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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That water-balance is an instrument designed to measure evaporation by gravimetry [16].?

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Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for rainfall (Keyword) returned 243 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 243
ELECTROMAGNETIC AND SEISMOACOUSTIC SIGNALS REVEALED IN KARST CAVES (CENTRAL ITALY), 1995, Bella F, Biagi Pf, Caputo M, Dellamonica G, Ermini A, Plastino W, Sgrigna V, Zilpimiani D,
Since 1988-89 equipment for detecting electric, magnetic and seismoacoustic signals has been running inside the Amare cave. The Amare cave is placed on the southern slope of the Gran Sasso chain, that is one of the largest karst areas of the Italian Apennines. In 1992, a similar equipment was installed inside the Cervo cave. This cave is located in another karst area of the Central Apennines, at about 50 km southwestwards of the Amare cave. In both these measurements sites, the signals are recorded every ten minutes in a digital form; the equipment is able to record signals, the frequency of which ranges from some hundred Hz to some hundred kHz. The data collected up to now seem to identify two different states that we call ''quiet'' and ''perturbed'' state. In the quiet state only electric and magnetic signals with the highest frequencies appear. These signals are connected with radio broadcastings and with the general lightnings activity of the Earth. A perturbed state is characterized by the sudden appearance of seismoacoustic signals coupled with electric and magnetic ones. This phenomenology is connected with local processes. Rainfall, atmospheric-pressure variations and some thermal effects are responsible for these local processes. A possible model is proposed to justify the observed phenomenology: micromovements of the limestone blocks that constitute the roof of the caves are invoked for the production of seismoacoustic signals. The electrification generated by these movements is invoked for the production of electric and magnetic signals

The last glacial/interglacial record of rodent remains from the Gigny karst sequence in the French Jura used for palaeoclimatic and palaeoecological reconstructions, 1995, Chaline J, Brunetlecomte P, Campy M,
A multidisciplinary approach has produced an exceptional chronological log of climatic patterns for the Upper Pleistocene sequence of Gigny Cave (Jura, France) covering the Pre-Eemian, Eemian Interglacial, Middle Glacial and Upper Pleniglacial, as well as a part of the Holocene. Multivariate analysis (correspondence and component analysis) of rodent associations from the sequence is used here to characterize the different climatic stages in terms of relative temperature, plant cover and moisture. Faunal analysis establishes: (1) positive and negative correlations among the variations of the different species; (2) the significance of axis 1 (component analysis) which, in terms of temperature, opposes cold environments with contrasted continental biotopes; (3a) the significance of axis 2 (component analysis), which reflects vegetation patterns ranging from open to closed habitats; (3b) the significance of axis 3 (component analysis), which expresses trends in moisture; (4) various correlations between faunal and climatic parameters (temperature, plant cover and moisture); (5) evaluation of faunal diversity (Shannon index ranging from 0.74 to 2.27) showing that diversity increases with temperature and the complexity of vegetation, but is not sensitive to moisture. Lastly, the comparison of multivariate methods with the weighted semi-quantitative Hokr method shows the complementarity of the two approaches, the first methods quantifying climatic parameters while the second seems to provide more precise evaluations of the main seasons of rainfall

TECTONIC AND PALEOCLIMATIC SIGNIFICANCE OF A PROMINENT UPPER PENNSYLVANIAN (VIRGILIAN STEPHANIAN) WEATHERING PROFILE, IOWA AND NEBRASKA, USA, 1995, Joeckel R. M. ,
A Virgilian (Stephanian) weathering profile up to 4 m deep, containing a paleosol (basal Rakes Creek paleosol) in the basal mudstone of the Rakes Creek Member and karstified marine sediments in the Ost, Kenosha, and Avoca members below, is restricted to southeastern Nebraska (specifically the Weeping Water Valley) and the Missouri River Valley bluffs of adjacent easternmost Iowa. This weathering profile, informally referred to as the Weeping Water weathering profile, disappears farther eastward into the shallow Forest City Basin in southwestern Iowa. Weeping Water weathering profile features are prominent in comparison to other Midcontinent Pennsylvanian subaerial exposure surfaces, indicating prolonged subaerial exposure, relatively high elevation, and a marked drop in water table along the Nemaha Uplift in southeastern Nebraska. Eastward, on the margin of the Forest City Basin, the basal Rakes Creek paleosol and underlying karst are thinner and relatively poorly developed; paleosol characteristics indicate formation on lower landscape positions. Comparative pedology, the contrasting of paleosol variability, morphology, and micromorphology between different paleosols in the same regional succession, provides a basis for interpreting the larger significance of the basal Rakes Creek paleosol. The stratigraphically older upper Lawrence and Snyderville paleosols in the same area are significantly different in patterns of lateral variability and overall soil characteristics. Weaker eustatic control and stronger tectonic activity may explain the greater west-east variability (and eventual eastward disappearance) of the basal Rakes Creek paleosol. Differences in soil characteristics between the Vertisol-like upper Lawrence and Snyderville paleosols and the non-Vertisol-like basal Rakes Creek paleosol appear to be due to climate change, particularly a shift from more seasonal to more uniform rainfall. This climate change hypothesis is compatible with overall Virgilian stratigraphic trends in the northern Midcontinent outcrop area

Contribution to geomorphological and hydrogeological study of karst in Mediterranean environment: the Aït Abdi plateau (central limestone High Atlas, Maroc),PhD thesis, 1995, Perritaz, L.

The Ait Abdi karstic plateau is located in the heart of the calcareous High Atlas (32°N/6°W). With an area of 160 km2, it is situated between 2,200 and 3,000 meters above sea level, i.e. 800 meters above the nearest valleys and canyons. It consists of a large series of massive Bajocian limestones which form a large brachysyncline, the axial plane of which dips gently to the NE. These limestones overlie a thick series of Toarcian-Aalenian detritic sediments forming the regional aquiclude and the top of the half captive Middle Liasic aquifer. The plateau is limited both in the N and S by strong changes in dip to the vertical of the sedimentary layers (ejective thrusted anticlines), and in the W and E by deep canyons created by major rivers. Therefore the plateau is a totally isolated calcareous compartment, from both a morphologic and a hydrogeologic point of view.
The climate of this region is Mediterranean with an altitude modification: maximum rainfall occurs in winter and in spring, snow cover is not durable but sometimes important, storms are common for dry season in summer. The precipitations comprise only 500 to 700 mm/year (subhumide zone) and the effective evapotranspiration is approximately 400 mm/year, including the losses due to sublimation. The snow coefficient is 60 %. This means that the recharge of the aquifer, occurring almost entirely during snow melting, is limited, but the large bare surfaces of the plateau with typical well developed karst forms (dolines, poljes, dry valleys, holes) improve the infiltration rate (40%). The specific discharge is only 8.1 L/s/km2.
The morphologic peculiarity of this nival karst consist of a succession of small parallel and asymmetric dry valleys forming some "waves". For that reason, the French geomorphologist Couvreur termed these climate controlled features "karst en vagues". The role of wind and snow in the genesis of these forms is predominant. The most of time structure controlled plateau's poljes are quasi inactive today. All kinds of high mountain karren landforms are present on the plateau and prove the great role of snow role in the microforms genesis.
An ancient speleological network with vertical shafts occluded lower down suggest of ancient more humid climatic conditions. U-Th dating indicates ages between 3,200 and 220,000 years, or outside the range of the method (more than 400,000 years). The lateral flow is conducted by an interstrata network, inactive and dry in the upper part, or active and phreatic at the base, near the regional aquiclude, attesting three karstification phases.
The water discharges as typically karstic hillfoot springs, most of the time oversaturated and forming tufas. Large doleritic vertical dykes cut the plateau and form major drainpipes. The physical-chemical and chemical signature of these spring waters is quite different of the signature of other springs of this area, which discharge whether from small local Toarcian-Aalenian aquifers or from the huge semi confined karstic Middle Liasic aquifer. The plateau springs hydrodynamic response is characteristic for an elevated karstic aquifer with rapid flow. The aquifer geometry does not allow important reserves, but the mean discharge from all perennial springs (about 1 m3/s) is a precious resource for the population of this far area of the Atlas Mountains.


Application of Thermography of Karst Hydrology, 1996, Campbell C. W. Abd El Latif M. , Foster Jo. W.
Nearly 3000 km of Belize display well-developed karst that occurs dominantly on Cretaceous limestones distributed on the periphery of the Maya Mountains. Other exposed carbonates in Belize, sharing the same tropical climate and heavy rainfall, are not karsted. The Mayas represent a horst structure raised by movement of the Caribbean-North American plate boundary. In excess of 150 km of large cave passage has been mapped, often exhibiting multi-level development likely related to this regional tectonic motion. Passages are dominantly trunk conduits solutionally bored through the lower-lying limestones by integrated allogenic streams from the Mayas. Other large, independent caves and collapse chambers are also known. Limited U-series dating of speleothem gives minimum ages of 176 KaBP for cave development. The karst surfaces are dominated by disaggregated remnants of previous fluvial networks, but also contain spectacular collapse dolines. The karst aquifers appear to be solutionally open systems of relatively high porosity (>1%). Boosting of carbon dioxide levels above surface soil CO2 occurs within aquifers, perhaps due to decay of washed-in vegetation. Mean solutional erosion is estimated at 0.10-0.13 m/Ka for these karsts.

Le Luirographe : tude de la crue du 22 avril 1995 (rseau de la Luire, Vercors), 1996, Morel, L.
The Luirographe can record automatically parameters such as the water height in a karstic network. Placed at the beginning of April 1995, at -200 m, it recorded for the first time the Luire swelling, which lasted two days. The cave of the Luire is situated in the massif of Vercors, with an hydrogeological basin of 230 km2. The Vercors is a forest of middle mountain within the French Pre-Alps of the North. The Luire swelling only exits when there are very big nival spate accentued by important rainfalls and by a southern wind. Such event arrives only every other year on average. The difference between the high and low level of karst flood can reach the impressive height of 475 m, the most important known in the world. It is the difference between altitude of saturated zone where there is the continuous spring of Arbois and the temporary emergence of the Luire, known up to -451 m and are 20 km apart.

Le karst en vagues des At Abdi (Haut-Atlas central, Maroc), 1996, Perritaz, L.
The At Abdi plateau (2200-3000 m, 160 km2) is located in the calcareous High Atlas (32? N). It consists of massive Bajocian limestones, which form a large brachysyncline and overlie the clastic Toarcian-Aalenian forming the regional aquiclude and the top of the half captive Middle Liassic aquifer. The rainfall comprises only 500 to 700 mm/yr and the effective evapotranspiration is about 400 mm/yr with a snow coefficient of 60 % and an infiltration rate of 40 %. This means that the recharge of the aquifer mainly occurs during snow melting. The morphology of this nival karst consists in a succession of little parallel and asymmetric dry valleys forming some "waves" ("karst en vagues"). The role of wind and snow in the genesis of these forms is predominant. An old cave system with vertical shafts occluded lower down is proof of ancient more humid climatic conditions. U-Th dating methods on speleothems indicate ages between 3,200 and 220,000 yrs, or more than 400,000 yrs. The horizontal transfer is made by an interstrata network, ancient and dry in the upper part, or recent and phreatic at the base, near the regional aquiclude, attesting three karstification phases.

High-resolution temporal record of Holocene ground-water chemistry; tracing links between climate and hydrology, 1996, Banner Jl, Musgrove M, Asmerom Y, Edwards Rl, Hoff Ja,
Strontium isotope analysis of precisely dated calcite growth layers in Holocene speleothems from Barbados, West Indies, reveals high-resolution temporal variations in ground-water composition and may provide a new approach to documenting the links between climate variability and fluctuations in the hydrologic cycle such as recharge rates and flow paths. The speleothems grew in a cave that developed in a fresh-water aquifer in uplifted Pleistocene reef limestones. Three periods of ground-water Sr isotope evolution are observed: 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values decreased from 6 to 4 ka, increased from 4 to 1 ka, and decreased again after 1 ka. The Sr isotope oscillations appear to record periodic variations in the relative Sr fluxes to ground water from exchangeable soil sites vs. carbonate mineral reactions, as reflected in 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values of modern Barbados ground waters. A hydrologic model that explains changes in ground-water flow routes in karst aquifers as a function of amount of rainfall recharge can account for the speleothem Sr isotope record. Independent Holocene climate records that indicate a major period of aridity at around 1.3-1.1 ka in the American tropics correspond with periodic variations in rainfall on Barbados that are predicted by this hydrologic model

Application and simplification of the SIMERO model for the Vozmediano Spring (Spain), 1996, Sanz E. ,
In order to explain the functioning of the Moncayo karst aquifer, the mathematical SIMERO model has been applied to the 21 years of information on the flow of the spring. The results yield the following mean values for the annual water balance: rainfall 714.2 mn; surface runoff 35.6 mm; actual evaporation 404.9 mn; recharge 273.7 mm. With the results of the recharge, the dependencies between it and the rainfall and temperature values have been calculated, obtaining a regression line. The SIMERO model has been simplified in such a way that the flow of the spring in a given month can be calculated by knowing only the precipitation and the temperature of that month and the flow of the previous month

Hydrogeologic controls on the groundwater interactions with an acidic lake in karst terrain, Lake Barco, Florida, 1996, Lee T. M. ,
Transient groundwater interactions and lake stage were simulated for Lake Barco, an acidic seepage lake in the mantled karst of north central Florida. Karst subsidence features affected groundwater flow patterns in the basin and groundwater fluxes to and from the lake. Subsidence features peripheral to the lake intercepted potential groundwater inflow and increased leakage from the shallow perimeter of the lake bed. Simulated groundwater fluxes were checked against net groundwater flow derived from a detailed lake hydrologic budget with short-term lake evaporation computed by the energy budget method. Discrepancies between modeled and budget-derived net groundwater flows indicated that the model underestimated groundwater inflow, possibly contributed to by transient water table mounding near the lake. Recharge from rainfall reduced lake leakage by 10 to 15 times more than it increased groundwater inflow. As a result of the karst setting, the contributing groundwater basin to the lake was 2.4 ha for simulated average rainfall conditions, compared to the topographically derived drainage basin area of 81 ha. Short groundwater inflow path lines and rapid travel times limit the contribution of acid-neutralizing solutes from the basin, making Lake Barco susceptible to increased acidification by acid rain

Les nomades lours du massif calcaire du Kuh-e-Garrin (Zagros central, Iran), 1997, Dumas, Dominique
Today many nomadic confederations live in the Zagros range. For a long time, these high mountains have offered these populations both shelter and a large territory which is not as arid as the piedmont plains due to orographic rainfall Whereas the Baxtyari and Qashqa are well described in the literature, little is known about the Lours nomads. In this paper, observations and investigations on nomadic families (Summers 1994, 1995, 1996) are presented together with the characteristics of their seasonal migrations. The socio-economic dimension of these populations is also studied to explain the reasons which account for the overgrazing clearly visible in all Zagros mountains. Today, these high mountain karsts are subject to a higher anthropogenic pressure than previously, which entails an irreversible disappearance of vegetation and soils.

Hydrogeological study and discharge features of the Niksar karst springs (Tokat-Turkey), 1997, Syed M. A. , Afsin M. , Celik M. ,
The exposed Paleozoic and Recent units in the study area have various hydrogeological characteristics such as pervious, semipervious, and impervious. Pervious limestones and associated impervious formations that were not influenced by tectonic movement are connected to produce karst springs. This paper presents the relationship between the discharge coefficient and other aquifer properties by using the hydrograph analyses of the karst springs. The magnitude of the discharge of the spring apparently controls the character of flow (such as laminar) and conduit in the aquifer. The correlation analysis shows a positive relation between Q(0)-Q(t), Q(0)-storage capacity, Q(t)-storage capacity, and alpha-discharge change, These results enhances the properties of the karst springs. Both monthly and annual rainfall contribute to spring discharge. All karst springwaters are suitable for household and food industry uses

Influence of climatic parameters in karstic denudation, 1997, Gombert P. ,
Karstic denudation is empirically estimated by specific dissolution or geochemical balance calculations, which need a precise knowledge of the aquifer, or by mathematical expressions which only depend upon rainfall. It is in fact known that water inflow charged with CO2 is the main karstic agent. We propose a mathematical model called << Maximal Potential Dissolution >> (DMP) and based on efficient infiltration calculation, CO2 soil productivity and knowledge of the calcocarbonic equilibrium

Role of karstification and rainfall in the behavior of a heterogeneous karst system, 1997, Lastennet R. , Mudry J. ,

Turbidity and microorganisms in a karst spring, 1997, Nebbache S. , Loquet M. , Vinceslasakpa M. , Feeny V. ,
This study was focused mainly on relations between turbidity and bacterial contamination of a karst spring. The data from the resurgence site show that for a turbidity <1,2 NTU, the spring is benefits of good sanitary conditions. The highest degree of bacterial contamination generally coincides with increased rainfall (automn and winter). This turbidity is also a factor of enhancing survival in particular-for fecal bacteria. correlations are established between turbidity and fecal bacteria, Those data show different origins of suspended particulate matters. The latter are transfered with superficial waters and rapid throughflow, or with water stored in 'systemes annexes karstifies' (storage units) then flushed out. Following the study of the first peak of turbidity, after recession, we find that turbidity is essentially due to the P3 class of particles (4.3 to 11 mu m) and that some microorganisms are carried by the following classes of articles: ammonifiers by class P1 (<1.7 mu m), mesophilic microflora by P2 (1.7 to 4.3 mu m), fecal streptbcocci by P3 (4.3 to 11 mu m), fecal coliforms and denitrifiers by P4 (11 to 27 mu m). A knowledge of turbidity and bacterial contamination relationships suppose to take into account the stational ecological events and the hydrodynamic of the karst but also the adhesion laws between bacteria and particles

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