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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That terrestrial is living on land. not to be confused with "epigean." terrestrial cave animals include blind beetles, rnillipedes, spiders, and crickets [23]. see also aquatic.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for marble (Keyword) returned 74 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 74
Thesis Abstract: The Climate of Marble Arch caves, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, 1997,
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Perrin D.

Geology, geochemistry, and origin of the continental karst-hosted supergene manganese deposits in the western Rhodope massif, Macedonia, northern Greece, 1997,
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Nimfopoulos M. K. , Pattrick R. A. D. , Michailidis K. M. , Polya D. A. , Esson J. ,
Economic Mn-oxide ore deposits of commercial grade occur in the Rhodope massif near Kato Nevrokopi in the Drama region, Northern Greece. The Mn-oxide mineralization has developed by weathering of continental hypogene rhodochrosite-sulphide veins. The vein mineralization is confined by tectonic shear zones between marble and metapelites, extending laterally into the marble as tabular, pod or lenticular oreshoots (up to 50 m x 20 m x 5-10 m). Supergene oxidation of the hypogene mineralization led to the formation of in-situ residual Mn-oxide ore deposits, and secondary infills of Mn-oxide ore in embryonic and well developed karst cavities. Whole rock geochemical profiles across mineralized zones confirm the role of thrusts and faults as solution passageways and stress the importance of these structures in the development of hydrothermal and supergene mineralization at Kato Nevrokopi. Three zones an recognized in the insitu supergene veins: (A) a stable zone of oxidation, where immobile elements form (or substitute in) stable oxide mineral phases, and mobile elements are leached; (B) a transitional (active) zone in which element behavior is strongly influenced by seasonal fluctuations of the groundwater table and variations in pH-Eh conditions; and (C) a zone of permanent flooding, where variations in pH-Eh conditions are minimal. Zone (B) is considered as the source zone for the karst cavity mineralization. During weathering, meteoric waters, which were CO2-rich (P-CO2 similar to 10(-3.8) to 10(-1.4)) and oxygenated (fO(2) -10(-17) for malachite), percolated downward within the veins, causing breakdown and dissolution of sulfides and marble, and oxidation of rhodochrosite to Mn-oxides. Karat cavity formation was favored by the high permeability along thrust zones. Dissolved Mn2 was transported into karst cavities in reduced meteoric waters at the beginning of weathering (pH similar to 4-5), and as Mn(HCO3)(2) in slightly alkaline groundwaters during advanced weathering (pH similar to 6-8). Mn4? precipitation took place by fO(2) increase in ground waters, or pH increase by continuous hydrolysis and carbonate dissolution. In the well developed karst setting, some mobility of elements occurred during and after karst ore formation in the order Na>K>Mg>Sr>Mn>As>Zn>Ba>Al>Fe>Cu>Cd>Pb. (C) 1998 Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petrolem. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

Precipitation kinetics of calcite in the system CaCO3-H2O-CO2: The conversion to CO2 by the slow process H?->CO2? as a rate limiting step, 1997,
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Dreybrodt W, Eisenlohr L, Madry B, Ringer S,
Precipitation rates of CaCO3 from supersaturated solutions in the H2O - CO2 - CaCO3 system are controlled by three rate-determining processes: the kinetics of precipitation at the mineral surface, mass transport of the reaction species involved to and from the mineral surface, and the slow kinetics of the overall reaction HCO3- H --> CO2 H2O. A theoretical model by Buhmann and Dreybrodt (1985a,b) taking these processes into account predicts that, due to the slow kinetics of this reaction, precipitation rates to the surface of CaCO3 minerals depend critically on the ratio V/A of the volume V of the solution to the surface area A of the mineral in contact with it, for both laminar and turbulent flow. We have performed measurements of precipitation rates in a porous medium of sized particles of marble, limestone, and synthetic calcite, with V/A ratios ranging from 3.10(-4) to 1.2-10(-2) cm at 10 degrees C. Calcite was precipitated from supersaturated solutions with [Ca2] approximate to 4 mmol/L and an initial P-CO2 of 5.10(-3) or 1.10(-3) atm, respectively, using experimental conditions which prevented exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere, i.e., closed system. The results are in qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions. Agreement with the observed data, however, is obtained by modifying the rate law of Plummer et al. (1978) to take into account surface-controlled inhibition effects. Experiments with supersaturated solutions containing carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme which enhances the conversion of HCO3- into CO2, yield rates increased by a factor of up to 15. This provides for the first time unambiguous experimental evidence that this reaction is rate limiting. We have also measured precipitation rates in batch experiments, stirring sized mineral particles in a solution with V/A ranging from 0.03 to 0.75 cm. These experiments also give clear evidence on the importance of the conversion of HCO3- into CO2 as rate limiting step. Taken together our experiments provide evidence that the theoretical model of Buhmann and Dreybrodt (1985a,b) can be used to predict reliable rates from the composition of CaHCO3- solutions with low ionic strength in many geologically relevant situations. Copyright (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd

The climate of the Marble Arch Caves, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, BSc thesis (Geography) , 1997,
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Perrin, D.

The Marble Arch cave is a high energy cave located in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. The first 500 metres of the system has been opened as a Showcave for approximately 13 years and has been visited by over half a million visitors since opening. Microclimatic investigations over a six month sampling period (31.7.96-10.1.97) found that the cave has a variable microclimate in response to, the surface climate, the caves hydrology and influences within the Showcave.
High positive correlation coefficient's were attained between the cave and surface air temperature. As distance increased into the cave correlation coefficients' decreased indicating a time lag. Air temperatures varied on both a temporal and spatial scale. Summer air temperature ranges of 2.1 °C were noted between sites within the cave, which increased to 7.1 °C during the winter season. The cave air temperature changed progressively from the entrance to the interior, decreasing in the summer and increasing in the winter months. During the summer months the mean surface air temperature (17.4°C) was greater than the cave mean air temperature (10.8°C). In the winter months the mean surface air temperature (1.9°C) was less than the cave mean air temperature (7.2°C). Site variability was generally greater during the summer months indicated by higher Coefficient of Variations.
The 'chimney effect' is noticeable in some parts of the cave as a result of surface and cave air temperature differences. Airflow within the cave changed direction in response to seasonal air temperature variations, flowing out of the cave during summer months and into the cave in the winter. Other processes such as the 'Entrainment Effect' were also evident. Airflow throughout the cave was generally weak, although in some parts of the cave was noticeable as a 'wind'.
The main river flowing through the cave was responsive to the seasonal cave air temperatures. During the summer months the water temperature once entering the cave decreases by approximately 2°C and increases by up to 7°C during the winter months. A relatively constant seasonal water temperature is maintained whilst travelling through the cave.
The largest air temperature variations occurred within the Showcave in which the presence of tourists and electrical lighting are believed to be partially responsible, the latter of which being the greater contributor. Results show that a tour of 18 people on average increased the surrounding air temperature by up to 1.3°C. The effect was reduced when a tour was moving past a point rather than remaining stationary in the same place.
Electronic lighting increased the overall air temperature throughout the Showcave. Each type of light used within the Showcave influenced the air temperature up to a metre away from the light source. Air temperature increases around the lighting was a result of the type of light used rather than the bulb wattage installed. In some cases the air temperature remained 2°C higher than the mean cave air temperature 1 metre away from the light source.

Geological guidance of speleogenesis in marble of the Dalradian supergroup, County Donegal, Ireland, 1999,
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Parkes M. A, Johnston D, Simms M. J. , Kelly J. G.

Les glaciers de marbre de Patagonie, Chili : un karst subpolaire ocanique de la zone australe, 1999,
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Maire Richard, Ultima_esperanza_team
The karst areas of Chilean Patagonia have remained virtually unknown until now because of their remoteness and very inhospitable climate. They are mainly located in two islands, Diego de Almagro and Madre de Dios, between latitude 52 and 50 South, with a subpolar and stormy climate "tempered" by heavy oceanic precipitations (7 m/ year). In Diego de Almagro the Permian and Carboniferous limestones and dolomites have been transformed into marbles with lamprophyre dikes through contact metamorphism. Situated in the outer part of the archipelagoes, these long and narrow outcrops (0.5-2km wide) are located between volcano-sedimentary formations of Upper Paleozoic (West) and the Mesozoic Patagonian batholit (East). The corallian paleoreefs are part of an accretionary prism of the Gondwana paleo-continent. The surficial and underground karstification is one of the most spectacular ones in the world. The Karren (lapies) caused by the heavy rains can be 1-4 meter(s) wide and several hundred meters long for the solution runnels. Moreover, we can often observe solution karrens both due to rain and wind direction: flat karren (horizontal laminar flow), cascading ripples (sloping laminar flow) and profiled solution forms. The surficial solution velocity is about 3 mm/50 years (from old painting traces near the quarry of Guarello, Madre de Dios); and the lamprophyres dikes (Diego de Almagro) put in relief through corrosion indicate a 40-60 cm surficial solution since the melting of pleistocene glaciers.

The inhibiting action of intrinsic impurities in natural calcium carbonate minerals to their dissolution kinetics in aqueous H2O-CO2 solutions, 1999,
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Eisenlohr L, Meteva K, Gabrovsek F, Dreybrodt W,
We have measured the surface controlled dissolution rates of natural calcium carbonate minerals (limestone and marble) in H2O-CO2 solutions by using free drift batch experiments under closed system conditions with respect to CO2, at 10 degrees C with an initial partial pressure of carbon dioxide of 5.10(-2) atm. All experiments revealed reaction rates F, which can be described by the empirical relation: F-n1 = k(n1) . (1 - c/c(eq))(n1) for c < c(s), which switches to a higher order n(2) for calcium concentrations c greater than or equal to c(s) described by F-n2 = k(n2) . (1 - c/c(eq))(n2) . k(n1) and k(n2) are rate constants in mmole/(cm(2) . s), c(eq) is the equilibrium concentration with respect to calcite. The values of the constants n(1), n(2), k(n1), k(n2) and c(s) depend on the V/A ratio employed, where V is the volume of the solution and A is the surface area of the reacting mineral. Different calcium carbonate minerals exhibit different values of the kinetic constants. But generally with increasing V/A, there is a steep variation in the values of all kinetic constants, such that the rates are reduced with increasing V/A ratio. Finally with sufficiently large V/A these values become constant. These results are explained by assuming intrinsic inhibitors in the bulk of the mineral. During dissolution these are released from the calcite matrix and are adsorbed irreversibly at the reacting surface, where they act as inhibitors. The thickness d of the mineral layer removed by dissolution is proportional to the VIA ratio. The amount of inhibitors released per surface area is given by d c(int), where c(int) is their concentration id the bulk of the mineral. At low thicknesses up to approximate to 3 . 10(-4) cm in the investigated materials, the surface concentration of inhibitors increases until saturation is attained for thicknesses above this value. To analyze the surface concentration and the type of the inhibitors we have used Auger spectroscopy, which revealed the presence of aluminosilicate complexes at the surface of limestone, when a thickness of d approximate to 10(-3) cm had been removed by dissolution. In unreacted samples similar signals, weaker by one order of magnitude, were observed. Depth profiles of the reacted sample obtained by Ar-ion sputtering showed the concentration of these complexes to decrease to the concentration observed in the unreacted sample within a depth of about 10 nm. No change of the concentration with depth was observed in unreacted samples. These data suggest that complexes of aluminosilicates act as inhibitors, although other impurities cannot be excluded. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd

Symposium Abstract: Geological factors that have influenced the development of Marble Arch Cave, Co. Fermanagh, Ireland, 2000,
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Brown L, Lowe D. J. , Gunn J.

Karstification associated with groundwater circulation through the Redwall artesian aquifer, Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, 2000,
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Huntoon P. W.
The karstified Redwall artesian aquifer discharges significant quantities of water to a small number of large springs in the Marble and Grand canyons of Arizona, U.S.A. The locations of the springs are topographically controlled, being situated on the flanks of regional structural depressions at locations where the depressions have been dissected by the canyons. The springs serve as the lowest potentiometric spill points for the aquifer. Modern caves behind the springs appear to be adjusted to the hydraulic boundary conditions governing circulation through the aquifer. These caves appear to be organized parallel to modern hydraulic gradients and are thus fairly independent of preexisting dissolution-enhanced fracture permeability. This indicates that sufficient time has elapsed since the modern circulation system boundaries became established for the flow regime to have created optimally oriented karstic permeability pathways. Dry remnant caves occur in dewatered sections of the Redwall aquifer which obviously predate dissection of the aquifer by the Colorado River. In contrast to the active caves, the dry caves are characterized by keyhole and slot passageways that are predominantly localized along joints and normal faults. The fractures date largely from late Tertiary extensional tectonism. These older caves are interpreted to be remnants of dissolution conduits in what was a more widespread regional Redwall artesian aquifer prior to incision of the Grand Canyon. Recharge to the Redwall aquifer takes place primarily as vertical circulation in normal fault zones where the faults have propagated upward through the overlying Supai confining layer. The water enters the faults directly from the land surface or as leakage from shallower aquifers that drain to the faults.

Caverna Dos Ecos (Central Brazil): Genesis and Geomorphologic Context of a Cave Developed in Schist, Quartzite, and Marble, 2001,
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Karmann, I. , Sanchez, L. E. , Fairchild, T. R.

Erosion et ruissellement sur karst nu en contexte subpolaire ocanique : les les calcaires de Patagonie (Magallanes, Chili), 2001,
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Hoblea Fabien, Jaillet Stphane, Maire Richard
During Ultima Patagonia project (2000) on Madre de Dios island karst (chile), runoff and erosion characteristics have been measured and followed on the field, to explain the hypertrophy and particularity (profiled shapes) of the marble and limestone karrens. Hydrologic and morphologic measures have been made on a little catchment (100 m2). In this subpolar oceanic context, it appears that evaporation rate on bare karst is low despite the strong wind and consequently runoff activity is particularly strong. These measures are compared to those made on karst tables and dykes originating from differential corrosion, that show moreover the wind part in the development of wind-profiled karrens, a special karst landscape unknown up to now. Surface karst denudation is about 100 mm / ka.

Compositional zoning and element partitioning in nickeloan tourmaline from a metamorphosed karstbauxite from Samos, Greece, 2001,
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Henry Darrell J. , Dutrow Barbara L. ,
Blue-green nickeloan tourmaline from a micaceous enclave of a marble from Samos, Greece, contains unusually high concentrations of Ni (up to 3.5 wt% NiO), Co (up to 1.3 wt% CoO), and Zn (up to 0.8 wt% ZnO). The polymetamorphic karstbauxite sample has an uncommon assemblage of nickeloan tourmaline, calcite, zincian staurolite, gahnite, zincohogbomite, diaspore, muscovite, paragonite, and rutile. The complex geologic history is reflected in multi-staged tourmaline growth, with cores that represent detrital fragments surrounded by two-staged metamorphic overgrowths. Zone-1 metamorphic overgrowths, which nucleated next to detrital cores, are highly asymmetric and exhibit compositional polarity such that narrow overgrowths of brown schorl developed at the (-) c-pole are enriched in Mg, Ti, and F, and depleted in Al, Fe, and X-site vacancies (X{square}) relative to wider, gray-blue schorl-to-foitite overgrowths developed at the () c-pole. Volumetrically dominant Zone-2 overgrowths are strongly zoned nickeloan dravites with a continuous increase in Mg, Co, Ca, and F at the expense of Fe, Zn, Cr, and V from the Zone-1 interface to the outermost rim. Within Zone 2, Ni reaches a maximum of 0.5 apfu before decreasing in the outer 20-40 {micro}m. Zone-2 overgrowths also exhibit compositional polarity such that, at the (-) c-pole, overgrowths are enriched in Mg, F, Na, Ca, and Cr relative to overgrowths at the () c-pole that are, in turn, enriched in Al, Fe, Ni, Co, and X{square}. Element partitioning involving tourmaline rims and coexisting minerals indicates that relative partitioning of Ni is tourmaline >> staurolite > gahnite; Co is tourmaline > staurolite > gahnite; and Zn is gahnite > staurolite >> tourmaline

Karst hydrogeology of Kusluk-Dilmetas karst springs, Van-Eastern Turkey, 2001,
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Ozler H. M. ,
Permian marbles and recrystallised limestone nappes outcrop in the Artos Mountain range and comprise an aquifer with a small storage reservoir. Carbonate units are underlain by the impervious Yuksekova ophiolites. Between the marble and ophiolites, there is a transition zone by the northward thrusting, which varies between 500-1,000 m thickness. Fissures and fractures systems are well-developed in this transition zone because of the effects of tectonic movement, and extensive karstification has resulted in a high infiltration although its storage capacity is low. Because of the impermeable ophiolites at the base, groundwater discharges as springs flowing from the plane of the thrust faults. Numerous karst springs (48 springs) issue from this fissured and fractured zone, which are characterised by small discharge rates, a long residence time, and well-regulated spring flows. In addition, a selective enlargement is observed from west to east, which is greatly effected by strike-slip faults. All these springs are mostly fed by snowmelt during 6 months of the year

Soil carbon dioxide in a summer-dry subalpine karst, Marble Mountains, California, USA, 2001,
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Davis J, Amato P, Kiefer R,
Studies of the seasonality, spatial variation and geomorphic effects of Soil CO2 concentrations in a summer-dry subalpine karst landscape in the Marble Mountains, Klamath National Forest, California, demonstrate the significance of soil moisture as a limiting factor. Modeled actual evapotranspiration (AET) in the four weeks prior to sampling explains 36% of the observed soil-CO2 concentrations, pointing to the importance of root respiration processes in these systems. Late snows are significant in controlling the timing of a snowmelt-initiated pulse of respiration and groundwater. CO2 concentrations were measured at multiple sites in two seasons - 1995 and 1997 - with contrasting patterns of snowmelt. Other than wet-meadow anomalies, where CO2 concentrations reached up to 3.8% in midsummer, alpine meadows on schist were the sites of the highest spring peak concentrations of approximately 1%. Forest sites and sites with thin soils on marble typically peaked at approximately 0.5%, also within a month of snowmelt exposure. Ongoing karstification in the upper bare karst is focused in soil-filled grikes where late-season snowmelt concentrates flow during high-respiration periods, but the lack of active speleothem development suggests that the carbonate solution system is greatly reduced from preglacial periods

Notion and forms of contact karst, 2001,
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Gams, Ivan

These forms are through valley, blind valley, karst plain, cave with allogenic river, overflow polje, cave on the impermeable rock, subglacial karst and interstratal karst. Emphasized is the role of climate and alluvium for closed basins by comparing Wombeyan cave area in Australia with polje Velo polje in Julian Alps (Slovenia). In the temperate humid alpine climate is intensive mechanical weathering on the steep and bare slopes above Velo polje (1680 m) and steep dry valley rising up to 2200 m. After heavy downpour the periodical brook Velski potok is sinking on the 400 m wide bottom and depositing new sheet of rubble, sand and organic particles. This process lasted since last glacier retreat 9 - 10,000 years ago. Despite age of many hundred million years and confluence of two rivers from surroundings built of igneous rocks on southern corner of 3,6 km2 large isolated Wombeyan marble there prevail gorges, caves and narrow valleys without large alluviated bottoms, and the surface is not levelled. The main reasons for the difference are in this view the semi-arid climate and the absence of alluvium causing larger and longer moist contact of alluvium with limestone basis.

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