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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for relief (Keyword) returned 158 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 151 to 158 of 158
Rock features and morphogenesis in epigenic caves, 2013, Slabe T. , Prelovsek M.

The factors that form karst caves also leave their traces on the interior surface of the caves. These traces are called rock features. Rock features combine to create the overall relief, the shape of the interior surface of a cave. Rock features and rock relief therefore offer the first and often even comprehensive explanation of the formation and development of the caves that characteristically hollow karst aquifers.

Large Epigenic Caves in High-Relief Areas, 2013, Hauselmann, Ph.

Although the two conditions given in the title, ‘Large Epigenic Caves’ and ‘High-Relief Area’, already considerably narrow down the caves that fall within these categories, it quickly becomes clear that the geomorphology of such caves is not clear from the beginning. A closer look into the literature actually reveals that diverse speleogenetic agents may influence the genesis of such caves. Vertical vadose passages as well as (epi) phreatic base-level control very commonly occur in large cavesin high-relief areas. The key to understanding the genesis of these caves is: (1) the notion of time (commonly such caves are old and may even present different distinct phases of evolution) and (2) the evolution of the surface around these caves. Commonly, caves in mountainous areas deliver hints to reconstruct the (spatial and temporal) evolution of the surface morphology. In that manner, caves in mountains and in lowlands are no different, but surface information within them ountains is generally much more rare because of the intensive erosional processes in such steeply sloping areas.

Salt Karst, 2013, Frumkin, A.

Halite is the most soluble common mineral. Salt karst is concerned with extremely soluble and erodible rock-salt geomorphology, which demonstrates a dynamic end member to karst processes. Salt outcrops are rare, due to the high solubility, and common total dissolution underground, but subsurface salt is common, and commonly associated with environmental problems. These are associated with salt hazards, generally due to anthropogenic modification of hydrological systems, causing aggressive water to attack salt rock. Most salt outcrops appear under desert conditions, where the salt mass escapes total dissolution. In such outcrops, runoff produces well-developed karst terrains, with features including karren, sinkholes, and vadose caves. Existing salt relief is probably not older than Pliocene, but the known well-developed

Variations of karst geomorphology over geoclimatic gradients, 2013, Daoxian, Y.

The methodologies based on the ideas of a karst dynamic system, which links the climate, geology, biosphere and karst formation, and the karst feature complex (KFC) that facilitates overcoming the confusion of isomorphism in establishing a geoclimatic gradient of karst landforms, are first introduced in this chapter. The karst in mainland China is selected as a training area to establish the climatic gradient of KFC. The reason to make such a choice is its having prerequisites such as karst developed on hard, compact carbonate rocks to facilitate preservation of landforms; karst that enjoys a clear climatic gradient in the late geological history; and an area without the scouring process of a continental ice sheet during the last glaciation. Then, the geological impacts from factors such as lithology, structure, paleography, and tectonism on climatic gradient are discussed. Finally, a global perspective is given as an attempt at a summary. 

Stone Forests and Their Rock Relief, 2013, Knez M. , Slabe T.

Stone forests are unique karst surface landforms which range from several dozen to hundreds of square kilometers, and their distinctiveness is reflected in the number of denominations in different parts of the world including, for example, shilintsingy, and assegai. Diverse examples of stone forests show that the shape of the pillars, as tall as up to 100 m, is mainly the consequence of the distribution and density of fissures in the rock, its stratification, and different rock strata composition. We currently divide stone forests into three types: subsoil forests, uncovered forests, and bare forests. The rock forms on the pillars are according to their development divided into subcutaneous forms, forms shaped by rainwater and composed rock forms. The largest stone forests occur in tropical and subtropical conditions where corrosion of rock is the dominant factor and mechanical weathering is not pronounced. The Lunan stone forests developed from underground karren.

Isotopically altered wallrock of the hypogene conduits in the Crimean Piedmont, Ukraine, 2013, Klimchouk A. , Dublyansky Y. , Tymokhina E. , Sptl Ch.

The Crimean Piedmont stretches along the tectonic suture separating the fold-and-thrust structure of the Crimean Mountains from the Scythian Plate. It comprises two cuesta-like ridges whose structural slopes are built up of homoclinal limestone beds of the Paleocene- Eocene (the Inner Range), and the Neogene (the Outer Range) ages. Abundant relicts of the hypogene karst have been identified recently in steep cuesta cliffs of the Piedmont. The hypogene cavities formed in confined to semi-confined hydrological conditions due to interaction of the deep-seated waters, ascending along cross-formational fracture conduits, with the strata-bound lateral filtration flow. The ongoing geomorphological dissection of the stratified structure of the Piedmont com-monly follows the pre-formed hypogene conduits, resulting in the development of the pronounced cuesta relief with steep cliffs featuring massive exposure of the hypogene karst conduit paleo-walls with specific morphologies.
Movement of deep-seated fluids through carbonate wallrock may cause isotopic altera-tion of the later. We have studied isotopic composition of C and O along nine cores drilled into the walls of the cliffs decorated with hypogene solutional features, as well as in two hypogene caves. Data from all cores show the presence of a wide isotopic altera-tion halo, whose thickness exceeds the core length (max. 40 cm). In this zone, the rock is slightly depleted in δ18 (ca. 1 -2 ‰) relative to the “pristine”, unchanged values of a given rock unit. In most cores the rock is also depleted in 13 but two cores show high-er 13C values. In addition to this low-gradient alteration, most of the cores also show a narrow (4-50 mm) zone of the high-gradient alteration, across which δ18 and δ13 drop by respectively, 2.0–4.9 ‰ and 0.7–4.5 ‰. At three localities, the walls of the hypogene cavities were coated with phreatic calcite. Isotopic composition of this calcite corresponds to the lowermost values of the altered rock. In one core, the rock in the high-gradient alteration zone is depleted in 18 but enriched in 13. In yet another core the rock is enriched in both 18 and 13. The results corroborate the hypogenic origin of conduits and suggest that the wallrock was exposed to, and interacted with, geo-chemically different waters after the main volume of cavities had been created by disso-lution.



The leading role in the geomorphic development of the Crimean fore-mountain region is played by the processes of dismemberment of “shielding” limestone layers of the monoclinal stratified structure through valley entrenchment, and by further retreat of vertical rocky outcrops via block-toppling mechanism. These processes are guided by the presense of hypogene karst structures, whose formation preceded the modern relief. Karstified fracture-karst zones, 100 to 400 m wide, in the Cretaceous-Paleogene strata controlled the entrenchment of valleys in the limestone layers. The basic elements of hypogenic karst structures, which form their spatial framework, are sub-vertical fracture-karst conduits (karst “rifts”). Denudational opening of vertical fracture-karst rift conduits in limestone layers set the cliff-like shape of valleys slopes, and presence of such rift conduits in the rear of cliffs of already incised valleys determines the block-toppling mechanisms of slope retreat. This maintains the verticality of cliff segments in the cuesta ridge and controls their position. Hypogenic sculptural morphology is extensively displayed in the exposed walls of cliffs (former conduit walls), which determines the originality and nomenclature of morphology of limestone cliffs of the Inner Ridge. In those areas of slopes where position of cliffs has stabilized for considerable time due to absence of new lines of block detachment in the rear, weathering becomes a significant process in the morphogenesis of surfaces. The abundance, outstanding expression, preservation and accessibility of relict hypogene karst features in the extensive cuesta cliffs of the Inner Ridge makes the region the foremost one for studying regularities of hypogene solution porosity development, the process currently ongoing in the adjacent artesian basin of the Plain Crimea.

The hypogene karst of the Crimean Piedmont and its geomorphological role (in Russian), 2013, Klimchouk A. B. Tymokhina E. I. Amelichev G. N. Dublyansky Y. V. Spö, Tl C.
The book offers a fundamental new interpretation of the origin of karst in the Crimean Piedmont and explains the role karstification played in the geomorphogenesis of the region. The hypogene origin of karst cavities, their leading role in dismembering the Crimean Piedmont’s homocline and the formation of the characteristic cuesta and rock-remnant relief of the area is demonstrated on the basis of a systematic and comprehensive study, which included modern isotopic and geochemical methods.
The hypogene karst in the area developed in conditions of the confined to semi-confined groundwater flow systems, via interaction between the ascending flow of the deep-seated fracture-karst (conduit) water and the strata-bound, predominantly porous aquifers of the layered formations in the homoclinal northern mega-slope of the Crimean Mountains. The major pre-requisites for hypogene karst development is a position of the area at the flank of the Prichernomorsky artesian basin, and in a geodynamically active suture zone, which separates the fold-thrust structure of the Crimea Mountains and the Scythian plate. Opening of the stratified structure of the Piedmont follows the near-vertical cross-formational fracture-karst channels, resulting in the development of the pronounced cuesta relief with steep cliffs, which feature massive exposure of channels with karst-affected morphology.
Hypogene karstification results in characteristic morphologies, including caves, cliff niches and open chambers, variously sculptured and honeycomb-cellular surfaces of limestone cliffs, wide and shallow couloirs near the rims of cuestas, and rock remnants-“sphinxes”. The carbonate bedrock in the walls of the hypogene cavities revealed isotopic alteration (both O and C) caused by the action of hypogene fluids. The time of formation of cuestas in the Inner Range of the Crimean Mountains, determined on the basis of the U-Th disequilibrium dating of speleothems, turned out to be younger than thought previously. The active development of hypogene karst in the geologically recent past was the main factor responsible for today’s geomorphologic peculiarity of the Crimean Piedmont.
The book will be of interest for karstologists, hydrogeologists, geomorphologists, geologists, and environmental scientists studying karst regions, ore geology and carbonate reservoirs of hydrocarbons. It will also be useful for students of the respective disciplines, and for all those interested in the nature of the Crimean Piedmont.

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