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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That karst valley is 1. valleys in karst are normally distinctive due to the lack of integrated surface drainage. most are either blind (due to being closed where the drainage sinks underground), headless or pocket (where a river emerges from a spring) or dry (where surface flow has been lost due to underground capture). the exception is the allogenic valley, where a river completely traverses a karst, normally because underground conduits at or below valley floor level are immature. fine examples of allogenic karst valleys are dove dale in the peak district and france's tarn gorge [9]. 2. elongated solution valley in limestone [20]. 3. valley produced by collapse of a cavern roof [10]. synonyms: (french.) vallee karstique; (german.) karsttal, karstgabe; (greek.) karstiki kilas; (italian.) valle carsica; (russian.) karstovaja dolina; (spanish.) valle karstico; (turkish.) karst vadisi; (yugoslavian.) krska (kraska) dolina.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Search in KarstBase

Your search for holocene (Keyword) returned 252 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 241 to 252 of 252
Late Holocene widening of karst voids by marine processes in partially submerged coastal caves (Northeastern Adriatic Sea)., 2012, Furlani Stefano, Cucchi Franco, Biolchi Sara

 

The coastal scenery of the Northeastern Adriatic sea is widely interested by caves and related coastal features, which are developed in correspondence of geological weaknesses of sea cliffs. We present the preliminary surveying of five partially submerged coastal caves cut in limestone cliffs, relating the dissolutionally widened vadose karst voids and the present- day forms. The analysis pointed out two well-defined morphological zones inside the caves. The boundary between the zones roughly coincides with the mean sea level. The submerged zone is mainly affected by abrasion processes on the bottom and the lateral walls, while the emerged zone is interested by karst processes and collapse of blocks from the roof. Their effects produce a bell-shaped cross-section, in which the submerged part of the caves is significantly larger than the emerged one. Considering the tectonic behaviour of the area inferred from literature the caves were flooded about 6 ka BP, when marine processes started to shape their submerged part. Our results allowed, in particular, to evaluate processes shaping the partially submerged coastal caves in the Northeastern Adriatic Sea after the marine transgression. Considering the very preliminary surveyed data, we suggest that the early phases of cave evolution was mainly dissolutionally-controlled and produced the widening of pre-existing joints or faults, as demonstrated by the occurrence of karst features in the upper part of the caves. Recent evolution is instead marine-controlled and the widening is mainly due to the overlapping of marine processes effects on karst voids, since they are closely related to the Late Holocene sea level rise


Formation and development of a karstic system below and above sea level in Messinian Mani Peninsula (S. Greece), 2012, Papadopoulou Vrynioti Kyriaki, Kampolis Isidoros

At the western shores of Messinian Mani Peninsula in South Greece, the composite, integrated karstic system of ‘‘Selinitsa’’ cave and ‘‘Drakos’’ underground river is developed above and below sea-level respectively, in the medium-bedded limestones of the Mani geotectonic unit. The formation and the development of these caves started, most likely, during Middle Pleistocene. Initially, these caves were terrestrial and developed separately. They were connected probably during Holocene through a fi ssure. The development of this united karstic system is controlled by tectonics. ‘‘Selinitsa’’ cave is older than ‘‘Drakos’’. The sequential base levels of karstifi cation demonstrate the continuous sea-level changes during Pleistocene and Holocene, induced by the relative tectonic activity. This united karstic system is characterized by ‘incomplete linkage’ to the sea.


Isotopic composition of atmospheric precipitation and karstic springs of the north-west slope of the Crimean Mountains, 2012, Dublyansky Y. V. , Klimchouk . B. , Amelichev G. N. , Tokarev S. V. , Sptl C

 

Atmospheric precipitation was sampled for isotopic analyses according to GNIP protocol at two stations in Crimea,
Ukraine: Simferopol (24 months) and Chatyrdag (15 months). In addition, several karstic springs and one well tapping deep karstic aquifer were sampled. The δD vs. δ18O relationship is only slightly differs from global Meteoric Water Line. Variable degrees of correlation with the air temperature and the precipitation amount suggest that the isotopic composition of precipitation is affected by several processes (e.g., air temperature and supply of moisture from different sources). Interestingly, drastically different makeups of precipitation were observed simultaneously at two stations located only 23 km apart. Waters in seven karstic springs discharging at Dolgorukovsky massif (2), Chatirdag (1), Baidarsky basin (3), and Mangup-kale (1) have isotopic compositions that follow local meteoric water line but are lighter than weighted annual mean values for their respective catchment areas. Isotopic composition of the underground stream in Krasnaya (Red) cave is nearly constant and thus, decoupled from changes in both the isotopic composition of atmospheric precipitation in the recharge area and the flow regime (flood or base flow). This suggests a strong buffering and homogenizing role of the soil cover and the epikarst zone, as well as the predominant role of winter recharge on these karst massifs. Still lighter isotopic composition of deep karstic water tapped by a borehole is tentatively explained by old, pre-Holocene age of this water.

Isotopic composition of atmospheric precipitation and karstic springs of the north-west slope of the Crimean Mountains, 2012, Dublyansky Y. V. , Klimchouk . B. , Amelichev G. N. , Tokarev S. V. , Spotl, C.

Atmospheric precipitation was sampled for isotopic analyses according to GNIP protocol at two stations in Crimea, Ukraine: Simferopol (24 months) and Chatyrdag (15 months). In addition, several karstic springs and one well tapping deep karstic aquifer were sampled. The δD vs. δ18O relationship is only slightly differs from global Meteoric Water Line. Variable degrees of correlation with the air temperature and the precipitation amount suggest that the isotopic composition of precipitation is affected by several processes (e.g., air temperature and supply of moisture from different sources). Interestingly, drastically different makeups of precipitation were observed simultaneously at two stations located only 23 km apart. Waters in seven karstic springs discharging at Dolgorukovsky massif (2), Chatirdag (1), Baidarsky basin (3), and Mangup-kale (1) have isotopic compositions that follow local meteoric water line but are lighter than weighted annual mean values for their respective catchment areas. Isotopic composition of the underground stream in Krasnaya (Red) cave is nearly constant and thus, decoupled from changes in both the isotopic composition of atmospheric precipitation in the recharge area and the flow regime (flood or base flow). This suggests a strong buffering and homogenizing role of the soil cover and the epikarst zone, as well as the predominant role of winter recharge on these karst massifs. Still lighter isotopic composition of deep karstic water tapped by a borehole is tentatively explained by old, pre-Holocene age of this water


Emine-Bair-Khosar Cave in the Crimea, a huge bone accumulation of Late Pleistocene fauna, 2013, Ridush . , Stefaniak K. , Socha P. , Proskurnyak Y. , Marciszak A. , Vremir M. , Nadachowski A.

The Crimean Mountains are well known from the abundance of Middle and Late Palaeolithic sites and palaeontological remains recovered from cultural layers in caves and rockshelters. The fossil-bearing deposits of Emine-Bair-Khosar Cave, located at the elevation of 1000 m on the Chatyrdag Plateau, yielded a very diverse and numerous vertebrate remains that widen the knowledge of Late Pleistocene faunal diversity in the Crimea. The assemblage comprised in total almost 50 species of vertebrates. Studies included geomorphological, geological and stratigraphic analyses as well AMS 14C dating. Faunal remains were present in ten palaeontological sites. The main bone accumulation (section Ba2) was deposited during Middle Valdai or Vytachiv (MIS 3) interstadial, and including a long time gap, to the end of the Pleistocene and the Holocene. Comparison of the Emine-Bair-Khosar fauna with vertebrate faunas of other Crimean sites showed a remarkable stability in the faunal composition and frequency during the whole MIS 3 interstadial. Steppe and other open-country species dominated in the compared assemblages, while boreal-tundra species were far less numerous. Inhabitants of forests, including red deer and some rodents, were stable members of fossil assemblages.


Denudation and Erosion Rates in Karst, 2013, Gunn, J.

In many lithologies erosion (removal of material) and denudation (lowering of the land surface) are directly related butthis is not the case in karst where the majority of erosion is subsurface and only contributes to denudation over geological time. Dissolution is the dominant agent of both denudation and erosion although mechanical weathering of karst rock by clasts brought in by allogenic streams may contribute to the enlargement of cave passages. Most published ‘denudation’rates are actually corrosion rates and many were based on at most a few years of spot measurements at a spring or at a catchment outlet. Hence, considerable caution is necessary in interpreting the results. Cosmogenic nuclides could provide loner-term denudation estimates but have only rarely been applied to karst. Theoretical equations allow prediction of maximum erosion rates from runoff (water surplus), temperature, and carbon dioxide concentrations but field measurements indicate that erosion rarely operates at the maximal rate. Erosion rates vary spatially, with dolines a clear focus, and vertically, with most dissolution contributing to development of the epikarst rather than direct lowering of the land surface. Human activities, and particularly limestone quarrying, are potent erosive forces and in some areas more limestone was removed by quarrying in the twentieth century than by corrosion over the Holocene. Quarrying is also a direct agent of denudation, locally lowering land surface by tens or hundreds of meters


Late Quaternary Caviomorph Rodents (Rodentia: Hystricognathi) from Ceara State, Northern Brazil, 2013, De Oliviera P. V. , Ribeiro A. M. , Kerber L. , Lessa G. , Viana M. S.

In this paper we report the first remains of caviomorph rodents from the karst of the Parque Nacional de Ubajara, Ceara´ State, northeastern Brazil, collected with precise stratigraphic and radiometric control. The material is derived from levels with thermoluminescence dating of about 8,000 years BP, corresponding to the early Holocene. In these levels, we found remains of Kerodon rupestris Wied, 1820, cf. Dasyprocta Illiger, 1811 and Thrichomys Trouessart, 1880. The data here reported contribute to the knowledge of Brazilian Quaternary rodents and show the potential of the studied area for fossils.


The Grosmont: the worlds largest unconventional oil reservoir hosted in polyphase-polygenetic karst, 2013, Machel Hans G. , Borrero Mary Luz, Dembicki Eugene, Huebscher Harald4

The Upper Devonian Grosmont platform in Alberta, Canada, is the world’s largest heavy oil reservoir hosted in carbonates, with 400-500 billion barrels of IOIP at an average depth of about 250 – 400 m. Advanced thermal recovery technologies, such as SAGD and electrical in-situ retorting, much higher world market prices for oil and certain political pressures have led to a flurry of activity in the Grosmont since 2006.
The sedimentary stratigraphy of the Grosmont reservoir consists of six stacked car-bonate units interbedded with marls and some evaporites. The latter two originally acted as aquitards during diagenesis but are breached or missing in parts of the area today. Dolomitization by density-driven reflux was the first pervasive diagenetic pro-cess. A dense fracture network was created in three or four phases. Most fractures probably originated from collapse following subsurface salt dissolution and/or from Laramide tectonics far to the west, whereby pulsed crustal loading in the fold-and-thrust belt created a dynamic forebulge in the Grosmont region via multiple pulses of basin-wide crustal flexing, each followed by relaxation. The fracture network probably was reactivated and/or expanded by glacial loading and post-glacial isostatic rebound in the Pleistocene and Holocene, respectively.
The region experienced three or four prolonged periods of epigene karstification, alt-hough there is tangible evidence for only two of them in the Grosmont platform. The first of these episodes was a ‘warm epigene karstification’ during the Jurassic - Creta-ceous, and the second was/is a ‘cold epigene karstification’ that started sometime in the Cenozoic and is continuing to this day. In addition, there is circumstantial evidence for hypogene ‘karstification’ (= dissolution) throughout much of the geologic history of the Grosmont since the Late Devonian. Karstification was accompanied and/or by fol-lowed by extensive hydrocarbon biodegradation.


Karstification as a Predisposing Factor of Seismically Triggered Landslides: Case Study from the Crimean Mountains (Ukraine): Introduction to the Problem, 2013, Hradeck J. , Pnek T. , ilhn K. , Smolkov V.

Deep-seated gravitational deformations are significant denudational agents of rock slopes at the margins of karstified plateaus of the Crimean Mountains (CM). The CM evolved during Mesozoic–Cenozoic times as a response to the deformation between the Black Sea domain and East-European platform. The southwestern part of the area is characterized by steep, up to 1000-m-high coastal escarpments consisting of Late Jurassic limestones overlying tuff layers and weak Late Triassic flysch with sporadic small intrusions of Middle Jurassic diorites, gabbros and granites. Steep rock slopes contrast with elevated, highly karstified plateaus situated approximately 500–1300 m a.s.l. The aim of this article is to show long-term evolution of a giant rock slope failure close to the Black Sea coast in the southwestern tip of the CM near Foros Town. The failure evolved in highly anisotropic limestones overlying plastic flysch layers where the main head scarp follows a strike-slip fault. The Foros slope failure is an excellent demonstration of the significance of a preparatory stage in the evolution of large deep-seated slope deformations. Inherited and undisturbed horizontal slickensides on the sub-vertical, inactive fault surface serve as good evidence of significant extensional movement of the surface blocks away from the main headscarp. The studied deformation shows that in a relatively small area tensional (cutting) surfaces can be formed by a great variety of rock discontinuities such as the strike-slip fault, joints and steeply inclined bedding planes. The presence of well-developed, nowadays weathered, speleothems furthermore points to significant karstification that provided additional widening of spaces within rock mass. Gravitational movement destroyed and unroofed several cave systems originally presented at the former edge of a karst plateau. Our findings reveal that large rock slope failures can be added to the factors contributing to the evolution of unroofed caves. Although triggering factors of the activation of individual parts of slope deformations can be determined only hypothetically, lessons learned from widespread landslide activity during and after the 1927 Yalta earthquake and rainfall-driven landslides in the vicinity of Feodosia Town make us consider both seismic loading of slopes and high pore-pressures during heavy winter rainfalls or rapid spring snowmelt to be significant factors. Beside seismic activity, intensive Late Holocene slope processes can be attributed to intensive human activity.

 


BAHAMIAN CAVES AND BLUE HOLES: EXQUISITELY PRESERVED FOSSIL ASSEMBLAGES AND TAPHONOMIC INFLUENCES, 2014, Albury N. A. , Mylroie J. E.

In The Bahamas, caves and blue holes provide clues to the geologic and climatic history of archipelago but are now emerging as windows into the ecological and cultural past of islands. Cave environments in The Bahamas alternate cyclically between vadose and phreatic conditions with sea-level change, thereby providing unique but ephemeral fossil capture and preservation conditions.

A diverse assemblage of fossil plants and animals from Sawmill Sink, an inland blue hole on Abaco Island in the northern Bahamas, has revealed a prehistoric terrestrial ecosystem with exquisitely preserved fossil assemblages that result from an unusual depositional setting. The entrance is situated in the pine forest and opens into a flooded collapse chamber that intersects horizontal conduits at depths to 54 meters. The deepest passages are filled with sea water up to an anoxic mixing zone at depths of 14 to 9 meters and into the upper surface fresh-water layer. The collapse chamber is partially filled with a large talus pile that coincides with an anoxic halocline and direct sunlight for much of the day.

During glacioeustatic sea-level lowstands in the late Pleistocene, Sawmill Sink was a dry cave, providing roosting sites for bats and owls. Accumulations of bones deposited in depths of 25 to 30 meters were subsequently preserved by sea-level rise in the Holocene. The owl roost deposits are dominated by birds but also include numerous small vertebrate species that were actively transported by owls to the roost sites.

As sea levels rose in the Holocene, Sawmill Sink became a traditional passive pitfall trap. Significant quantities of surface derived organic material collected on the upper regions of the talus at the halocline where decaying plant material produced a dense layer of peat within an anoxic mixing zone enriched with hydrogen sulfide. Vertebrate species that drowned were entombed in the peat, where conditions inhibited large scavengers, microbial decomposition, and mechanical disarticulation, contributing to the superb preserva­tion of the fossil assemblage in the upper regions of the talus.


Rockmagnetic and palaeomagnetic studies of unconsolidated sediments of Bukovynka Cave ( Chernivtsi region, Ukraine), 2014, Bondar K. , Ridush B.

Rockmagnetic, palaeomagnetic, and paleontological studies of loamy non-consolidated sediments of the Bukovynka Cave (Chernivtsi region, Ukraine) have been carried out. The sections include three main types of deposits: 1 – fluvial deposits containing travertine grus derived from the karst massif, 2 – fluvial deposits derived from temporary waterflows from outside the cave, 3 – aeolian deposits. Deposits of type 2 and 3 were examined in Sections 1 and 2 in the Trapeznyi Chamber. Their low field magnetic susceptibility (χ) reflects climatic conditions in the Late Pleistocene. The layer with cave hyena bones has higher magnetic susceptibility and appeared to indicate warmer climate. Deposits of type 1 and 2 were investigated in the Section 3 in the Dry Chamber of the cave. Low-field magnetic susceptibility of fluvial deposits, derived from inside of the karst massif, is much higher than for deposits derived from outside the cave. Deposits in Section 3 sharply differ in χ, NRM intensity and Keonigsberger ratio. The fluvial strata of type 1 in Section 3, dated using paleontological remains as Holocene, contains the record of palaeosecular variations of the geomagnetic field. The Etrussia excursion dated 2.8 ka BP was found at 1 m depth in Section 3. The lowest layer has anomalous polarity.
 


Sagging and collapse sinkholes over hypogenic hydrothermal karst in а carbonate terrain, 2014, Frumkin A. , Zaidner Y. , Na'aman I. , Tsatskin A. , Porat N. , Vulfson L.

We show that clusters of karst sinkholes can occur on carbonate hypogene karst terrains. Unlike common doline karst of dissolution origin, the studied sinkholes form mainly by sagging and collapse. Thermal survey, OSL dating and morphologic analysis during quarrying and excavations are applied to study the sinkholes at the Ayyalon karst, Israel. The thermal survey shows the spatial pattern of rising warm water plumes, whose temperature is > 2 °C warmer than the surrounding aquifer water. These plumes dissolve the limestone, creating large voids and maze caves. Mass wasting forms surface sinkholes mainly by sagging and collapse. Both types of deformation often occur within the same depression. Lack of hydrologic connection between the surface and underground voids constrain drainage and promote rapid accumulation of colluvium, dust and pedogenic clays. These have filled the sinkholes up to their rim before the late Holocene. OSL dating constrains the rate of sediment accumulation within the sinkholes. The average filling rate (thickness divided by elapsed time) is ~ 47 mm ka− 1 for the last 53 ± 4 ka in Sinkhole 1, while in Sinkhole 2 (“Nesher Ramla karst depression”), the rate is ~ 61 mm ka− 1 from ~ 200 to 78 ka, and ~ 173 mm ka− 1 since ~ 78 ka. Between ~ 170 and 78 ka, Sinkhole 2 was intensively used by Middle Paleolithic hominins. The studied sinkholes may be considered as a type locality for hypogene sinkhole terrain on carbonate rocks.


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