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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That threshold saturation is saturation below which no flow occurs [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for stalactite (Keyword) returned 103 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 103
The origin of tubular lava stalactites and other related forms., 1998, Allred Kevin, Allred Carlene
Tubular lava stalactites are often found in lava tubes. Field observations, sample analysis, and comparative studies indicate that these are segregations extruded during cooling from partially crystallized lava al about 1,070; 1,000 C. Retrograde boiling (gas pressure) within the lava provides a mechanism to expel the interstitial liquid. In addition to tubular lava stalactites, a variety of other lava features can also result, such as lava helictites, lava coralloids, barnacle-like stretched lava, runners, runner channels, and some lava blisters and squeeze-ups.

'Hades''; A remarkable cave on Oldoinyo Lengai in the East African Rift Valley., 1998, Davies Gordon J.
Oldoinyo Lengai is the world's only active carbonatite volcano, situated in northern Tanzania within the Eastern Rift Valley, al 2.751 degrees S, 35.902 degrees E. It forms an isolated symmetrical cone at the southern end of Lake Natron, with a summit elevation of 2,890 m (9,480 ft). Periodic eruptions of ash and lava have been recorded since about 1880, and with increasing precision during this century since 1904. In 1990 a routine expedition to monitor activity levels at the summit led to the discovery of a remarkable cave located in the crater floor, filled with numerous long delicate pale yellow stalactites and stalagmites of unknown composition. Within 100 m there was considerable volcanic activity taking place, and black lava was spraying from a small cone at a height of some 10 m above the crater floor. Due to the regular emission of lava at the summit of Lengai it is unlikely that the cave could have survived intact for more than a few months at most. High internal temperatures and lack of safe access precluded any attempt at entry and sampling of the very unusual and attractive formations within the cave, but a good photographic record was obtained.

Drip flow variations under a stalactite of the Pere Noel cave (Belgium). Evidence of seasonal variations and air pressure constraints., 1998, Genty D. , Deflandre G.

Drip flow variations under a stalactite of the Pere Noel cave (Belgium). Evidence of seasonal variations and air pressure constraints, 1998, Genty D, Deflandre G,
The study of drip rate and seepage water electrical conductivity (hereafter called conductivity) under one stalactite in the Pere Noel cave (Belgium), with data produced from an automatic station since 1991, demonstrates several previously unobserved features: (1) measurement of drop volume shows that, for 94% of the time series, drop volume is constant (= 0.14 ml), but when discharge exceeds 48.2 drips min(-1), drop volume decreases, probably because of secondary drop formation; (2) the interannual drip rate variation is correlated to the annual water excess and its correlant, rainfall (R-2 = 0.98; exponential model); this result introduces a new improvement in the understanding of the previously investigated relationships between stalagmite annual laminae thickness and mean annual rainfall; (3) the drip rate shows a well marked seasonality: it increases abruptly in late fall or early winter and decreases slowly during spring, summer and fall. Increased discharge is accompanied by an increase in conductivity, which suggests that the flushed water is more mineralized and was stored in the karst aquifer for several months; (4) superimposed on these seasonal variations, there are two kinds of flow regimes which are driven by the atmospheric pressure: (i) a 'wiggles regime', whose duration is 1-7 days in length and which is inversely proportional to the air pressure wiggles; it is explained by either a ''shut-off faucet'' process due to the rock formation stress, or to a change in the two-phases flow component proportions (air/water); (ii) an 'unstable regime' characterized by abrupt switches (<2 h) or oscillations with variable periodicities, from a few minutes to a few hours. These occur when the drip rate reaches a threshold (i.e. 240 drops 10 min(-1)); the chaotic behaviour of this phenomenon is discussed. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Cueva de Villa Luz, Tabasco, Mexico: Reconnaissance Study of an Active Sulfur Spring Cave and Ecosystem, 1999, Hose, L. D. , Pisarowicz, J. A.
Cueva de Villa Luz (a.k.a. Cueva de las Sardinas) in Tabasco, Mexico, is a stream cave with over a dozen H2S-rich springs rising from the floor. Oxidation of the H2S in the stream results in abundant, suspended elemental sulfur in the stream, which is white and nearly opaque. Hydrogen sulfide concentrations in the cave atmosphere fluctuate rapidly and often exceed U.S. government tolerance levels. Pulses of elevated carbon monoxide and depleted oxygen levels also occasionally enter the cave. Active speleogenesis occurs in this cave, which is forming in a small block of Lower Cretaceous limestone adjacent to a fault. Atmospheric hydrogen sulfide combines with oxygen and water to form sulfuric acid, probably through both biotic and abiotic reactions. The sulfuric acid dissolves the limestone bedrock and forms gypsum, which is readily removed by active stream flow. In addition, carbon dioxide from the reaction as well as the spring water and cave atmosphere combines with water. The resultant carbonic acid also dissolves the limestone bedrock. A robust and diverse ecosystem thrives within the cave. Abundant, chemoautotrophic microbial colonies are ubiquitous and apparently act as the primary producers to the caves ecosystem. Microbial veils resembling soda straw stalactites, draperies, and u-loops suspended from the ceiling and walls of the cave produce drops of sulfuric acid with pH values of <0.5-3.0 0.1. Copious macroscopic invertebrates, particularly midges and spiders, eat the microbes or the organisms that graze on the microbes. A remarkably dense population of fish, Poecilia mexicana, fill most of the stream. The fish mostly eat bacteria and midges. Participants in an ancient, indigenous Zoque ceremony annually harvest the fish in the spring to provide food during the dry season.

Rupture de speleothemes par fluage d'un remplissage endokarstique. L'exemple de la grotte de Ribiere (Bouches-du-Rhone), 1999, Gilli{ Eric,
Natural caves could be good recorders for paleoearthquakes if it was possible to know precisely the underground damage caused by a seismic event. The researched effects are breakings of speleothems. Therefore, several non-coseismic mechanisms may be involved. A recent study of the Ribiere cave shows that the creeping of a karstic filling explains most of the cave breakings that are attributed to earthquakes.ResumeLes cavites karstiques pourraient etre des enregistreurs de paleoseismes, sous reserve de connaitre de facon precise l'impact d'une secousse sismique sur les grottes. Les effets recherches sont essentiellement des cassures de stalactites et stalagmites, plusieurs mecanismes autres que cosismiques pouvant cependant etre invoques pour expliquer ces ruptures. Or, de recentes observations sur la grotte de Ribiere montrent qu'un fluage de sediment endokarstique peut expliquer la plupart des ruptures de concretions attribuees a des seismes

Palaeoclimatic interpretation of stable isotope data from Holocene speleothems of the Waitomo district, North Island, New Zealand, 1999, Williams P. W. , Marshall A. , Ford D. C. , Jenkinson A. V. ,
One straw stalactite and three stalagmites from the Waitomo district of North Island, New Zealand, were examined for stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon with a view to interpreting their palaeoclimate signal. Dating was by uranium series and AMS 14C for the stalagmites and by gamma-ray spectrometry for the straw. Records were thus established for about 100 years for the straw and 3.9, 10.1 and 10.2 ka for the stalagmites. The range of variability in d18Oc and d13Cc this century is about two-thirds of that experienced over the entire Holocene, and is most simply explained in terms of the oceanic source area of rain. Stable isotope variations in three stalagmites show some general similarities, but have significant differences in detail, which underlines the necessity to base palaeoclimatic interpretations on more than one speleothem record. The d18Oc of each stalagmite varies positively with temperature, indicating the dominance of the ocean source of evaporation in determining the isotopic composition of precipitation and hence speleothem calcite in the Holocene. This conclusion is contrary to that of other authors working in New Zealand, who identified a negative relationship between d18Oc and temperature, while examining time periods extending across the Last Glacial Maximum. It is concluded here that, whereas the ice volume effect dominates the large climatic shifts of glacial-interglacial amplitude, the oceanic source effect becomes more important during the period of relatively stable sea level during the Holocene. Results also indicate a late-Holocene altitudinal effect of 0.2{per thousand} d18Oc per 100 m and an associated temperature relationship of about 0.26{per thousand} per{degrees}C. The average of two records identifies the postglacial climatic optimum to lie in the interval from prior to 10 ka BP to 7.5 ka BP, when d18Oc values were up to 0.6{per thousand} less negative than present, implying an average annual mean temperature that was up to 2.3{degrees}C warmer. The average of three speleothem records for the last 3900 years reveals the coldest period of the Holocene to have occurred about 3 to 2 ka BP, when d18Oc values were typically 0.4{per thousand} more negative than present and average temperatures may have been 1.5{degrees}C cooler. Mean annual temperature variability of about 2{degrees}C was sometimes experienced in little more than 100 years

Speleothem fall (an example of a sudden stalactite collapse in Škocjanske Jame), 1999, Kranjc, Andrej

On March 2 or 3, 1999 a stalactite fell from the roof in Velika Dvorana (Tiha Jama, Škocjanske Jame). This was a cave shield or palette developed on the ceiling, 17 m above the floor. Stalactites up to 2 m long were hanging on the underside of the shield. The collapsed stalactite mass weighed about 2500 kg. On the floor it split into some large (up to 300 kg) and many smaller pieces. The author thinks that bulk fell off as it reached its critical weight. The speleothem type called "shield" is extremely fragile and not well fixed at its base. In the place where this shield developed there is a strong (up to one l/min) inflow of saturated water and it has been estimated up to 2,5 kg of flowstone/year could be deposited. In Škocjanske Jame active shield-like stalactites mostly have fallen from the roof in the places where they are fed by saturated water. However, in a human timescale such events are extremely rare.

Chemistry measurements of dripping water in Postojna Cave, 1999, Vokal Barbara, Obelić, Bogomil, Genty Dominique, Kobal Ivan

Environmental factors influencing speleothem formation such as air and water temperature as well as water properties at the surface and in the cave (pH, electrical conductivity, Ca2+, HCO3- and Mg2+ ion concentrations and drip rates) were measured during an entire year in order to follow seasonal variations. The influence of the thickness of cave roof on the water properties was also taken into consideration, and the difference between various cave water types (pool, stalactite drip waters and fast-drip waters) was followed. Monthly water samples were collected at three locations in the cave and also from the river Pivka and spring of MoËilnik. Rainwater samples were also collected and analyzed. From the results it was found that the temperature of cave waters is more or less constant during the year. Mean values of pH for all karst waters are 7.8 ± 0.2. There is a good correlation between the chemical parameters (Ca2+ and HCO3- ion concentrations and electric conductivity) and the different types of cave waters. The ratio Mg/Ca concentrations and the saturation index were determined, too.

Sand speleothems: an Australian example, 1999, Grimes, K. G.

Sand speleothems have formed in sea caves at Loch Ard Gorge, Victoria, Australia, by the localised precipitation of calcium carbonate in loose sand that fills the caves. Calcite-saturated waters have entered the caves from the surrounding porous limestone, either dripping onto the sand, or seeping directly into it from the walls. Removal of the uncemented sand has exposed the cemented formations which have shapes analogous to those of conventional stalagmites, stalactites and shelves.

Mud speleothems in a west Victorian cave, 1999, Grimes, Ken G.

Describes mud stalactites in a cave at Drik Drik, western Vic. Suggests a possible mode of formation.

Extraordinary Features of Lechuguilla Cave, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, 2000, Davis, D. G.
Many unusual features are displayed in Lechuguilla Cave, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, U.S.A. Early speleogenic features related to a sulfuric acid origin of the cave include acid lake basins and subterranean karren fields. Speleogenetic deposits, also products of sulfuric acid origin, include gypsum glaciers and sulfur masses. Features related to convective atmospheric phenomena in the cave include corrosion residues, rimmed vents, and horizontal corrosion/deposition lines. Speleothems of nonstandard origin include rusticles, pool fingers, subaqueous helictites, common-ion-effect stalactites, chandeliers, long gypsum hair, hydromagnesite fronds, folia, and raft cones. Other unusual features discussed are silticles and splash rings.

Phnomnes de karstification observs dans une cavit artificielle du Rincn Blanco (Argentine), 2000, Barredo, Silviap.
The Rincon Blanco subbasin is located in San Juan Province, Argentina, between 69 15' west by 314' to 31 33' south and is characterised by a non marine continental infilling. During the Tertiary times it underwent compressional deformation folding it into a tight north-_south trending syncline. The whole sedimentary sequence is comprised of coarse-grained units interfingered with sandstones and shales. In particular, these latter were deposited in an alkaline lake and are composed of carbonate and organic rich strata. These characteristic lacustrine facies bear bituminous shales widely known as "Rincon Blanco oil slates". During the 1950' s and 1970' s, they were densely explored resulting in a number of galleries that presently are abandoned. They were cut in the bituminous rocks exposing west-east and southeast-northwest systems of minor faults and local fractures. These discontinuities permitted the inflow of meteoric waters through the overlying layers and into these artificial caves, thus resulting in carbonate cement dissolution, and, re-precipitation as tiny stalactites, stalagmites, thick travertine deposits in the floor with incipient microchannels accompanied by pools (gurs) with pearls and botroidal-like concretions. Several solutional speleothems are also found and correspond to ceiling and wall pockets and floor pits. This phenomena seemed to be related to acidic water coming from small discharges and flowing through the network of integrated tectonic openings to the innermost tunnel sections where humid air reaches saturation. Water trickling resulting from condensation produces erosional features and, together with dropping and occasional flows, the speleothems. Events of slight flow turbulence in some enlarged fractures are also inferred by the presence of ceiling and floor dissolutional features.

PIXE study of Cuban quaternary paleoclimate geological samples and speleothems, 2000, Montero M. E. , Aspiazu J. , Pajon J. , Miranda S. , Moreno E. ,
PIXE elemental analysis of sediments, speleothems, and other geological formations related to the karst of the Sierra de San Carlos is presented, The similarity of the elemental composition of the sediments studied, as well as the alluvial regime which created them, indicate their common origin at each location, The Sr/Ca concentration ratio of a stalactite indicates that the average atmospheric temperature 12,000 and 18,000 years B.P, was colder than that of 6000 years B.P, (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

Infiltration measured by the drip of stalactites, 2000, Sanz E. , Lopez J. J. ,
The hydrodynamic processes and mechanisms involved in rain infiltration and recharge in local areas of karst terrain can be identified and quantified by using measurements of the seepage of cave stalactites, Detailed measurements of the seepage of stalactites in seven caves located in an area close to the land surface, or the subcutaneous area of the karst, show a diversity of complex factors involved in infiltration: type of precipitation (rain or snow), air temperature, soil type and thickness, etc., which give rise to larger or smaller variations of flow in the espeleothem hydrographs, In some cases, no explanation can be found for the response of stalactites to rainfall, while in others there is a relationship between outer atmospheric parameters and the recharge represented by the stalactite drip. Romperopas Cave (Spain) has both a rapid and a basic flow, with hydrograph recessions similar to those observed in other caves. Water seepage in this cave varies greatly both in space and in time. The infiltration in Altamira Cave (Spain) was calculated and a multiple regression was found between infiltration, rain and outside air temperature. In other cases, the balance of the water on the soil is responsible for the seepage, Thus, a precipitation runoff numerical model that simulated the stalactite hydrographs could be applied to the Baradla and Beke Caves (Hungary), The complex properties of the ground, which are required for other flow numerical models for the unsaturated zone, were not taken into consideration

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