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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That interface is 1. the contact zone between two materials of different chemical or physical composition [22]. 2. the contact plane of two immiscible liquids [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for salt (Keyword) returned 249 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 211 to 225 of 249
Horizontal Bedding-Plane Conduit Systems in the Floridan Aquifer System and Their Relation to Saltwater Intrusion in Northeastern Florida and Southeastern Georgia, 2011,
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Williams L. J. , Spechler R. M.

Acoustic televiewer (ATV) images, flowmeter, and borehole geophysical logs obtained from the open intervals of deep test wells were used to develop a revised conceptual model of groundwater flow for the Floridan aquifer system in northeastern Florida and southeastern Georgia. Borehole information was used to identify and map the types and distribution of highly-transmissive production zones in the Floridan aquifer system. The ATV images and flowmeter traverses indicate that water produced from most wells is largely derived from a system of highly-transmissive solution zones formed along bedding planes and major formational contacts. These “horizontal bedding-plane conduit systems” may locally influence the movement of brackish and saline water in the Floridan aquifer system. A modified conceptual model of regional flow in the Floridan aquifer system is proposed that incor-porates locally interconnected horizontal conduit systems within the largely porous matrix rock (fig. 1). Each of the conduit systems represents a highly-transmissive zone along which water can move preferentially through the aquifer system. These may or may not be laterally continuous across the area. Flow paths within the system are restricted vertically by local or regional confining units except where these are breached by collapse features or vertical fractures. Near major pumping centers, water probably moves preferentially along the horizontal conduits to reach the discharging well. The source of water moving into the transmissive open conduits is either derived from upward migration along vertical discontinuities in the rock or from diffuse leakage from adjacent porous rock units. Some trapped relict water in adjacent lower-permeability units may locally contribute to the higher chloride concentrations observed in some wells 


Diversity and community assembly patterns of epigean vs. troglobiont spiders in the Iberian Peninsula, 2012,
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Cardoso, Pedro

Cave-obligate organisms usually have smaller ranges and their assemblages have higher beta diversity than their epigean counterparts. Phylogenetic and functional diversity is usually low in cave communities, leading to taxonomic and functional disharmony, with entire groups missing from the subterranean realm. The objective of this work is to compare range, beta diversity, phylogenetic and functional diversity, taxonomic and functional disharmony of epigean versus troglobiont spiders in the Iberian Peninsula.
The median extent of occurrence was found to be 33 times higher for epigean than for cave species. Beta diversity was significantly higher for troglobiont assemblages. Cave assemblages present lower phylogenetic and functional diversities than expected by chance. Taxonomic disharmony was noticeable, with many speciose families, namely Gnaphosidae, Salticidae and Lycosidae, absent in caves. Functional disharmony was equally high, with ambush hunters and sensing web weavers being absent in caves.
The small range and high beta diversity of troglobiont spiders in the Iberian Peninsula is typical of many cave-obligate organisms, caused by the fragmentation and isolation of cave systems and the low vagility and high habitat specialization of species. Caves were colonized mainly by pre-adapted lineages, with high proportions of eutroglophile species. Some families no longer occur in surface habitats, possibly since the last glaciations, and currently are restricted to caves in the region. Few hunting strategies and web types are efficient in caves and these dominate among the troglobiont species.
As troglobiont communities are of low alpha diversity, with low functional redundancy, have narrow ranges, present high levels of population fragmentation and are taxonomically unique, they should present higher proportions of imperilled species than epigean spiders in the Iberian Peninsula. Some species are probably endangered and require urgent conservation measures.


Coastal Caves, 2012,
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Mylroie, John E.

Coastal caves are, by definition, caves that form along the coast as a result of the interaction of terrestrial and marine processes. Sea level can fluctuate, both globally as well as locally, and therefore the site of coastal cave development changes through time. Coastal caves form for two main reasons. First, wave and salt attack on any rocky coast can excavate simple hollows and chambers, called sea caves or littoral caves, in a variety of rock materials. Second, on limestone coasts, the dissolution of the rock by the mixing of freshwater and seawater can create complex cave systems called flank margin caves. Blue holes also form in limestone coastal regions from a variety of processes. Safe cave exploration in any environment requires training and preparation; while flank margin caves are relatively safe, the exploration of sea caves and blue holes can be extremely dangerous, even for those with years of experience.


A large Cervidae Holocene accumulation in Eastern Brazil: an example of extreme taphonomical control in a cave environment, 2012,
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Hubbe Alex, Auler Augusto S.

A remarkable cervid bone accumulation occurs at a single passage (named Cervid Passage; CP) at Lapa Nova, a maze cave in eastern Brazil. CP lies away from cave entrances, is a typical pitfall passage and contains bone remains of at least 121 cervids, besides few bats, peccaries and rodents remains. There is no evidence of water (or sediment) flow at the site and in general bones lack post depositional alterations and display anatomical proximity, suggesting that the majority of the remains found inside CP (mainly cervids) are due to animals that after entering the cave got trapped in the site. Observations suggest that two entrances could have provided access to cervids (and the few other animals, besides bats), either by falling inside the cave or by entering by their own free will. Once inside the cave, the maze pattern would make route finding difficult, and of all passage intersections, only the one leading to CP would result in a non-return situation, starving the animal to death. Radiocarbon dates suggest that animal entrapment occurred during at least 5 thousand years, during the Holocene. The reasons why mainly cervids were found are unknown but they are probably related to the biology of this group coupled with the fact that caves provide several specific taphonomic processes that may account for a strong bias in bone accumulation. Indeed, the frequent occurrence of Cervidae in both the fossil and sub-fossil record in Brazilian caves may be related to an overall high faunal abundance or may suggest that these animals were especially prone to enter caves, perhaps in search of nutrients (as cave saltpetre) or water.


Modelling hydrostratigraphy and groundwater flow of a fractured and karst aquifer in a Mediterranean basin (Salento peninsula, southeastern Italy), 2012,
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Giudici M. , Margiotta S. , Mazzone F. , Negri S. , Vassena C.

The control exerted by the hydrostratigraphic structure on aquifer recharge, groundwater flow and discharge along the coastal areas of a Mediterranean basin (Salento peninsula, about 5,000 km2 wide, southern Italy) is assessed through the development and application of a groundwater flow model based on the reconstruction of the hydrostratigraphic architecture at the regional scale. The hydrostratigraphic model, obtained by processing surface and subsurface data, is applied to map the top of the main aquifer, which is hosted in the deep hydrostratigraphic unit corresponding to Cretaceous and Oligocene limestones with complex geometrical relationships with the sea. It is also used to estimate the aquifer recharge, which occurs by percolation through overlying younger sediments with low permeability. These data are completed with information about the soil use to estimate water abstraction for irrigation and with literature data to estimate the water abstraction for drinking and industrial purposes. The above-sketched conceptual model is the basis for a finite difference groundwater 2D pseudo-stationary flow model, which assumes the following fundamental approximations: the fractured and karst limestone hydrostratigraphic unit can be approximated, at the model scale, as a continuous medium for which the discrete Darcy’s law is valid; the transition zone between salt and fresh water is so small with respect to the grid spacing that the Ghyben–Herzberg’s approximation for a sharp interface can be applied. Along the coastline different boundary conditions are assigned if the top of the limestone hydrostratigraphic unit lies either above the sea level (the aquifer has a free surface and fresh water is drained), or below the sea level (the aquifer is under pressure and the contact with sea occurs off-shore). The groundwater flow model correctly predicts the areas where the aquifer is fully saturated with salt water.


Hypogene Point Karstification along Wadi Sirhan Graben (Jordan): A Sign of Oilfield Degassing? , 2012,
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Almalabeh Ahmad, Kempe Stephan

Jordan is a country with a large area of limestone. Nevertheless, only a few limestone caves are known. Here we report about two caves along Wwadi Sirhan Graben of Jordan that appear to have formed by stoping upward of collapsed deep-seated hypogene cavities along breccia pipes. The first one, Uwaiyed Cave, is a small breakdown-dominated chamber in basalt of the Naslet Al-Dhirwa volcano; the second, Beer Al-Malabeh, is a large, bell-shaped sinkhole that has geologically recently opened up to the surface. Wwe discuss the possible processes that led to their formation. The review of the existing stratigraphy as obtained by oil well drilling suggests that no salt layers occur below the caves. Gypsum layers seem to be limited to 4  m in thickness, probably not enough to form the observed features. The remaining process is dissolution caused by ascending gas (H2S or CH4) -rich waters from the underlying oil and oil-shale fields. Wwhen such solutions reach the water table, bacterial oxidation may create enough dissolutional power to form localized and large cavities. Their collapse could lead to the observed collapse structures and would explain the paucity of other cave structures throughout southeastern Jordan.


Electrical resistivity surveys of anthropogenic karst phenomena, southeastern New Mexico, 2012,
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Land L. , Veni G.

A small but significant number of sinkholes and other karst phenomena in southeastern New Mexico are of human origin and are often associated with solution mining of salt beds in the shallow subsurface. In 2008 two brine wells in a sparsely populated area of northern Eddy County, New Mexico, abruptly collapsed as a result of solution mining operations. The well operators had been injecting fresh water into underlying salt beds and pumping out brine for use as oil field drilling fluid. A third brine well within the city limits of Carlsbad, New Mexico, has been shut down to forestall possible sinkhole development in this more densely populated area. Electrical resistivity surveys conducted over the site of the brine well confirm the presence of a large, brine-filled cavity beneath the we0llhead. Laterally extensive zones of low resistivity beneath the well site represent either open cavities and conduits caused by solution mining or highly fractured and/or brecciated, brine-saturated intervals that may have formed by sagging and collapse into underlying cavities. The data also indicate that significant upward stoping has occurred into overlying strata.


Morphology of Speleothems in Primary (Lava) and Secondary Caves, 2012,
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Kempe, S.

Caves are defined as natural underground cavities (potentially) accessible by humans. They are decorated by various forms of speleothems that have always fascinated the human explorer. Caves are divided into primary and secondary caves, that is formed with, or long after the deposition of the rocks containing them. The largest group of primary caves is that formed by flowing lava, whereas the largest group of secondary caves is that formed in limestone. Both display specific forms of speleothems. Although primary caves can contain primary speleothems composed of the rock that formed the cave as wellas secondary speleothems formed by later deposition of minerals, secondary caves in contrast contain only secondary mineral speleothems. Rock- and mineral-composed speleothems commonly have similar morphology, determined by gravity, that is, stalactites and stalagmites. However, both primary and secondary speleothems also display forms that are specific to them. Rock speleothems are composed of basalt, whereas secondary speleothems can be composed of over 250different minerals. In this chapter, we explore differences and similarities of primary rock- and secondary mineral-speleothems and discuss processes of their formation.


Water supply spring zone Novljanska Zrnovnica (Croatia) new quantities of drinking water in the conditions of salt water intrusion, 2012,
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Biondić, R. , Biondić, B. , Measki H.

This paper presents an approach for solving the problem of exploitation of freshwater in the coastal karst aquifer during summer dry periods in the conditions of potential salt water intrusion. The approach is presented on the example of spring zone Novljanska Zrnovnica, situated in the northern part of Croatian Adriatic coastal region. The spring zone is used for water supply (about 250 l/s) of an important tourist area of Crikvenica and Novi Vinodolski. After unsuccessful attempts of physical separation of freshwater system from the sea influence, by construction of grout curtain, hydrogeological studies have focused on the possibility of groundwater capturing in the hinterland of discharge zone, outside of the zone of periodical salinity. The final research results with the exploitation well in the spring hinterland can serve as a model for research and exploitation of drinking water in natural conditions of unstable freshwater-saltwater interface in similar natural conditions.


Water supply spring zone Novljanska rnovnica (Croatia) new quantities of drinking water in the conditions of salt water intrusion, 2012,
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Biondić, Ranko, Biondić, Boidar, Meaki Hrvoje

This paper presents an approach for solving the problem of exploitation of freshwater in the coastal karst aquifer during summer dry periods in the conditions of potential salt water intrusion. The approach is presented on the example of spring zone Novljanska rnovnica, situated in the northern part of Croatian Adriatic coastal region. The spring zone is used for water supply (about 250 l/s) of an important tourist area of Crikvenica and Novi Vinodolski. After unsuccessful attempts of physical separation of freshwater system from the sea influence, by construction of grout curtain, hydrogeological studies have focused on the possibility of groundwater capturing in the hinterland of discharge zone, outside of the zone of periodical salinity. The final research results with the exploitation well in the spring hinterland can serve as a model for research and exploitation of drinking water in natural conditions of unstable freshwater-saltwater interface in similar natural conditions.

 

Karst in deserts, 2013,
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Webb J. A. , White S.

Hot deserts are characterized by low mean annual rainfall (o250 mm, o1000) and very high evapotranspiration, so karst processes are inhibited. However, karst features are abundant and well developed in many deserts around the world. Salt caves occur predominantly in this environment and develop rapidly despite the arid climate, because they are formed mainly by rare, but intense, rain events. Deserts also preserve, relatively unaltered, gypsum and carbonate karst that formed in prior wetter climates or by hypogene processes. Carbonate karst, which is the most common karst in hot deserts, is modified very slowly by desert processes, including dissolution and salt crystallization, which fragments bedrock and speleothems


Surface morphology of gypsum karst, 2013,
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Gutierrez F. , Cooper A. H.

This chapter reviews gypsum karst landforms with special emphasis on the features that are distinctive from those of carbonate karst. The differences between gypsum and carbonate karst landscapes are largely related to the higher solubility of the gypsum, its lower mechanical strength, more ductile rheology, and the higher extent of interstratal dissolution processes, commonly associated with the presence of other salts at depth. The landforms reviewed include subsidence morphostructures caused by interstratal karstification (large depressions, monoclines, folds, basins and domes, karst grabens, and breccia pipes), fluvial terraces affected by synsedimentary subsidence, sinkholes, poljes, karren, tumuli, and polygons, as well as landslides controlled by gypsum dissolution


Salt Karst, 2013,
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Frumkin, A.

Halite is the most soluble common mineral. Salt karst is concerned with extremely soluble and erodible rock-salt geomorphology, which demonstrates a dynamic end member to karst processes. Salt outcrops are rare, due to the high solubility, and common total dissolution underground, but subsurface salt is common, and commonly associated with environmental problems. These are associated with salt hazards, generally due to anthropogenic modification of hydrological systems, causing aggressive water to attack salt rock. Most salt outcrops appear under desert conditions, where the salt mass escapes total dissolution. In such outcrops, runoff produces well-developed karst terrains, with features including karren, sinkholes, and vadose caves. Existing salt relief is probably not older than Pliocene, but the known well-developed


Sources of water aggressiveness the driving force of karstification, 2013,
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Auler, A. S.

Chemically aggressive water is needed in order to promote bedrock dissolution and karstification. Aggressiveness is generated through a number of processes that include acids from the atmosphere and soil zone (epigenic acids) and from deep-seated mechanisms (hypogenic acids). Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide are the main players, although additional acidity may be provided by processes that involve mixing of solutions with different degrees of saturation, temperature effects, and microbiological agents. Rainfall will generally have an acid pH due to natural CO2 and mostly anthropogenic gases such as H2S in the atmosphere. The soil zone will further boost acidity levels due to abundant CO2 production in the root and plant horizons. Although the buffering capacity of the carbonate will cause groundwater to quickly achieve saturation, mixing corrosion effects may rejuvenate aggressiveness in situations where waters of different chemistry are in contact. Bacterially mediated processes will both enhance and mediate processes of acid generation and dissolution. Mixing zones between fresh and salt water and between oxygen-rich groundwater (mostly epigenic) and rising thermal water will be important zones where increased levels of acidity will accelerate cave formation. The degree and effectiveness of aggressiveness will depend on a number of variables, such as the geological setting, solubility of the rock, position of the bedrock, and climate, sometimes operating together at various scales and strengths.


Morphology of Speleothems in Primary (Lava-) and Secondary Caves, 2013,
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Kempe, S.

 

Caves are defined as natural underground cavities (potentially) accessible by humans. They are decorated by various forms of speleothems that have always fascinated the human explorer. Caves are divided into primary and secondary caves, that is, formed with, or long after the deposition of the rocks containing them. The largest group of primary caves is that formed by flowing lava, whereas the largest group of secondary caves is that formed in limestone. Both display specific forms of speleothems. Although primary caves can contain primary speleothems composed of the rock that formed the cave as well as secondary speleothems formed by later deposition of minerals, secondary caves in contrast contain only secondary mineral speleothems. Rock- and mineral-composed speleothems commonly have similar morphology, determined by gravity, that is, stalactites and stalagmites. However, both primary and secondary speleothems also display forms that are specific to them. Rock speleothems are composed of basalt, whereas secondary speleothems can be composed of over 250 different minerals.

In this chapter, we explore differences and similarities of primary rock- and secondary mineral-speleothems and discuss processes of their formation.


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