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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That pozo is (spanish.) see sima.?

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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for carbonate platforms (Keyword) returned 38 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 38 of 38
Growth, Demise, and Dolomitization of Miocene Carbonate Platforms on the Marion Plateau, Offshore NE Australia, 2006, Ehrenberg Sn, Mcarthur Jm, Thirlwall Mf,
Strontium-isotope stratigraphy has been used to examine the timing of depositional events and dolomitization in two Miocene carbonate platforms cored by Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 194, just seaward of the Great Barrier Reef. The results provide firm constraints for correlating surfaces and depositional stages between the two platforms and thereby relating seismic sequences previously defined in the off-platform sediments to the lithostratigraphic units described from cores in the seismically transparent platform-top sites. Oyster-bearing beds at the base of both platform successions yield early Oligocene ages (29-31 Ma), thus dating initial transgression of the Marion Plateau's volcanic basement. There followed a period of slow accumulation of shallow-water grainstones rich in quartz and phosphate grains in late Oligocene time (29-23 Ma; seismic Megasequence A). The main growth of the carbonate platforms took place in early to late Miocene time (23-7 Ma), comprising five depositional sequences. The first four of these (seismic Megasequence B) are common to both platforms and terminated with a possible karst surface at 10.7 Ma. Different sedimentologic expression of this megasequence in the two platforms reflects contrasting progradational versus aggradational geometries in the locations studied. The final growth stage (seismic Megasequence C) occurred only in the southern platform and terminated at 6.9 Ma. Both platform-demise events (10.7 and 6.9 Ma) approximately coincide with falls in global sea level combined with longer-term trends of decreasing water temperature. Sr-isotope ages of dolostones increase with depositional age, and older dolostones in the southern platform have more coarsely crystalline and fabric-destructive textures than overlying younger dolostones. These relationships are consistent with dolomitization by normal seawater shortly after deposition and overprinting of multiple times of dolomite recrystallization and cementation in the deeper strata

Heterogeneity in Fill and Properties of Karst-Modified Syndepositional Faults and Fractures: Upper Permian Capitan Platform, New Mexico, U.S.A, 2006, Kosa Eduard, Hunt David W. ,
This study examines the heterogeneity in properties of syndepositional faults and fractures found in the Upper Permian Capitan carbonate platform, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico. Syndepositional faults and fractures grew incrementally, and were repeatedly exploited by early karst as the platform developed. Primary fault and fracture rocks were preferentially dissolved to form structure-controlled paleocaverns, which were subsequently filled with platform-derived sediments. These are divided here into three groups: (i) carbonate-dominated, (ii) siliciclastic-dominated, and (iii) mixed carbonate-siliciclastic lithologies. The affinity of the paleocavern-filling deposits to platform strata permits linking of the different fill types to different stages of sea-level cycle. Consequently, periods of dissolution and deposition within paleocaverns can be tied to the platform's sequence stratigraphy. Paleocavern-filling sediments have a distinct vertical stratigraphy, and are observed to vary with distance from the platform margin over a distance of 2.6 km. Their distribution is thus to some extent predictable. Vertical and lateral variability in paleocavern fill is chiefly related to siliciclastic-filled karstic chimneys that narrow downwards and tend to become more frequent and laterally extensive upwards. This is because upper structural levels of fault and fracture zones were more frequently opened by early karst, and also because siliciclastics are not prone to dissolution, whereas carbonates are. Across platform, karst-modified faults and fractures located close to the platform margin are dominated by carbonate lithologies. The proportion and vertical penetration of siliciclastics increases with distance from platform margin. These patterns appear to reflect variations in the frequency and duration of subaerial exposure events across the basinward-inclined Capitan platform. The results of this study have implications for understanding properties of early faults and fractures in carbonate strata. Faults and fractures presented here are heterogeneous, and the heterogeneity is related principally to distribution of sedimentary rocks within paleocaverns developed along them. As a consequence, their properties are not related to dimensions or throw, as is the case for faults and fractures within siliciclastic rocks. Data and interpretations presented here have implications for Capitan hydrocarbon reservoirs, and can be applied to characterization of faults and fractures in other carbonate platforms subjected to early deformation

Benchmark Papers in Karst Science, 2007,
A collection of benchmark papers in karst science: The Decade 1971 ? 1980 13. The Geochemistry of Some Carbonate Ground Waters in Central Pennsylvania, D. Langmuir 14. Genetic Interpretation of Regressive Evolutionary Processes: Studies on Hybrid Eyes of Two Astyanax Cave Populations (Characidae, Pisces), H. Wilkins 15. Cavernicoles in Lava Tubes on the Island of Hawaii, F.G. Howarth 16. Evolutionary Genetics of Cave-Dwelling Fishes of the Genus Astyanax, J.C. Avise and R.L. Selander 17. Deducing Flow Velocity in Cave Conduits from Scallops, R.L. Curl 18. The Origin of Maze Caves, A.N. Palmer 19. Foraging by Cave Beetles: Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity of Prey, T.C. Kane and T.L. Poulson 20. Considerations of the Karst Ecosystem, R. Rouch 21. Diffuse Flow and Conduit Flow in Limestone Terrain in the Mendip Hills, Somerset (Great Britain), T.C. Atkinson 22. The Development of Limestone Cave Systems in Dimensions of Length and Depth, D.C. Ford and R.O. Ewers The Decade 1981 ? 1990 23. Magnetostratigraphy of Sediments in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, V.A. Schmidt 24. Uranium-Series Ages of Speleothem from Northwest England: Correlations with Quaternary Climate, M. Gascoyne, D.C. Ford and H.P. Schwarcz 25. Analysis and Interpretation of Data from Tracer Tests in Karst Areas, W.K. Jones 26. Evolution of Adult Morphology and Life-History Characters in Cavernicolous Ptomaphagus Beetles, S.B. Peck 27. Ecology of the Mixohaline Hypogean Fauna along the Yugoslav Coasts, B. Sket 28. Fractal Dimensions and Geometries of Caves, R.L. Curl 29. Regional Scale Transport in a Karst Aquifer. 1. Component Separation of Spring Flow Hydrographs, S.J. Dreiss 30. Morphological Evolution of the Amphipod Gammarus minus in Caves: Quantitative Genetic Analysis, D.W. Fong 31. The Flank Margin Model for Dissolution Cave Development in Carbonate Platforms, J.E. Mylroie and J.L. Carew 32. Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis of Carlsbad Cavern and Its Relationship to Hydrocarbons, Delaware Basin, New Mexico and Texas, C.A. Hill The Decade 1991 ? 2000 33. Origin and Morphology of Limestone Caves, A.N. Palmer 34. How Many Species of Troglobites Are There? D.C. Culver and J.R. Holsinger 35. Annual Growth Banding in a Cave Stalagmite, A. Baker, P.L. Smart, R.L. Edwards and D.A. Richards 36. Natural Environment Change in Karst: The Quaternary Record, S.-E. Lauritzen 37. Pattern and Process in the Biogeography of Subterranean Amphipods, J.R. Holsinger 38. A Chemoautotrophically Based Cave Ecosystem, S.M. Sarbu, T.C. Kane and B.K. Kinkle 39. Rhodopsin Evolution in the Dark, K.A. Crandall and D.M. Hillis 40. Climate and Vegetation History of the Midcontinent from 75 to 25 ka: A Speleothem Record from Crevice Cave, Missouri, USA, J.A. Dorale, R.L. Edwards, E. Ito and L.A. González

Giant pockmarks in a carbonate platform (Maldives, Indian Ocean), 2011, Betzler C. , Lindhorst S. , Hubscher C. , Ludmann T. , Furstenau J. , Reijmer J.

Circular structures and depressions in carbonate platforms are known to represent karst chimneys or sinkholes which form as a response to rock solution. This formation mechanism is plausible for shallow-water carbonates which lie in the reach of meteoric diagenesis or fresh-water lenses. Circular structures which occur in deeper waters, however, need an alternative interpretation. Such an example of sea-floor depressions in more than 300. m deep waters occurs in the Inner Sea of the Maldives carbonate platform in the Indian Ocean. The structures were mapped with multibeam and Parasound, multi-channel seismics were used to link the depressions with structures at depth. The circular depressions have diameters of up to 3000. m and depths of up to 180. m. The craters are interpreted as pockmarks formed through the venting of gas and fluids. Gas and fluid lenses below the pockmarks are reflected by bright spots in the seismic sections as well as a reduction of the instantaneous frequency. These areas at depth are linked to chimneys connected to faults and drowned Oligocene carbonate banks. A model is presented that relates the different forms and sizes of the structures to distinct development stages of sea floor deformation to one process. Early stages of gas and fluid migration into the shallow part of the sedimentary succession induce formation of dome-shaped bodies. Initial gas and fluid escape to the sea floor is reflected by the formation of sand volcanoes and aligned small pockmarks. Active pockmarks are the deepest, and have the shape of truncated cones in cross section. Mature pockmarks are characterized by erosion of the flanks of the structure by bottom currents. Late stage pockmarks are bowl-shaped in cross section, and are to different degrees filled by drift sediments. Packages of strata revealing high reflection amplitudes and high interval velocities interpreted as microbially-mediated carbonate precipitates underlie some of the pockmarks. The pockmarks in the Maldives show that circular structures other than solution-related features can be abundant in carbonate platform deposits and that such structures may be more abundant in the geological record of carbonate platforms as previously thought. Pockmarks in the Maldives indicate that the archipelago is an example of a hydrocarbon system which consists of an isolated oceanic carbonate platform overlying a volcanic basement and lacustrine source rocks.


Hydrogeological approach to distinguishing hypogene speleogenesis settings, 2013, Klimchouk, A. B.

The hydrogeological approach to defining hypogene speleogenesis (HS) relates it to ascending groundwater flow (AF). HS develops where AF causes local disequilibria conditions favoring dissolution and supports them during sufficiently long time in course of the geodynamic and hydrogeological evolution. The disequilibrium conditions at depth are invoked by changing physical-chemical parameters along an AF paths, or/and by the interaction between circulation systems of different scales and hydrody-namic regimes. The association of HS with AF suggests a possibility to discern regulari-ties of development and distribution of HS from the perspectives of the regional hy-drogeological analysis. In mature artesian basins of the cratonic type, settings favorable for AF and HS, are as follows: 1) marginal areas of discharge of the groundwaters of the 2nd hydrogeological story (H-story), 2) zones of topography-controlled upward cir-culation within the internal basin area (at the 1st and, in places, at the 2nd H-stories; 3) crests of anticlinal folds or uplifted tectonic blocs within the internal basin area where the upper regional aquitard is thinned or partially breached; 4) linear-local zones of deep-rooted cross-formational faults conducting AF from internal deep sources across the upper H-stories. Hydrodynamics in the 3rd and 4th stories is dominated by ascending circulation strongly controlled by cross-formational tectonic structures. Specific circula-tion pattern develops in large Cenozoic carbonate platforms (the Florida-type), side-open to the ocean, where AF across stratified sequences in the coastal parts, driven by both topography-induced head gradients and density gradients, involves mixing with the seawater. The latter can be drawn into a platform at deep levels and rise in the plat-form interior (the Kohout’s scheme). In folded regions, AF and HS are tightly con-trolled by faults, especially those at junctions between large tectonic structures. In young intramontaine basins with dominating geostatic regime, HS is favored at margin-al discharge areas where circulation systems of different origins and regimes may inter-act, such as meteoric waters flows from adjacent uplifted massifs, basinal fluids expelled from the basin’s interiors, and endogenous fluids rising along deep-rooted faults. Spe-cific and very favorable settings for HS are found in regions of young volcanism with carbonate formations in a sedimentary cover


Quaternary glacial cycles: Karst processes and the global CO2 budget, 2013, Larson Erik B. , Mylroie John E.

Extensive research has been conducted investigating the relationship between karst processes, carbonate deposition and the global carbon cycle. However, little work has been done looking into the relationship between glaciations, subsequent sea level changes, and aerially exposed land masses in relation to karstic processes and the global carbon budget. During glaciations sea-level exposed the world’s carbonate platforms. with the sub-aerial exposure of the platforms, karst processes can occur, and the dissolution of carbonate material can commence, resulting in the drawdown of CO2 from the atmosphere as HCO3−. Furthermore, the material on the platform surfaces is primarily aragonite which is more readily soluble than calcite allowing karst processes to occur more quickly. During glaciations arctic carbonates and some of the temperate carbonates are blanketed in ice, effectively removing those areas from karst processes. Given the higher solubility of aragonite, and the extent of carbonate platforms exposed during glaciations, this dissolution balances the CO2 no longer taken up by karst processes at higher latitudes that were covered during the last glacial maximum The balance is within 0.001 GtC / yr, using soil pCO2 (0.005 GtC / yr assuming atmospheric pCO2) which is a difference of <1% of the total amount of atmospheric CO2 removed in a year by karst processes. Denudation was calculated using the maximum potential dissolution formulas of Gombert (2002). On a year to year basis the net amount of atmospheric carbon removed through karstic processes is equivalent between the last glacial maximum and the present day, however, the earth has spent more time in a glacial configuration during the quaternary, which suggests that there is a net drawdown of atmospheric carbon during glaciations from karst processes, which may serve as a feedback to prolong glacial episodes. This research has significance for understanding the global carbon budget during the quaternary.


RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COMPLEX KARST OF THE LLUCMAJOR PLATFORM, MALLORCA ISLAND (SPAIN): TOOL FOR HYDROCARBON RESERVOIR APPRAISAL, 2014, Lapointe, P. A.

The development of porosity in carbonate platforms takes many forms. Dissolution porosity as a result of karst processes is unique as it produces organized porosity and permeability over a variety of scales, and can do so in very short periods of time, geologically speaking. Karst developed in the Miocene formations of the Mallorca Island exhibits a complexity that seems to be very similar to the Kashagan or Aktote (Kazakhstan) or Kharyaga (CIS) karst reservoirs architecture characterized by different phases of island karst (mixing water) type with caves of different sizes and sponge karst, reworked and partly filled by paleosoils related to plateau karst developed during major sea level drops and finally hydro- (geo)-thermal processes. The Miocene rocks of the Llucmajor platform in the southwest of Mallorca island exhibit the three main types of karst developments that occurred through time, linked or not to glacio-eustatic changes: -1 Island karst (the flank-margin model); -2 Meteoric karst; -3 Hydrothermal karst/ These developments allow defining the so-called Complex Karst. Each of the terms is identified by specific overprints found in drilled wells (logs and cores) or on outcrops. The outcrops and subcrops of Mallorca Island represent an excellent analogue for understanding the complexity of the past carbonate platforms which are hydrocarbon targets for the industry


HYPOGENE PALEOKARST IN THE TRIASSIC OF THE DOLOMITES (NORTHERN ITALY), 2014, Riva, A.

In the Triassic of successions of the Italian Dolomites (Northern Italy), there are several examples of different types of hypogene paleokarst, sometimes associated with sulfur or hematite ore deposits.The paleokarst features are related to a regional volcanic event occurred during the Ladinian (Middle Triassic) that affected several carbonate platforms of Anisian-Ladinian age.This study is focusing mainly on the Latemar paleokarst, in the Western Dolomites, and on the Salafossa area in the Easternmost Dolomites.
The karst at Latemar developed as the result of a magmatic intrusion located just below the isolated carbonate platform, developing a system of phreatic conduits and some underground chambers, not justified by the entity of the submarine exposure occurring at the top of the carbonate platform. Most of these features are located about 500 m below the subaerial unconformity and are filled with middle Triassic lavas. Only in one case, the filling is represented by banded crusts now totally dolomitized, with abundant hematite. In this case, the only way to explain the presence of the karst at this depth is to invoke a deep CO2 source allowing the dissolution of the carbonate at such depths: the fact that some phreatic conduits and a possible underground chamber are filled only with lavas is pointing toward an important role of volcanism in karst development.
Salafossa is a well-known mine located in the easternmost Dolomites and has been exploited until 1986, when all the activity ceased. The main metals, in this case, are Zn-Pb-Ba-Fe, exploited within a quite complex paleokarst system developed in several levels, filled by a complex mineralized sequence. The strong dissolution led to the development of voids aligned with the main fault controlling the mineralization, with a proper karst system with phreatic morphologies.


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