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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That lateral moraine is a glacial deposit at the flank of a glacier, often constituted by debris from valley walls [16].?

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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for karst spring (Keyword) returned 198 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 181 to 195 of 198
Water supply spring zone Novljanska Zrnovnica (Croatia) new quantities of drinking water in the conditions of salt water intrusion, 2012, Biondić, R. , Biondić, B. , Measki H.

This paper presents an approach for solving the problem of exploitation of freshwater in the coastal karst aquifer during summer dry periods in the conditions of potential salt water intrusion. The approach is presented on the example of spring zone Novljanska Zrnovnica, situated in the northern part of Croatian Adriatic coastal region. The spring zone is used for water supply (about 250 l/s) of an important tourist area of Crikvenica and Novi Vinodolski. After unsuccessful attempts of physical separation of freshwater system from the sea influence, by construction of grout curtain, hydrogeological studies have focused on the possibility of groundwater capturing in the hinterland of discharge zone, outside of the zone of periodical salinity. The final research results with the exploitation well in the spring hinterland can serve as a model for research and exploitation of drinking water in natural conditions of unstable freshwater-saltwater interface in similar natural conditions.


Hydrogeology of the Gokpinar karst springs, Sivas, Turkey , 2012, Kaaroğ, Lu Fikret

Gökpınar karst springs are located 8 km to the south of the Gürün district centre, Sivas, Turkey. The springs have two main outlets (Gökpınar-1 and Gökpınar-2) and outflow from Jurassic-Cretaceous Yüceyurt formation (limestone). The total discharge of the springs ranges between 4.5 and 7.8 m3/s.The study area is formed of allocthonous and autocthonous lithological units whose ages range from Upper Devonian to Quaternary. These lithologies are mostly formed of limestones. Yüceyurt formation (limestone), from which Gökpınar karst springs outflow, constitute the main aquifer in the study area and is karstified. The unit has a well developed karst system comprising karren, dolines, ponors, underground channels and caves. The recession (discharge) analysis of the Gökpınar springs was carried out and the storage capacitiesand discharge (recession) coefficients of the Gökpınar-1 and Gökpınar-2 springs were calculated as 141×10^6 m3 and 98×10^6 m3, and 2.71×10^-3 day-1 and 2.98×10^-3 day-1, respectively. The storage capacities and discharge (recession) coefficients obtained suggest that the karst aquifer (Yüceyurt limestone) has large storage capacity, and drainage occurs very slow. The major cations in the study area waters are Ca2+ and Mg2+, and anion is HCO3-. The waters are calcium bicarbonate type. Some of the water chemistry parameters of the Gökpınar springs range as follows: T=10.8–11.1°C, pH=7.65–7.95,EC=270–310 μS/cm, TDS=170–200 mg/L, Ca2+=40.0–54.0 mg/L,Mg2+=4.5–10.0 mg/L, HCO3-=144.0–158.0 mg/L. Temperature, EC, TDS, and Ca2+ and HCO3- concentrations of the Gökpınar springs did not show significant variations during the study period.


Water supply spring zone Novljanska rnovnica (Croatia) new quantities of drinking water in the conditions of salt water intrusion, 2012, Biondić, Ranko, Biondić, Boidar, Meaki Hrvoje

This paper presents an approach for solving the problem of exploitation of freshwater in the coastal karst aquifer during summer dry periods in the conditions of potential salt water intrusion. The approach is presented on the example of spring zone Novljanska rnovnica, situated in the northern part of Croatian Adriatic coastal region. The spring zone is used for water supply (about 250 l/s) of an important tourist area of Crikvenica and Novi Vinodolski. After unsuccessful attempts of physical separation of freshwater system from the sea influence, by construction of grout curtain, hydrogeological studies have focused on the possibility of groundwater capturing in the hinterland of discharge zone, outside of the zone of periodical salinity. The final research results with the exploitation well in the spring hinterland can serve as a model for research and exploitation of drinking water in natural conditions of unstable freshwater-saltwater interface in similar natural conditions.

 

KARSYS: a pragmatic approach to karst hydrogeological system conceptualisation. Assessment of groundwater reserves and resources in Switzerland, 2013, Jeannin P. Y. , Eichenberger U. , Sinreich M. , Vouillamoz J. , Malard A. , Weber E.

An approach is presented for the hydrogeological conceptualisation of karst systems. The KARSYS approach helps hydrogeologists working in karst regions to address in a pragmatic and efficient way the three following questions. (1) Where does the water of a karst spring come from? (2) Through which underground routes does it flow? (3) What are the groundwater reserves and where are they? It is based on a three dimensional model of the carbonate aquifer geometry (3D geological model) coupled to a series of simple fundamental principles of karst hydraulics. This provides, within a limited effort, a consistent hydrogeological conceptual model of karst flow systems within any investigation area. The level of detail can be adjusted according to the targeted degree of confidence. Two examples of its application are presented; the approach was first applied with a low level of detail on a national scale in order to assess the groundwater reserves in karst aquifers in Switzerland, suggesting a groundwater volume of 120 km3. On a regional scale, it was applied with a higher level of detail to some selected karst systems in order to assess their hydropower potential. The KARSYS approach may provide very useful information for water management improvement in karst regions (vulnerability assessment, impact assessment, water supply, flood hazards, landslides, etc.). It leads, in a very cost-effective manner, to a new and highly didactic representation of karst systems as well as to new concepts concerning the delineation of catchment areas in karst regions.


Comparison of a karst groundwater model with and without discrete conduit flow, 2013, Saller S. P. , Ronayne M. J. , Long A. J.

Karst aquifers exhibit a dual flow system characterized by interacting conduit and matrix domains. This study evaluated the coupled continuum pipe-flow framework for modeling karst groundwater flow in the Madison aquifer of western South Dakota (USA). Coupled conduit and matrix flow was simulated within a regional finite-difference model over a 10-year transient period. An existing equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was modified to include major conduit networks whose locations were constrained by dye-tracing data and environmental tracer analysis. Model calibration data included measured hydraulic heads at observation wells and estimates of discharge at four karst springs. Relative to the EPM model, the match to observation well hydraulic heads was substantially improved with the addition of conduits. The inclusion of conduit flow allowed for a simpler hydraulic conductivity distribution in the matrix continuum. Two of the high-conductivity zones in the EPM model, which were required to indirectly simulate the effects of conduits, were eliminated from the new model. This work demonstrates the utility of the coupled continuum pipe-flow method and illustrates how karst aquifer model parameterization is dependent on the physical processes that are simulated


LAG AND TRANSFER TIME INFERRED FROM MELTING CYCLES RECORD IN THE COULOMP KARST SPRING (ALPES DE HAUTE-PROVENCE, FRANCE), 2013, Audra Philippe, Nobecourt Jeanclaude

 

A 11-days long period of snowmelt cycles was selected from the discharge and temperature data collected at Coulomp spring (Alpes de Haute-Provence, France), which is the largest of French Southern Alps with a discharge of 1 m3/s. Its catchment is 30–50 km2-large and mainly composed of marly limestones and poorly permeable covers, responsible of a combined diffuse and concentrated recharge. From Q data we extracted snowmelt discharge (Snowmelt Q = oscillating part of the discharge) and Basal Q. The contribution of Snowmelt Q is 30–50 % of Q. Amplitude of spring temperature (Tspring) is about 2 °C due to alternation of cold snowmelt water with low residence time and “warm” phreatic water with longer residence time. The lag between the peak of air temperature (Tair) corresponding to the maximum of snow melting and the peaks of Q, corresponding to the transfer time between surface and spring, is less than 10 h. This 10 h transfer time combines about 7 h of vertical transfer through the vadose zone and 3 h of horizontal transfer through the drain.


CAVES AND KARST HYDROGEOLOGY OF JERUSALEM, ISRAEL, 2013, Frumkin Amos

 

The city of Jerusalem, Israel, is growing for ~4,000 years on karst terrain. Lacking closed depressions, surface topography seems fluvial, but karst is well demonstrated by speleology and subsurface hydrology. Several caves in the city were truncated by construction works, including an 800 m long river cave (longest limestone river cave in Israel), and a 200 × 140 × 90 m isolated chamber cave (largest chamber cave in Israel). Caves are being discovered at a growing rate, as construction works dig deeper into the subsurface in the crowded city. Some of them are eventually destroyed by the construction works; only presently accessible caves are discussed here. The hydrogeology and hydrochemistry of the Gihon, Jerusalem’s main karst spring, was studied in order to understand its behavior, as well as urbanization effects on karst groundwater resources. High-resolution monitoring of the spring discharge, temperature and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical and bacterial analysis demonstrate a rapid response of the spring to rainfall events and human impact. A complex karst system is inferred, including conduit flow, fissure flow and diffuse flow. Electrical conductivity is high compared to nearby springs located at the town margins, indicating considerable urban pollution in the Gihon area. The previously cited pulsating nature of the spring does not exist today. This phenomenon may have ceased due to additional water sources from urban leakage and irrigation feeding the spring. The urbanization of the recharge area thus affects the spring water dramatically, both chemically and hydrologically.


TRITIUM AND H, O AND C STABLE ISOTOPES AS A TOOL FOR TRACKING OF WATER CIRCULATION IN THE NIEDŹWIEDZIA CAVE SYSTEM (SUDETES, POLAND), 2013, Gą, Siorowski M. Hercman H.

 

Water circulation in Niedźwiedzia Cave system is complicated. The system is fed by direct infiltration of precipitation, infiltration from the surface stream and, possibly, by rising flow from deep sources. The cave is drained by system of karst springs in the Kleśnica stream valley, but some part of water flows across border ridge and occurs in Morava stream valley, Czech Republic (Ciężkowski et al. 2009). We tried to use tritium and stable isotopes to describe hydrology of the cave system and analyzed 155 water samples for stable isotopes and 38 water samples for tritium content. The Niedźwiedzia Cave system is composed of three levels of halls and galleries. In the upper level, stable isotope composition in drip water plots close to the local meteoritic water line (LMWL) on the δ18O vs δD diagram. It varies during the year similar to stable isotope composition of precipitation (i.e. low δ18O values during winters and higher δ18O during summers). The delay between isotopic signal in precipitation and drip water is ~10–14 days and this can be interpreted as a time of infiltration from the surface to the cave upper level. The correlation between isotopic composition of precipitation and drip water is not observed in the lower level of the cave system. There isotopic composition of drip water is more stable during the year. We use tritium dating method to estimate the age of this water. It has shown that infiltration time to the lower level is 1.4±0.3 year. The “oldest” water was found in karst spring draining the cave system. The estimated transit time is 3–4 years and suggest admixture of some “old” water that was not sampled in the cave.


Comparison of a karst groundwater model with and without discrete conduit flow, 2013, Saller S. P. , Ronayne M. J. , Long A. J.

Karst aquifers exhibit a dual flow system characterized by interacting conduit and matrix domains. This study evaluated the coupled continuum pipe-flow framework for modeling karst groundwater flow in the Madison aquifer of western South Dakota (USA). Coupled conduit and matrix flow was simulated within a regional finite-difference model over a 10-year transient period. An existing equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was modified to include major conduit networks whose locations were constrained by dye-tracing data and environmental tracer analysis. Model calibration data included measured hydraulic heads at observation wells and estimates of discharge at four karst springs. Relative to the EPM model, the match to observation well hydraulic heads was substantially improved with the addition of conduits. The inclusion of conduit flow allowed for a simpler hydraulic conductivity distribution in the matrix continuum. Two of the high-conductivity zones in the EPM model, which were required to indirectly simulate the effects of conduits, were eliminated from the new model. This work demonstrates the utility of the coupled continuum pipe-flow method and illustrates how karst aquifer model parameterization is dependent on the physical processes that are simulated.


Interpretation of hydrogeological functioning of a high karst plateau using the KARSYS approach: the case of Trnovsko-Banjška planota (Slovenia), 2013, Turk Janez, Malard Arnauld, Jeannin Pierreyves, Vouillamoz Jonathan, Masini Jean, Petrič Metka, Gabrovšek Franci, Ravbar Nataša, Slabe Tadej

The high karst plateau of Trnovsko­Banjška planota is one of the most important reservoirs of karst water in Slovenia. Almost all important karst springs in this area are captured for water supply. A sustainable management of this source of groundwater is of strategic importance, not only as drinking water supply but also for the economy. For these reasons, many hydrogeological monitoring studies have been carried out over the last decades. However, no consistent regional overview of the hydrogeological functioning of Trnovsko­Banjška planota was available and we decided to study this area with more direct approach based on 3D geological and hydrogeological models. The so called KARSyS approach was developed in Switzerland and applied primarily to characterize groundwater reserves within a karst massif, and to sketch the main flow­paths carrying groundwater from recharge areas to the respective springs. The delineation of spring catchment areas in karst regions was better defined and interactions between catchments were interpreted. These results can be used to improve the management of karst waters in the studied area.


Karst aquifer average catchment area assessment through monthly water balance equation with limited meteorological data set: Application to Grza spring in Eastern Serbia, 2013, Vakanjac Vesna Ristić, Prohaska Stevan, Dušan Polomčić, Blagojević Borislava, Vakanjac Boris

In the absence of detailed exploration of karstic catchments, the calculation of available reserves and elements of the water balance equation frequently reflect the topographic size of the catchment area, and not the actual, active (underground) size. The two differ largely where karst is concerned. The paper deals with the problem of average catchment area size estimation in the situation when meteorological data are limited to precipitation and temperature, but discharge records are available for long period. Proposed methodology was applied to, calibrated, and validated on 15 karst springs in Serbia. Results obtained with the model differ up to 20% from hydrogeological exploration results. One of investigated springs is Grza karst spring, which belongs to the karstic formation of Kučaj and Beljanica (the Carpatho­Balkanide Arch of Eastern Serbia). In this paper, we used the Grza Spring to show model application and necessary improvements to progress from graphoanalytical to analytical model. The average catchment area is linked to the model parameter that reduces potential to real evapotranspiration on monthly bases. The model potential lies in the possibility to determine not only catchment area, but real evapotranspiration and dynamic volume of the porous ­ karst groundwater storage as well.


Carbon fluxes in Karst aquifers: Sources, sinks, and the effect of storm flow, 2013, White William B.

An effective carbon loading can be calculated from measured alkalinity and pH of karst waters. The carbon loading is independent of the degree of saturation of the water and does not depend on the water being in equilibrium with the carbonate wall rock. A substantial data base of spring water analyses accumulated by students over the past 40 years has been used to probe the CO2 generation, transport, and storage in a variety of drainage basins that feed karst springs. Carbon loading in the water exiting karst drainage basins depends on the rate of CO2 generation in the soils of the catchment areas and on the partitioning between CO2 dissolved in infiltration water and CO2 lost by diffusion upward to the atmosphere. For any given drainage basin there are also influences due to vegetative cover, soil type, and the fraction of the water provided by sinking stream recharge. Losses of CO2 back to the atmosphere occur by speleothem deposition in air-filled caves, by degassing of CO2 in spring runs, and by tufa deposition in spring runs. There are seasonal cycles of CO2 generation that relate growing season and contrasts in winter/summer rates of CO2 generation. Overall, it appears that karst aquifers are a net, but leaky, sink for atmospheric CO2


Variability of groundwater flow and transport processes in karst under different hydrologic conditions, 2013, Ravbar, Nataša

Significance of hydrological variability in karst is presented, which also discusses factors inducing such variability and consequences it may cause. Groundwater flow in karst aquifers is often characterized by strong variability of flow dynamics in response to different hydrologic conditions within a short time period. Consequently, water table fluctuations are often in the order of tens of meters, differences in flow velocities between low- and high-flow conditions can reach ten or even more times. In dependence to respective hydrologic conditions groundwater flow also results in variations of flow directions, and thus in contribution of different parts of the aquifer to a particular spring. The described hydrological variability has many implications for contaminant transport, groundwater availability and vulnerability. Groundwater level rising reduces thickness of the unsaturated zone and decreases protectiveness of the overlying layers. Higher water flow velocities reduce underground retention. Due to more turbulent flow, transport and remobilization of solute and insoluble matter is more effective. During high-flow conditions there is usually more surface flow and hence more concentrated infiltration underground. Particularly in karst systems that show very high hydrologic variability, this should be considered to correctly characterize, understand or predict the aquifers’ hydrological behaviour and to prepare proper protection strategies.


Characterisation and modelling of conduit restricted karst aquifers – Example of the Auja spring, Jordan Valley, 2014, Schmidta Sebastian, Geyera Tobias, Guttmanb Joseph, Mareic Amer, Riesd Fabian, Sauter Martin

The conduit system of mature karstified carbonate aquifers is typically characterised by a high hydraulic conductivity and does not impose a major flow constriction on catchment discharge. As a result, discharge at karst springs is usually flashy and displays pronounced peaks following recharge events. In contrast, some karst springs reported in literature display a discharge maximum, attributed to reaching the finite discharge capacity of the conduit system (flow threshold). This phenomenon also often leads to a non-standard recession behaviour, a so called “convex recession”, i.e. an increase in the recession coefficient during flow recession, which in turn might be used as an indicator for conduit restricted aquifers. The main objective of the study is the characterisation and modelling of those hydrogeologically challenging aquifers. The applied approach consists of a combination of hydrometric monitoring, a spring hydrograph recession and event analysis, as well as the setup and calibration of a non-linear reservoir model. It is demonstrated for the Auja spring, the largest freshwater spring in the Lower Jordan Valley. The semi-arid environment with its short but intensive precipitation events and an extended dry season leads to sharp input signals and undisturbed recession periods. The spring displays complex recession behaviour, exhibiting exponential (coefficient α) and linear (coefficient β) recession periods. Numerous different recession coefficients α were observed: ∼0.2 to 0.8 d−1 (presumably main conduit system), 0.004 d−1 (fractured matrix), 0.0009 d−1 (plateau caused by flow threshold being exceeded), plus many intermediate values. The reasons for this observed behaviour are the outflow threshold at 0.47 m3 s−1 and a variable conduit–matrix cross-flow in the aquifer. Despite system complexity, and hence the necessity of incorporating features such as a flow threshold, conduit–matrix cross-flow, and a spatially variable soil/epikarst field capacity, the developed reservoir model is regarded as relatively simplistic. As a number of required parameters were calculated from the hydrogeological analysis of the system, it requires only six calibration parameters and performs well for the highly variable flow conditions observed. Calculated groundwater recharge in this semi-arid environment displays high interannual variability. For example, during the 45-year simulation period, only five wet winter seasons account for 33% of the total cumulative groundwater recharge.


Hydrogeology of northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico: A conceptual model based on a geochemical characterization of sulfide-rich karst brackish springs, 2014,

Conspicuous sulfide-rich karst springs flow from Cretaceous carbonates in northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico. This is a geologically complex, tropical karst area. The physical, geologic, hydrologic and chemical attributes of these springs were determined and integrated into a conceptual hydrogeologic model. A meteoric source and a recharge elevation below 1500 m are estimated from the spring water isotopic signature regardless of their chemical composition. Brackish spring water flows at a maximum depth of 2000 m, as inferred from similar chemical attributes to the produced water from a nearby oil well. Oil reservoirs may be found at depths below 2000 m. Three subsurface environments or aquifers are identified based on the B, Li+, K+ and SiO2 concentrations, spring water temperatures, and CO2 pressures. There is mixing between these aquifers. The aquifer designated Local is shallow and contains potable water vulnerable to pollution. The aquifer named Northern receives some brackish produced water. The composition of the Southern aquifer is influenced by halite dissolution enhanced at fault detachment surfaces. Epigenic speleogenesis is associated with the Local springs. In contrast, hypogenic speleogenesis is associated with the brackish sulfidic springs from the Northern and the Southern environments.


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