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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That pore space is 1. the total space not occupied by solid soil or rock particles [22]. 2. the space occupied by voids containing gases or liquids in soil or rock samples [16]. see also interstice; porosity; porosity, effective; porosity, primary; porosity, secondary.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for aquifers (Keyword) returned 730 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 730
Summaries of papers read at The Engineering Group Regional Meeting-Cardiff 1977: Engineering Geology of Soluble Rocks, 1978,
Engineering Geology of the South Wales Coalfield and its margins--with particular reference to the Carboniferous Limestone. By J. G. C. Anderson. The stratigraphical succession of the Cardiff district ranges from Silurian to Lower Jurassic, while structurally the rocks have been affected by Caledonian, Hercynian and Alpine movements. Caledonian folding is relatively weak but powerful Hercynian (Asturian) folding and faulting took place about the end of the Westphalian; the elongate South Wales Coalfield Basin being formed at this time. Mesozoic strata, up to the Liassic, are also folded and faulted by movements which may have been as late as the Miocene. Silurian rocks which occur in the Usk and Rumney Inliers consist of sandstones, siltstones and shales (often calcareous) as well as some limestones. The argillaceous rocks often weather deeply and degenerate to clay with rock lithorelicts, consequently they pose problems in foundations and cuttings, e.g. on the east side of Cardiff. The Old Red Sandstone, both Lower and Upper divisions are present, is made up of marls, sandstones and conglomerates. Some of the sandstones are aquifers and provide water in commercial quantities. The marls, especially where steeply inclined are liable to slipping, as happened for example, in the Brynglas (M4) Tunnel at Newport. The Carboniferous Limestone surrounds the coalfield and consists mainly of limestone and dolomite (see also below). The Millstone Grit does not contain the gritty sandstones of the Pennines and is made up mainly of strong siliceous sandstones and shales. The Coal Measures show the usual lithology; a ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

Hydrogeological characteristics of karst regions in Hungary. [in Polish], 1980, Lorberer, Arpad

Three Groundwater Candoninae (Ostracoda) from Romania., 1982, Danielopol Dan L.
Description of Mixtcandona botosaneanu, Mixtacandona loffleri and Phreatocandona motasi, are presented. The first two species belong to the group laisi-chappuisi and have been found in porous and karstic aquifers in Southwest Romania in or near the Lower Danube Valley. Phreatocandona motasi occurs in a porous aquifer in the Olt Valley, at Jiblea, near Calimanesti. Biogeographical information on the present distribution of the Mixtacandona of the group laisi-chappuisi and on the subterranean Candoninae from the Lower Danube Valley in Romania is given.

Lithification of peritidal carbonates by continental brines at Fisherman Bay, South Australia, to form a megapolygon/spelean limestone association, 1982, Ferguson J, Burne Rv, Chambers La,
Lithification, which commenced less than 3000 yrs BP is still active, and has formed a cavernous limestone containing megapolygons, tepees, and speleothems including pisoliths, floe aragonite, and aragonite pool deposits. The emerging waters evolved from low alkalinity waters of Pleistocene sand and clay coastal plain aquifers which passed through an underlying Tertiare marine carbonate aquifer, have high P CO2 , total carbonate, Ca, and sulfate concentrations. They are close to saturation with respect to aragonite, and their mMg (super 2) /mCa (super 2) ratios approach or exceed the critical aragonite precipitation value. Features which diagnose ancient examples of this process: primary aragonitic cements with high mSr (super 2) /mCa (super 2) values; nonmarine delta 34 S values in gypsum; two superimposed networks of surface polygons, one delineated by extensional boundaries, the other by tepees; high-water vadose-zone isopachous grain cements; interconnected, speleothem-lined cavities; and the presence of evaporites only in surface sediments. Possible ancient examples are recognized in West Texas, Lombardy, and the Atlas Mountains. The areal extent of each of these deposits suggests that the process may be a geologically important feature, and its products may be diagnostic of semi-arid or arid-zone paralic sedimentation.--Modified journal abstract

Hydrogeology of the Umm Er Radhuma aquifer, Saudi Arabia, with reference to fossil gradients, 1982, Bakiewicz W, Milne Dm, Noori M,
Much of North Africa and the Arabian peninsula, lying in the Saharan climate zone, are underlain by huge tabular sandstone and carbonate aquifers, ranging in age from Cambrian to Tertiary. These are often saturated with water of reasonable quality and form very valuable resources in an area often desperately short of water. The Palaeocene Umm Er Radhuma carbonate aquifer is one such formation which has been the subject of intensive recent investigation. The formation contains groundwater of a reasonable quality, has adequate transmission and storage characteristics and hence considerable potential for future development. The origin of the water in such aquifers is the subject of continuing controversy. It is not disputed that the water is moving under the influence of regional groundwater gradients but origins of these gradients are the subject of considerable argument. On the one hand, there are those who hold that the presently observed gradients are fossil remnants of conditions created by a much wetter climatic regime prevalent some thousands of years ago. Against this are those who maintain that the gradients, at least in part, reflect a present day system with groundwater discharge in approximate dynamic equilibrium with recharge. This paper examines the hydrogeology of a typical Middle Eastern formation of the disputed kind, the Umm Er Radhuma aquifer in Saudi Arabia, and, with the aid of analytical and numerical models, attempts to resolve the problem of the origin of the observed groundwater gradients and to discover the extent to which the past must influence present day plans for future development

Hydrogeological conditions in the Middle East, 1982, Burdon Dj,
The geology of Middle East is summarized under the subheadings: Precambrian basement, epicontinental sediments, geosynclinal and shelf deposits, Tertiary volcanics and Quaternary cover. The main tectonic episodes including epeirogenic movements, rifting and the Tertiary orogeny, are reviewed. The imposition of hydrometeorolocal and climatic conditions upon the regional geology provides the setting for the hydrogeological discussion. Five factors which influence infiltration to aquifers under conditions of low precipitation and high potential evaportranspiration are discussed. The predominance of fossil groundwater is the most striking hydrogeological phenomenon occurring on a regional scale in the Middle East. Its mode of formation during the pluvials is outlined and the isotopic evidence is reviewed. The main physical and chemical characteristics of fossil ground-waters are described. It is conservatively estimated that some 65 000 km3 of good- to medium-quality groundwater are stored in the great artesian basins of the Near East. These fossil ground-waters are a non-renewable natural resource. Current annual abstraction is, as yet, a small percentage of the total reserves but economic factors rather than the volume of reserves will determine the ultimate extent of their exploitation. The renewable groundwater resources of the Middle East tend, by comparison, to be of local rather than regional significance. Some originate outside the Middle East, coming in as surface flows in the Nile and Tigris-Euphrates and infiltrating into the sediments in and adjacent to the flood plains. Other renewable resources accumulate within the region where high precipitation and mountainous relief are associated. Such areas include the Djebel Akhdar of Cyrenacia, the Tertiary fold mountains from the Taurus through the Zagros to the Oman ranges, and the volcanic and basement highlands of Yemen, Asir and Ethiopa. Locally, in areas of lower precipitation, lenses of recent fresh groundwater float on regional more saline groundwater. In some areas subsurface flows towards and through wadi systems are also of importance

Linear Kernels for karst aquifers, 1982, Dreiss S. J.

Splogense hydrothermale dans les Bibans (Atlas Tellien, Algrie), 1983, Collignon, B.
HYDROTHERMAL SPELEOGENESIS IN THE BIBANS (ATLAS TELLIEN, NORTH ALGERIA) - The Azrous are two small limestone mountains jutting out from wide marl spaces (the Tellian sheets) in the region of the Bibans. Their surface is not really a karst but they contain many caves, which have been caused by thermal waters. The seepage is so weak that these caves have been very well preserved and so we can study old geothermal carbonate aquifers. This study shows the main morphological, structural, sedimentological and mineralogical features of such caves.

Rpartition quantitative des phnomnes karstiques super-ficiels et souterrains en fonction de la lithologie sur le Causse Comtal (Aveyron, Fr .), 1983, Dodge, D.
QUANTITATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF THE SURFICIAL AND UNDERGROUND KARSTIC PHENOMENA ACCORDING TO LITHOLOGY ON THE CAUSSE COMTAL (AVEYRON, FRANCE) - The quantitative distribution of karst phenomena (dolines, karren, dry valleys, springs, sinkholes and caves) in the Causse Comtal aquifers is analysed. This distribution is dependent on lithology, topography, tectonics, and permeability of the aquifer layers and relative importance of underground drainage networks. The part played by each of these factors in the development of the observed phenomena is discussed. The relationship between superficial and deep karst features is examined.

Hydrology of autogenic percolation systems in some tropical karst outcrops, West Malaysia, 1983, Crowther J,
This paper reports on the flow regimes of underground seepages in three tower-karst outcrops and in the Setul Boundary Range, West Malaysia. Groundwater movement in the tower-karst hills, which comprise very pure, massive marbles, is confined to vertical and subvertical joints. Although flow is primarily diffuse and the discharges of the majority of seepages correlate most closely with rainfall in antecedent periods of 1-16 days or more, some stormflow occurs along conduits in the upper parts of these aquifers. Many of these conduits appear to peter out at depth into tight rock fractures, thereby forming funnel-shaped underground reservoirs which serve to moderate discharge variations. In contrast, the limestones of the Setul Boundary Range are less pure and retain much of their original bedding. The presence of near-horizontal bedding plane fractures favours lateral groundwater movement and the development of integrated drainage networks within the rock. Compared with the tower-karst caves, seepage rates are generally higher and more responsive to short-term variations in rainfall. The marked difference in topography between the tower-karst hills and the Setul Boundary Range is largely attributable to the contrasted geohydrological properties of the limestones

Effects of glaciations upon karst aquifers in Canada., 1983, Ford D. C.

Point recharge of limestone aquifers a model from New Zealand karst., 1983, Gunn J.


The role of the subcutaneous zone in karst hydrology, 1983, Williams Paul W. ,
The subcutaneous zone is the upper weathered layer of rock beneath the soil, but above the permanently saturated (phreatic) zone. It is of particular hydrological importance in karst because of its high secondary permeability, arising from the considerable chemical solution in this zone. However, corrosional enlargement of fissures diminishes with depth; thus permeability decreases in the same direction with the result that percolation is inhibited, except down widened master joints and faults. Storage of water consequently occurs in this zone, particularly after storms. The upper surface of this suspended saturated layer in the subcutaneous zone is defined by a perched water table, which slopes towards points of rapid vertical percolation. The potential induces lateral water movement converging on the most permeable areas such as beneath dolines. Leakage from the subcutaneous store sustains slow percolation in the vadose zone. Cross-correlation of rainfall with percolation rates in caves in New Mexico, U.S.A., and New Zealand reveal response lags of 2-14 weeks with no apparent relationship to depth below the surface. Other percolation sites show no correlation with rainfall; interpreted as being a consequence of considerable friction in tight fissure networks. The recognition of storage and rapid as well as very slow percolation from the subcutaneous zone requires re-interpretation of the components of hydrographs from karst springs and of some conceptual models of karst aquifers. The importance of subcutaneous storage in sustaining baseflow discharge at some sites must be recognised, as must the contribution of subcutaneous water to flood hydrographs. Methods of estimating the volumes of subcutaneous and phreatic components of karst-spring flood hydrographs are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the significance of subcutaneous hydrologic processes for an understanding of karst geomorphology. The desirability of explaining karst landform evolution in terms of hydrologic processes is stressed

The Hydrology of a Glacierised Alpine Karst Castlegaurd Mountain, Alberta, PhD Thesis, 1983, Smart, Charles Christopher

Alpine karst throughout the world has been affected by past glaciation, and yet little is known of the interactions between glacier ice and karst. This dissertation attempts to gain some understanding of the problem through the study of the Castleguard Area, Alberta, where a karst aquifer is presently overlain by temperate glacier ice.
Quantitative fluorometric tracing and hydrometric measurements generated a broad data base on aquifer behaviour. Tracer breakthrough curves were interpreted using a new systematic approach which considers an explicit set of processes likely to affect the particular tracer under the given experimental conditions. Non-linearity in aquifer behaviour and rapid groundwater velocities demonstrated the aquifer to be an extreme conduit type Conduit springs are elements in a vertical hierarchy in which the topmost springs are "overflows" and exhibit greater flow variability than their associated "underflows". A numerical model was developed to simulate a conduit aquifer. It demonstrated that pulse train and recession analysis widely accepted methods of karst aquifer investigation, could be rather misleading when applied to conduit aquifers.
Interactions between ice and groundwater were observed at two scales: regulation water appeared to feed a diffuse percolation system and supraglacial melt passed into subglacial conduits which entered open vadose shafts. Karst is unlikely to be entirely subglacial in origin because of the limited aggressiveness of subglacial waters.
The Castlegaurd karst appeared to have originated preglacially in response to the breaching of impermeable caprock. Glaciation re-ordered the landscape and produced abundant clastic debris which subsequently blocked or obstructed karst conduits. Much of the resulting karst is paragenetic and comparatively immature due to glacial disruption and slow growth rates. Geomorphic and hydrologic interactions between ice and karst depend intimately upon the relationship between the geographic zones of the glacier and the aquifer.

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