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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That percolation water is autochthonous karst water which permeates directly through karst limestone without using a surface watercourse [19].?

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Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for source (Keyword) returned 854 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 854
The formation of bauxite on karst topography in Eufaula District, Alabama, and Jamaica, West Indies, 1966, Clarke Om,
Bauxite deposits are formed on karst topography because the sinkholesentrap aluminous materials subject to laterization. In the Jamaican deposits, these primary aluminous materials are mainly residuum from the White Limestone Formation, but may include some volcanic ash. In the Eufaula deposits, the source materials were kaolinitic claysderived from weathering of crystalline rocks of the Piedmont. The sinkholes provide downward drainage, and deposits formed in them are protected from erosion

Algal growth experiments in the Baradla cave at Aggletek (Biospeleologica hungarica XXI)., 1967, Kol Erzsebet
The author kept 108 algal strains (Cyanophyta 53, Chlorophyta 35, Chrysophyta 20), of axenic cultures from the Kol-Algotheca in the Botanical Division of the Hungarian National Sciences Museum in the Baradla Cave, at Aggletek (Hungary) in darkness for 204-420 days under different environmental conditions. The experiments have proven that several algal strains can tolerate well the complete absence of light. Furthermore, that some algal strains show intensive development even under such conditions. These axenic cultures kept in the cave in metal boxes on inorganic medium have shown that the energy source used by these green coloured algae is not some by-product of chemotrophic bacteria, nor is it available organic material, but that it must be some kind of radiation which is able to penetrate even the metal boxes. The ability to adapt to the conditions existing in a cave is not a general characteristic of algal species, but is the capability of individual algal strains within that species. Most probably the algae living in the caves are aerophytes, terrestrial forms, and also some belonging to the edaphon. The cells were found to be smaller in the algae kept in the cave, there was almost no starch deposition in the cells, the pyrenoids were barely discernible, but the development of carotenes was more intense. Whether there are specific cave dwelling algal strains must be determined by future algological research conducted in caves. The composition of the algal floras of the caves may be equally dependent upon the chemical and physical characteristics of the biotope, as is the case in every other biotope.

Algal growth experiments in the Baradla cave at Aggletek (Biospeleologica hungarica XXI)., 1967, Kol Erzsebet
The author kept 108 algal strains (Cyanophyta 53, Chlorophyta 35, Chrysophyta 20), of axenic cultures from the Kol-Algotheca in the Botanical Division of the Hungarian National Sciences Museum in the Baradla Cave, at Aggletek (Hungary) in darkness for 204-420 days under different environmental conditions. The experiments have proven that several algal strains can tolerate well the complete absence of light. Furthermore, that some algal strains show intensive development even under such conditions. These axenic cultures kept in the cave in metal boxes on inorganic medium have shown that the energy source used by these green coloured algae is not some by-product of chemotrophic bacteria, nor is it available organic material, but that it must be some kind of radiation which is able to penetrate even the metal boxes. The ability to adapt to the conditions existing in a cave is not a general characteristic of algal species, but is the capability of individual algal strains within that species. Most probably the algae living in the caves are aerophytes, terrestrial forms, and also some belonging to the edaphon. The cells were found to be smaller in the algae kept in the cave, there was almost no starch deposition in the cells, the pyrenoids were barely discernible, but the development of carotenes was more intense. Whether there are specific cave dwelling algal strains must be determined by future algological research conducted in caves. The composition of the algal floras of the caves may be equally dependent upon the chemical and physical characteristics of the biotope, as is the case in every other biotope.

Ecological studies in the Mamoth Cave System of Kentucky. I. The Biota., 1968, Barr Thomas C.
The Mammoth Cave system includes more than 175 kilometers of explored passages in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. Although biologists have explored the caves intermittently since 1822, the inventory of living organisms in the system is still incomplete. The present study lists approximately 200 species of animals, 67 species of algae, 27 species of fungi, and 7 species of twilight-zone bryophytes. The fauna is composed of 22% troglobites, 36% troglophiles, 22% trogloxenes, and 20% accidentals, and includes protozoans, sponges, triclads, nematodes, nematomorphs, rotifers, oligochaetes, gastropods, cladocerans, copepods, ostracods, isopods, amphipods, decapods, pseudoscorpions, opilionids, spiders, mites and ticks, tardigrades, millipedes, centipedes, collembolans, diplurans, thysanurans, cave crickets, hemipterans, psocids, moths, flies, fleas, beetles, fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals. The Mammoth Cave community has evolved throughout the Pleistocene concomitantly with development of the cave system. The troglobitic fauna is derived from 4 sources: (1) troglobite speciation in situ in the system itself; (2) dispersal along a north Pennyroyal plateau corridor; (3) dispersal along a south Pennyroyal plateau corridor; and (4) dispersal across the southwest slope of the Cumberland saddle merokarst.

Report on the International Conference of Speleology and Karstologie at Istanbul (24 Sept.-14 Okt. 1964)., 1968, Fenelon Paul
Arranged by geologist Dr. Temucin Aygen, the International Conference of Speleology and Karstology at Istanbul, with the participation of about twenty foreign scholars, opened first at Beyazit de Stamboul University. For three days papers and discussions enlivened the sessions, broken by tours around the Bosporus. During the following two weeks the members of the Conference took a field trip across Anatolia, through Ankara, Konya, Mersin, Antalya, Burdur, Izmir, Bursa, and Istanbul. They thus had the opportunity to investigate the principal karstic phenomena of Turkey; the Konya obrouks, travertines of' Yerkpru and Antalya, caves of the Mersin region, vauclusian springs of Irviz and Manavgat, and so forth. The interest of these occurrences of Anatolian karst is unquestionable; in addition to the scientific problems they pose, they represent a great economic value either as tourist centres or as producers of electric energy and sources of water for irrigation.

Ecological studies in the Mamoth Cave System of Kentucky. I. The Biota., 1968, Barr Thomas C.
The Mammoth Cave system includes more than 175 kilometers of explored passages in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. Although biologists have explored the caves intermittently since 1822, the inventory of living organisms in the system is still incomplete. The present study lists approximately 200 species of animals, 67 species of algae, 27 species of fungi, and 7 species of twilight-zone bryophytes. The fauna is composed of 22% troglobites, 36% troglophiles, 22% trogloxenes, and 20% accidentals, and includes protozoans, sponges, triclads, nematodes, nematomorphs, rotifers, oligochaetes, gastropods, cladocerans, copepods, ostracods, isopods, amphipods, decapods, pseudoscorpions, opilionids, spiders, mites and ticks, tardigrades, millipedes, centipedes, collembolans, diplurans, thysanurans, cave crickets, hemipterans, psocids, moths, flies, fleas, beetles, fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals. The Mammoth Cave community has evolved throughout the Pleistocene concomitantly with development of the cave system. The troglobitic fauna is derived from 4 sources: (1) troglobite speciation in situ in the system itself; (2) dispersal along a north Pennyroyal plateau corridor; (3) dispersal along a south Pennyroyal plateau corridor; and (4) dispersal across the southwest slope of the Cumberland saddle merokarst.

Report on the International Conference of Speleology and Karstologie at Istanbul (24 Sept.-14 Okt. 1964)., 1968, Fenelon Paul
Arranged by geologist Dr. Temucin Aygen, the International Conference of Speleology and Karstology at Istanbul, with the participation of about twenty foreign scholars, opened first at Beyazit de Stamboul University. For three days papers and discussions enlivened the sessions, broken by tours around the Bosporus. During the following two weeks the members of the Conference took a field trip across Anatolia, through Ankara, Konya, Mersin, Antalya, Burdur, Izmir, Bursa, and Istanbul. They thus had the opportunity to investigate the principal karstic phenomena of Turkey; the Konya obrouks, travertines of' Yerkpru and Antalya, caves of the Mersin region, vauclusian springs of Irviz and Manavgat, and so forth. The interest of these occurrences of Anatolian karst is unquestionable; in addition to the scientific problems they pose, they represent a great economic value either as tourist centres or as producers of electric energy and sources of water for irrigation.

Hydrology of carbonate rock terranes -- A review , : With special reference to the United States, 1969, Stringfield V. T. , Legrand H. E. ,
Limestone and other carbonate rocks are characterized by many unusual features and extreme conditions, either involving the hydrologic system within them or wrought by hydrologic conditions on them or through them. Perhaps there could be little agreement as to what is typical or average for the many features of carbonate rocks, as indicated by the following conditions: bare rock and thin soils are common, but so are thick soils; very highly permeable limestones are common, but so are poorly permeable ones; and rugged karst topographic features with underlying solution caverns are common, but so are flat, nearly featureless topographic conditions. Some conditions of carbonate terranes are suitable to man's needs and interests, such as the use of some permeable aquifers for water supply and the exploitation of caves for tourist attractions. On the other hand, many problems may exist, including: permeability too low for adequate water supply or so high that the aquifer retains too little water for use during periods of fair weather, soils too thin for growing of crops and for adequate filtration of wastes near the ground surface, instability of the ground for buildings and foundations in sinkhole areas, and unusually rugged topography. Some of the many variable conditions are readily observable, but others can be determined only by careful geologic and hydrologic studies.The need for knowing the specific geologic and hydrologic conditions at various places in limestone terranes, as well as the variations in hydrologic conditions with changing conditions and time, has resulted in many published reports on local areas and on special topical problems of limestone hydrology. Many of these reports have been used to advantage by the present writers in preparing this paper.The concept that secondary permeability is developed by circulation of water through openings with the accompanying enlargement of these openings by solution is now universally accepted in limestone terranes. Emphasis is placed on the hydrogeologic framework, or structural setting, in relation to the ease or difficulty of water to move from a source of recharge, through a part of the limestone, to a discharge area. Parts of the limestone favored by circulating ground water tend to develop solution openings, commonly in the upper part of the zone of saturation; as base level is lowered (sea level or perennial stream level), the related water table lowers in the limestone leaving air-filled caverns above the present zone of saturation in sinkhole areas. Reconstruction of the geologic and hydrologic history of a limestone area aids in determining the extent of development and the positions of fossil and present permeability. References are made to the hydrology of many limestone regions, especially those of the United States

Food and feeding habits of the troglobitic Carabid Beetle Rhadine subterranea, 1971, Mitchell Robert W.
Food and feeding habits of a population of the troglobitic carabid beetle Rhadine subterranea inhabiting Beck's Ranch Cave, Williamson Co., Texas, were investigated. Observational and experimental data demonstrate that a primary food source of this beetle is the eggs of cave crickets (Ceuthophilus spp.). The beetles locate eggs by selective digging into substrata where cave crickets have oviposited. Chemoreception and mechanoreception are important in the location of oviposition sites.

Food and feeding habits of the troglobitic Carabid Beetle Rhadine subterranea, 1971, Mitchell Robert W.
Food and feeding habits of a population of the troglobitic carabid beetle Rhadine subterranea inhabiting Beck's Ranch Cave, Williamson Co., Texas, were investigated. Observational and experimental data demonstrate that a primary food source of this beetle is the eggs of cave crickets (Ceuthophilus spp.). The beetles locate eggs by selective digging into substrata where cave crickets have oviposited. Chemoreception and mechanoreception are important in the location of oviposition sites.

The Spider communities in tropical caves (Aranaea)., 1973, Brignoli Paolo Marcello
The so called "tropical" caves (most of which are also geographically "tropical") are distinguished from the "temperate" caves by the much larger trophic resources. Spiders are common in both kinds of caves, but the groups present in one kind are mostly absent in the other (notwithstanding that many families are distributed over at least one temperate and one tropical region). As in all temperate caves more or less the same groups of spiders can be found, so the tropical caves have a typical spider fauna, composed of different groups (often also more than those present in the temperate caves). In the temperate caves the most typical groups are the Leptonetidae, the Dysderidae, many Araneoidea and some Agelenidae; these groups are either absent or rare in the tropical caves. In these the typical groups are some Orthognatha and many primitive spiders of the Haplogynae (Oonopidae, Tetrablemmidae, Ochyroceratidae, Scytodidae, Pholcidae, Telemidae) with a few Araneoidea (Theridiosomatidae and Symphytognathidae). From an ecological point of view, the detriticolous groups are not common in temperate caves, but are exceedingly common in tropical caves. In these live also often some groups which could be considered not strictly detriticolous, but more exactly "microcavernicolous" (i.e. living "normally" in more or less permanent crevices etc. of soil and rocks). In temperate caves are on the other hand more common groups living typically on vegetation, not very close to the soil. Ethologically, in tropical caves the existence of groups is possible which either ambush their prey or search for it actively whereas most spiders of temperate caves capture it with a web.

The Spider communities in tropical caves (Aranaea)., 1973, Brignoli Paolo Marcello
The so called "tropical" caves (most of which are also geographically "tropical") are distinguished from the "temperate" caves by the much larger trophic resources. Spiders are common in both kinds of caves, but the groups present in one kind are mostly absent in the other (notwithstanding that many families are distributed over at least one temperate and one tropical region). As in all temperate caves more or less the same groups of spiders can be found, so the tropical caves have a typical spider fauna, composed of different groups (often also more than those present in the temperate caves). In the temperate caves the most typical groups are the Leptonetidae, the Dysderidae, many Araneoidea and some Agelenidae; these groups are either absent or rare in the tropical caves. In these the typical groups are some Orthognatha and many primitive spiders of the Haplogynae (Oonopidae, Tetrablemmidae, Ochyroceratidae, Scytodidae, Pholcidae, Telemidae) with a few Araneoidea (Theridiosomatidae and Symphytognathidae). From an ecological point of view, the detriticolous groups are not common in temperate caves, but are exceedingly common in tropical caves. In these live also often some groups which could be considered not strictly detriticolous, but more exactly "microcavernicolous" (i.e. living "normally" in more or less permanent crevices etc. of soil and rocks). In temperate caves are on the other hand more common groups living typically on vegetation, not very close to the soil. Ethologically, in tropical caves the existence of groups is possible which either ambush their prey or search for it actively whereas most spiders of temperate caves capture it with a web.

Hydrological Observations at the Junee Resurgence and a Brief Regional Description of the Junee Area, Tasmania, 1973, Goede, A.

The results are presented for one year of field measurement and analysis of water samples at the Junee resurgence, one of the largest karst risings in Tasmania. The water emerges from Junee Cave at an altitude of approximately 300m and forms the source of the Junee River at a point about 5km north-west of the township of Maydena. The resurgence drains a large area along the southern boundary of the Mt Field National Park and appears to be fed by a number of streamsinks, the nearest of which are at least 2km distant. The only underground drainage connection proved so far is with one of the largest of these stramsinks, Khazad-dum. This cave has been explored to a depth of 321m and is recorded as Australia's deepest cave system. The Junee area is located in central southern Tasmania and is centred on 146°40' East and 42°45' South. The Junee resurgence is the only significant rising in the area and is commonly thought to drain most of the Junee area. This opinion is based largely on the interpretation of the geological structure as shown in the geological sketch map of Hughes and Everard (Hughes 1957). However, a more detailed examination of the area on which Figure 1 is based, suggests that the western limit of underground drainage towards the Junee resurgence may be more or less coincident with the axis of the NNW plunging Nichols Spur anticline. Further mapping of the geological structure, and water tracing, will be required to confirm this.


Hydrogeologic Constraints on Yucatan's Development, 1974, Doehring Do, Butler Jh,
The Republic of Mexico has an ambitious and effective national water program. The Secretaria de Recursos Hidraulicos (SRH), whose director has cabinet rank in the federal government, is one of the most professionally distinguished government agencies of its kind in the Americas. Resources for the Future, Inc., has been assisting the World Bank with a water planning study which the Bank is undertaking jointly with the Mexican government. The study is intended to provide guidelines for the development of government policies and projects designed to bring about the most efficient use of Mexico's water resources. However, to date, their study has not been directed toward the growing problems of the northern Yucataan Peninsula which are discussed here.LeGrand (13) suggested that man has inherited a harsh environment in carbonate terranes. In the case of the northern Yucatan Peninsula, the physical environment creates a set of hydrogeologic constraints to future economic and social development. Planning for intermediate and long-range land use on the peninsula must be related directly to the limited and fragile groundwater source. Continued contamination will make future aquifer management a difficult challenge for federal, state, and territorial agencies. We conclude that any strategy for long-range land use in the study area should include establishment of a regional aquifermonitoring network for long-term measurements of key hydrogeologic parameters, including precipitation, evapotranspiration, water table elevations, and water quality. Information from this network would flow into a central facility for storage, interpretation, and analysis. At present the SRH is collecting some of these data. Expansion of the existing program to provide sound information for regional planning will greatly benefit present as well as future generations. If such a program is implemented, it will represent a model for regional planning in other tropical and subtropical karstic terrains

The ecology of a predaceous troglobitic beetle, Neaphaenops tellkampfii (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Trechinae). II Adult seasonality, feeding and recruitment., 1975, Kane Thomas C. , Norton Russell M. , Poulson Thomas L.
In deep cave areas with loose substrate and sufficient moisture, the life history of Neaphaenops tellkampfii (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Trechinae) is synchronized with the seasonal pattern of its primary food sources, the eggs and first instar nymphs of the cave cricket Hadenoecus subterraneus (Orthoptera Gryllacridoidea, Rhaphidophoridae). Neaphaenops reproduction coincides with an order of magnitude increase in Hadenoecus egg input in the spring. Our 46 observations of predation by Neaphaenops suggest some switching to other cave animals as cricket egg and first instar nymph densities decrease during the summer. Neaphaenops life history in areas of Hadenoecus egg input is as follows: (1) female Neaphaenops reach maximum fecundity at the time of the maximum density of frst instar Hadenoecus nymphs; (2) early instar Neaphaenops larvae appear in late summer and fall; (3) last instar Neaphaenops larvae appear in early spring and pupation occurs shortly thereafter; (4) lightly coloured teneral adults emerge two to three months later, a time consistent with laboratory estimates of the length of the pupal stage. Seasonal changes in sex ratio due to differential mortality appear to be consistent with this seasonal pattern. A comparison of Neaphaenops with two other species of carabid cricket egg predators suggests the importance of seasonal food abundance in determining life history seasonality. Darlingtonea kentuckensis has a food resource pattern which appears identical to that of Neaphaenops, and the life history seasonality is also parallel. Rhadine subterranea, however, seems to have a much more equitable food input throughout the year, and appears to have an aseasonal life history.

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