Dinaric karst, 2000, Bonacci O, Rojebonacci T,
The paper presents an attempt to determine the characteristics of karst aquifers using information on groundwater lever (GWL) in natural holes and boreholes with different data quantity and time resolution of GWL measurements. In this paper the particulars of karst aquifers were analysed for four examples from the Dinaric karst. In all four study areas, aquifers are formed in bare, deep and well-developed Dinaric karst consisting of Cretaceous limestones. The first example represents a wide area of Imotsko polje in the karst. The aquifer was analysed on the basis of infrequent water level monitoring in natural karst water features (jamas, lakes, wells) and discharges of springs and rivers. The karst aquifer in this example is complex, non-homogenous and variable in space and time, which is frequent in the Dinaric karst. Regardless of the aforementioned it was possible to determine its elementary characteristics. The second example represents 10 wells used for the water supply for the city of Pula. The GWL and salinity were measured once a week in the period between 1981 and 1996. Even though these measurements were relatively infrequent in space and time, they served as bases for assessment of average and maximum aquifer conditions as well as boundaries of saltwater intrusion. In the third example only a portion of aquifer of the karst spring Blaz, which is in the contact with the Adriatic Seas, has been analyzed. It is a spring with an intrusion of salt water. For purposes of study of saltwater intrusion, 26 piezometers were drilled in its vicinity in which GWL, salinity and temperature were measured once a day during 168 days, a period comprising one complete cycle of seawater intrusion and retreat. These measurements proved the existence of dispersed discharge from the aquifer into the sea and its non-homogeneity in space. In the fourth example GWL was measured continuously in 10 deep (up to 300 m) piezometers in the hinterland of the Ombla Spring catchment. The measurement period lasted 2 years (January 1988 to December 1989). The analyses are made with hourly data. The results made it possible to determine numerous characteristics of the karst aquifer and a significant non-homogeneity of groundwater distribution in karst aquifers, depending more on the underground karst phenomena than the surface karst forms

Interglacial Growth of Tufa in Croatia, 2000, Horvatincic Nada, Calic Romana, Geyh Mebus A. ,
Tufa samples from the Krka River area in Croatia were dated by 14C and 230Th/234U methods. The study area is situated in the karst region of the southern Dinarides. 14C ages of 40 tufa samples collected at the waterfalls coincide with the early Holocene interglaciation, up to 6000 14C yr B.P. Comparison of conventional 14C dates of Holocene tufa and those of speleothems in the Dinaric Karst shows that speleothem formation started several thousand years earlier than tufa growth. Samples of old tufa deposits from the Krka River (17) and Plitvice Lakes (12) area and speleothem samples from caves in Dinaric Karst (5) yield 34 230Th/234U dates, most of which cluster around interglacial marine [delta]18O stage 5 (21). Eight of 13 older dates belong to interglacial stages 7 and 9; only 5 dates fall within stage 6 and 8 glaciations. 230Th/234U dates of speleothems and tufa samples from central Europe have indicated that these were formed preferentially during warm and humid interglacial and interstadial periods, and it appears that this is true of southern Croatia as well. Stable isotope ([delta]13C, [delta]18O) analyses of 40 tufa samples from the Krka River area were compared with stable isotope analyses of tufa from the Plitvice Lakes area. The [delta]13C values for both locations are similar and range from -10 to -6[per mille sign], indicating similar conditions of tufa formation. A systematic difference between the [delta]18O values of tufa in these two areas reflects the regional distribution of the oxygen composition of precipitation

Monthly and annual effective infiltration coefficients in Dinaric karst: example of the Gradole karst spring catchment, 2001, Bonacci O,
The problems and present methods for the calculation of monthly and annual effective infiltration coefficients in Dinaric karat catchments which cover areas smaller than 200 km(2) are discussed. An example is given of the catchment of the Gradole karat spring, which covers 114 km(2) The climate on the catchment is North Mediterranean, with average annual rainfall of 986 mm, average air temperature of 11.4 degreesC, and average discharge from the Gradole Spring of 1.98 m(3) s(-1). All the data refer to a period from 1987 to 1998. An auto-correlation analysis is carried out of daily and monthly discharges from the spring and monthly rainfall on the catchment. Special attention has been given to determination of monthly effective infiltration coefficients. It was found that the time-scale effect makes it infeasible to use the equation for effective infiltration coefficient, because it gives values greater than 1 in 25% of cases, which is theoretically impossible. Therefore, two different procedures for calculation of monthly effective infiltration coefficients are given, out of which one uses the master depletion curve. This procedure gives acceptable and physically well-established values of mean long-term monthly effective infiltration coefficients. Obtained values can be used for regional analyses as well as for water resources management in karat regions. There was also a strong relationship between mean monthly air temperatures of the catchment and mean monthly effective infiltration coefficients. It is found that rainfall distribution during the year significantly influences the annual effective infiltration coefficients, which for the Gradole catchment ranges between 0.356 and 0.763 with the mean value of 0.57

Notion and forms of contact karst, 2001, Gams, Ivan

These forms are through valley, blind valley, karst plain, cave with allogenic river, overflow polje, cave on the impermeable rock, subglacial karst and interstratal karst. Emphasized is the role of climate and alluvium for closed basins by comparing Wombeyan cave area in Australia with polje Velo polje in Julian Alps (Slovenia). In the temperate humid alpine climate is intensive mechanical weathering on the steep and bare slopes above Velo polje (1680 m) and steep dry valley rising up to 2200 m. After heavy downpour the periodical brook Velski potok is sinking on the 400 m wide bottom and depositing new sheet of rubble, sand and organic particles. This process lasted since last glacier retreat 9 - 10,000 years ago. Despite age of many hundred million years and confluence of two rivers from surroundings built of igneous rocks on southern corner of 3,6 km2 large isolated Wombeyan marble there prevail gorges, caves and narrow valleys without large alluviated bottoms, and the surface is not levelled. The main reasons for the difference are in this view the semi-arid climate and the absence of alluvium causing larger and longer moist contact of alluvium with limestone basis.


Submarine karst of Croatia - evidence of former lower sea levels, 2002, Surić, Maš, A

During the last, Late Pleistocene-Holocene transgression, rising sea flooded a vast part of the Dinaric karst. Due to prevalence of carbonate rocks in the drainage area of most of the rivers on Eastern Adriatic coast, those rivers carry only approximately 20% of particulates as suspended matter and the rest is dissolved. Consequently, many typical karst features such as karrens, dolines, poljes, caves, pits and river valleys and canyons as well, presently under the sea, can still be recognized. Beside these simply drowned features, some new ones were formed by the sea level rise. Those are submarine springs, so called vruljas, brackish coastal springs and marine lakes. The most significant evidences of former subaerial conditions are speleothems in submerged caves and calc tufa deposits of drowned paleo rivers. Both of them could be used for determination of the former low sea level stands.


Analysis of karst tufa from Guangxi, China, 2003, Franciskovicbilinski S, Bilinski H, Barisic D, Horvatincic N, Yuan Dx,
The paper presents an analysis of characteristic karst tufa from Guangxi, China, which has not been studied before. A comparison with tufa from Dinaric Karst of Croatia is discussed in view of the C-type climate. The major mineral is calcite. Minor minerals are quartz and dolomite, depending on location. The content of calcium carbonate varies from 65% to 92%, and that of magnesium carbonate from 0.03% to 1.77%. Among other elements, the most abundant are Fe, from 0.02% to 1.50%, and Ti, from 0.15% to 0.27%. Many other trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Hg and Pb) are also present. Specific activity of radionuclides K-40, Th-232, Cs-137, Ra-226 and U-238 varies from sample to sample. Concentration of U in tufa is close to that reported for sedimentary carbonate. Low concentration Of Cs-137 indicates that this part of the world was not exposed to nuclear explosions. The concentration of Ra-226 is the highest in Mashan County. The ratio U-238/Ra-226 (0.21-0.71) in tufa from Mashan County is significantly lower than the theoretical value of 1. In 5 of the 11 studied samples, stable isotopes delta(13)C and delta(18)O were analyzed. They were dated by means of the C-14 method. One tufa sample originated in the Pleistocene and the others in the Holocene. Because all of the tufa samples contain traces of Na and K, and K < Na, the tufa from Guangxi belong to the CO2-outgassing 'N' type according to the classification of Liu and He (1994)

Concurrent tectonism and aquifer evolution > 100,000 years recorded in cave sediments, Dinaric karst, Slovenia, 2003, Sasowsky I. D. , Sebela S. , Harbert W. ,
A natural conduit that had formed along a fault was exposed in Upper Cretaceous limestones during construction of a tunnel near Postojna,. Slovenia. The conduit is filled with poorly indurated clastic sediments. Slickensides found on the margin of the sediment deposit show sinistral fault motion that is consistent with regional tectonism. Analysis of the sediments revealed reversed magnetic polarity. The minimum age for latest movement on the fault, origin of the cave, and deposition of these sediments is 780 ka. Present-day tectonic stresses are concordant with the fault movement, and it is likely that the fault has been continuously active throughout growth, infilling, and hydrologic abandonment of the conduit. Based upon known and modeled growth rates for conduits, this system is recording a period of growth and abandonment that exceeds 100,000 years. The role that rock discontinuities play in groundwater flow may vary over these timescales, and it may be important to account for tectonism when evaluating the long-term evolution of aquifers

The influence of hydroelectrical development on the flow regime of the karstic river Cetina, 2003, Bonacci O, Rojebonacci T,
The Cetina River is a typical karst watercourse in the deep and well-developed Dinaric karst. The total length of the Cetina River open streamflow from its spring to the mouth is about 105 km. Estimated mean annual rainfall is 1380 mm. The Cetina catchment is built of Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous carbonate strata. The western part of the catchment by the Cetina River is referred to as the 'direct' or topographic catchment. It was defined based on surface morphologic forms, by connection between mountain chain peaks. This part of the catchment is almost entirely situated in the Republic of Croatia. The eastern part of the catchment is referred to as the 'indirect' catchment, and is mainly situated in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Water from the 'indirect' catchment emerges from the western 'direct' catchment in numerous permanent and temporary karst springs. Since 1960, numerous hydrotechnical works have been carried out on the Cetina River and within its catchment. Five hydroelectric power plants (HEPPs), five reservoirs, and three long tunnels and pipelines have been built. Their operation has significantly altered the natural hydrological regime. The Cetina River is divided into two hydrological reaches. In the 65 km upstream, the hydrological regime was redistributed within the year: low flows had increased and high flows had decreased, although the mean annual discharge remained the same. Part of the Cetina watercourse downstream from the Prancevici Reservoir lost the majority of its flow. The mean annual discharges dropped from 100 m(3) s(-1) to less than 10 m(3) s(-1) because of the Zakucac HEPP development. Copyright (C) 2003 John Wiley Sons, Ltd

Differences in the C-14 age, delta C-13 and delta O-18 of Holocene tufa and speleothem in the Dinaric Karst, 2003, Horvatincic N. , Bronic I. K. , Obelic B. ,
We studied Holocene speleothems and tufa samples collected in numerous caves and rivers in the Dinaric Karst of Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as Serbia and Montenegro. Differences in the formation process of tufa and speleothems are discussed in the context of their isotopic composition (C-14, C-13 and O-18), as well as the chemistry of surface water (rivers, lakes) and drip water (in caves). The physical and chemical parameters monitored in the surface water (tufa precipitation) and drip water (speleothem precipitation) show that more stable conditions accompany speleothem rather than tufa formation. This is particularly obvious in the water temperature variations (2-22degreesC in surface water and 7-12degreesC in drip water) and in saturation index variation (3-11 in surface water and 1-6 in drip water). The range of C-14 ages recorded by Holocene speleothems (similar to 12 000 yr) is wider by several thousands years than that of Holocene tufa samples (similar to 6000 yr). delta(13)C values for tufa samples range from -12parts per thousand to -6parts per thousand and for speleothem samples from -12parts per thousand to ?? per thousand reflecting higher soil carbon and/or vegetation impact on the process of tufa than on speleothem formation. The differences in delta(18)O values of tufa and speleothem samples from different areas reflect different temperature conditions and differing isotopic composition in the water. The study shows that speleothems from the Dinaric Karst can be used as global palaeoclimatic records, whereas tufa records changes in the local palaeoenvironment. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Differences in the 14C age, [delta]13C and [delta]18O of Holocene tufa and speleothem in the Dinaric Karst, 2003, Horvatincic Nada, Krajcar Bronic Ines, Obelic Bogomil,
We studied Holocene speleothems and tufa samples collected in numerous caves and rivers in the Dinaric Karst of Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as Serbia and Montenegro. Differences in the formation process of tufa and speleothems are discussed in the context of their isotopic composition (14C, 13C and 18O), as well as the chemistry of surface water (rivers, lakes) and drip water (in caves). The physical and chemical parameters monitored in the surface water (tufa precipitation) and drip water (speleothem precipitation) show that more stable conditions accompany speleothem rather than tufa formation. This is particularly obvious in the water temperature variations (2-22[deg]C in surface water and 7-12[deg]C in drip water) and in saturation index variation (3-11 in surface water and 1-6 in drip water). The range of 14C ages recorded by Holocene speleothems (~12 000 yr) is wider by several thousands years than that of Holocene tufa samples (~6000 yr). [delta]13C values for tufa samples range from -12[per mille sign] to -6[per mille sign] and for speleothem samples from -12[per mille sign] to [per mille sign] reflecting higher soil carbon and/or vegetation impact on the process of tufa than on speleothem formation. The differences in [delta]18O values of tufa and speleothem samples from different areas reflect different temperature conditions and differing isotopic composition in the water. The study shows that speleothems from the Dinaric Karst can be used as global palaeoclimatic records, whereas tufa records changes in the local palaeoenvironment

Structural Features of Cultural Landscape in the Karst Area (landscape in transition), 2003, Anič, Ić, Branka, Perica Draž, En

During a long historical continuity in the karst area a specific landscape type has evolved due to varied climatic, geomorphological, topographic as well as socio-economic conditions. This is characterized by great typological diversity based on authentic features both of natural and cultural origin. These have occurred as a consequence of balanced economic land-uses from early periods on. The main quality of these landscapes is derived from unique agricultural land-use patterns, which constitute one of the most valuable spatial heritages in the entire Mediterranean. However, the recent evolution, mainly in the socio-economic sphere, generated far-reaching impacts in the rural areas which largely affect the integrity and traditional harmony the karst countryside in general and the landscape in particular. The basic intention of the paper is to outline these transformations as a serious threat and immense loss of the national cultural heritage and to emphasize the great responsibility of this generation in these processes.


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