Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That firstkarren is (austrian.) see rillenkarren.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?

Search KARSTBASE:

keyword
author

Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for fluid inclusions (Keyword) returned 43 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 43 of 43
Evidence for a hypogene paleohydrogeological event at the prospective nuclear waste disposal site Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA, revealed by the isotope composition of !uid-inclusion water, 2010, Dublyansky Yuri V. , Spö, Tl Christoph

Secondary calcite residing in open cavities in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain has long been interpreted as the result of downward infiltration of meteoric water through open fractures. In order to obtain information on the isotopic composition (delta 18O) of the mineral-forming water we studied fluid inclusions from this calcite. Water was extracted from inclusions by heated crushing and the delta D values were measured using a continuous-low isotope-ratio mass spectrometry method. The delta 18O values were calculated from the delta 18O values of the host calcite assuming isotopic equilibrium at the temperature of formation determined by fuid-inclusion microthermometry. The delta D values measured in all samples range between −110 and −90‰, similar to Holocene meteoric water. Coupled delta 18O– delta D values plot significantly, 2 to 8‰, to the right of the meteoric water line. Among the various processes operating at the topographic surface and/or in the unsaturated zone only two processes, evaporation and water–rock exchange, could alter the isotope composition of percolatingwater. Our analysis indicates, however, that none of these processes could produce the observed large positive delta 18O-shifts. The latter require isotopic interaction between mineral-forming fluid and host rock at elevated temperature (N100 °C), which is only possible in the deepseated
hydrothermal environment. The stable isotope data are difficult to reconcile with a meteoric origin of the water from which the secondary minerals at Yucca Mountain precipitated; instead they point to the deep-seated provenance of the mineral-forming waters and their introduction into the unsaturated zone from below, i.e. a hypogene origin.


Isotopic indications of water-rock interaction in the hypogene Tavrskaya cave, Crimea, Ukraine, 2011, Dublyansky Yuri, Klimchouk Alexander, Timokhina Elisaveta, Spö, Tl Christoph

The Inner Range of the Crimea Mountains has recently been identified as an area of previously unrecognized hypogene speleogenesis (Klimchouk et al. 2009). The entrance of the Tavrskaya cave is located in the middle of the 25 m-high scarp of the cuesta built up of Paleocene limestone. The cave comprises two parallel major passages (ca. 180 m long, up to 7-8 m high and up to 5-6 m wide) connected by a smaller passage. The major passages are slightly inclined toward the north-west following the dip of bedding. The morphology of the cave bears strong indications of dissolution at conditions of ascending flow in a confined aquifer setting.
A massive calcite crust, studied in this paper, was first found in a small cave located ca. 200 m from Tavrskaya cave along the cuesta scarp. According to its position and morphology, the cave corresponds to the rift-like “feeder” zone of Tavrskaya cave. Recently, similar calcite crust was found in Tavrskaya cave, in a rift-like passage of the  near-scarp zone. The crust is built up of a brownish translucent calcite whose columnar crystals (bounded by competitive growth surfaces) are arranged in a characteristic radiating pattern. Calcite contains only all-liquid inclusions indicating deposition at less than ca. 50ºC. It also contains filamentous biological material (possibly fungi or cyanobacteria), which sometimes facilitated entrapment of fluid inclusions. This calcite body is tentatively
interpreted as a paleo-spring deposit (ascending flow). In order to characterize the isotopic properties of this calcite and the bedrock limestone we drilled small-diameter cores through the calcite formation, as well as through the wall of a cavity devoid of calcite. Stable isotope analyses were performed along these cores. To provide a basis for comparison several samples from the same lithostratigraphic units were collected far from the cave. Along a 15 cm-long profile, both oxygen and carbon isotopes of the limestone remain stable at 18O = -4.3 0.2
h and 13C = -1.7 0.3 h (1). Only within the 1.5 cm-thick zone immediately underlying the calcite 18O and 13C values plunge to ca. -8 h and -9 h respectively,. It appears from this data that water rock-interaction associated with the deposition of this calcite produced only a thin alteration halo in the limestone. However, when data from the cave-wall cores are compared with those collected far from the cave, it appears that the “constant” values from cave walls are shifted relative to the presumably unaltered limestone values toward lower values by
ca. 1.5-3.0 h (oxygen) and 3-4 h (carbon). On the 18O-13C cross-plot the data for unaltered limestone, cave wall limestone, alteration halo, and secondary calcite plot along a well-defined line (R2=0.99).
We propose that the Paleocene limestone in the vicinity of the Tavrskaya cave has experienced a two-stage alteration. During the first stage, presumably associated with the process of cave excavation, the bedrock has been altered (18O depleted by 1.5 to 3.0 h and 13C by 3 to 4 %). The thickness of this zone of early alteration is unknown but must be larger than 15 cm (length of our cores). The second stage of alteration was associated with the deposition of calcite; during this stage the isotopic composition was further depleted (by 4-5 h in 18O and 8-10 h in 13C). The extent of alteration was much smaller, though, and restricted to zones where calcite was deposited (ca. 15 mm beneath the calcite).


Speleothems in the dry Cave Parts of the Gamslcher-Kolowrat Cave, Untersberg near Salzburg (Austria), 2011, Bieniok Anna, Zagler Georg, Brendel Uwe, Neubauer Franz

New, remarkably dry parts of the Gamslöcher-Kolowrat Cave at 728 to 853 m depth have been explored in the Untersberg near Salzburg in Austria. This region is called the Desert, its greatest cavity is called the White Hall. The new cave part is characterized by various white speleothems. The predominant ones are snow-like calcite powder with an extremely low density, and fine gypsum needles. Gypsum also occurs in the form of balls stuck to vertical walls. In addition, fluorescent hydromagnesite crusts, Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O, as well as the sodium sulfate mineral mirabilite were identified in this part of the cave. Mirabilite and gypsum needles differ from the gypsum balls in their isotopic sulfur signature (δ34S of -16.9‰ and -18.4‰ vs. +2.9‰). The unusually low sulfur isotopic compositional values are tentatively explained by a source of bacteriogenetic sulfur from sulfides.


Geochemical/isotopic evolution of Pb-Zn deposits in the Central and Eastern Taurides, Turkey, 2011, Hanilci N. , Ozturk H.

The Central and Eastern Taurides contain numerous carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposits, mainly in Devonian and Permian dolomitized reefal-stramatolitic limestones, and in massive Jurassic limestones. We present and compare new fluid inclusion and isotopic data from these ore deposits, and propose for the first time a Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) mode of origin for them. Fluid inclusion studies reveal that the ore fluids were highly saline (13-26% NaCl equiv.), chloride-rich (CaCl2) brines, and have average homogenization temperatures of 112°C, 174.5°C, and 211°C for the Celal Dag, Delikkaya, and Ayrakl deposits, respectively. Furthermore, the ?34S values of carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposits in the Central and Eastern Taurides vary between -5.4‰ and +13.70‰. This indicates a possible source of sulphur from both organic compounds and crustal materials. In contrast, stable sulphur isotope data (average ?34S -0.15‰) for the Cadrkaya deposit, which is related to a late Eocene-Oligocene (?) granodioritic intrusion, indicates a magmatic source. The lead isotope ratios of galena for all investigated deposits are heterogeneous. In particular, with the exception of the Sucat district, all deposits in the Eastern (Delikkaya, Ayrakl, Denizovas, Cadrkaya) and Central (Katranbasi, Kucuksu) Taurides have high radiogenic lead isotope values (206Pb/204Pb between 19.058 and 18.622; 207Pb/204Pb between 16.058 and 15.568; and 208Pb/204Pb between 39.869 and 38.748), typical of the upper continental crust and orogenic belts. Fluid inclusion, stable sulphur, and radiogenic lead isotope studies indicate that carbonate-hosted metal deposits in the Eastern (except for the Cadrkaya deposit) and the Central Taurides are similar to MVT Pb-Zn deposits described elsewhere. The primary MVT deposits are associated with the Late Cretaceous-Palaeocene closure of the Tethyan Ocean, and formed during the transition from an extensional to a compressional regime. Palaeogene nappes that typically limit the exposure of ore bodies indicate a pre-Palaeocene age of ore formation. Host rock lithology, ore mineralogy, fluid inclusion, and sulphur + lead isotope data indicate that the metals were most probably leached from a crustal source such as clastic rocks or a crystalline massif, and transported by chloride-rich hydrothermal solutions to the site of deposition. Localization of the ore deposits on autochthonous basement highs indicates long-term basinal fluid migration, characteristic of MVT depositional processes. The primary MVT ores were oxidized in the Miocene, resulting in deposition of Zn-carbonate and Pb-sulphate-carbonate during karstification. The ores underwent multiple cycles of oxidation and, in places, were re-deposited to form clastic deposits. Modified deposits resemble the 'wall-rock replacement' and the 'residual and karst fill' of non-sulphide zinc deposits and are predominantly composed of smithsonite


Karstification by Geothermal Waters, 2013, Dublyansky, Y. V.

Thermal waters moving through soluble rock may create voids ranging in sizes from enlarged porosity and cavernosity to extensive two- and three-dimensional cave systems. Hydrothermal caves develop in a number of settings including deep seated phreatic, shallow phreatic (near-water table), and subaerial (above the thermal water table). Speleogenesis in eachsetting involves specific mechanisms, resulting in diverse features of cave macro-, meso-, and micromorphology. Mechanisms most characteristic of the hydrothermal speleogenesis are the free convection (in both subaqueous and subaerial conditions) and the condensation corrosion. This chapter describes the morphology of hydrothermal caves


Epigene karst system below a regional bauxitic unconformity Origin of the enigmatic red calcite of the Transdanubian Range (TR), Hungary, 2013, Győ, Ri Orsolya, Mindszenty Andrea, Orbn Richrd, Fodor Lszl, Poros Zsfia, Benk Zsolt, Molnr Ferenc

Epigene karst system below a regional bauxitic unconformity Origin of the enigmatic red calcite of the Transdanubian Range (TR), Hungary, 2013, Győ, Ri Orsolya, Mindszenty Andrea, Orbn Richrd, Lszlsfia Fodor, Poros Zsfia, Benk Zsolt, Molnr Ferenc

THE LATE MIOCENE MINERALIZED HYPOGENE KARST AT BARE MOUNTAIN, SOUTHERN NEVADA, USA, 2013, Dublyansky Yuri, Sptl Christoph

Bare Mountain is an isolated complex of mountain peaks Southeast of the town of Beatty in southern Nevada. This small mountain range is located between the alluvial basins of Crater Flat to the East and the northern Amargosa Desert to the Southwest. The range is built of a folded and complexly faulted, generally northward-dipping sequence of weakly to moderately metamorphosed upper Proterozoic and Paleozoic marine rocks. Along the eastern and northern margins of Bare Mountain there are four clusters of Ag-Hg-fluorite deposits from which pipe-like breccia bodies have been reported in the literature. One of these deposits, the Diamond Queen Mine (aka Goldspar Mine; 36°50.4’ N, 116°38.3’ W) was prospected for gold and mined for fluorspar. The age of the mineralization is younger than 12.9±0.4 Ma (according to K/Ar dates of replacement adularia). During our visit in 2010 we observed solutional cavities in the open-pit works of the mine carved in the dolomite of the Cambrian Nopah Formation. The cavities have dimensions of a few meters to tens of meters. Their inner surfaces are smooth and barren. The morphology of the cavities strongly suggests dissolution under phreatic conditions. Cavities are filled with buff-colored clay material containing bands of black to dark-violet to yellow- green to colorless fluorite. Fluid inclusions in the Diamond Queen fluorite yielded homogenization temperatures of ca. 130°C. We measured the δD of the fluid inclusion water in this fluorite and compared them to δD values measured in scalenohedral calcite from the Sterling Mine (Au) located 1.5 km to the north. Isotopic values are remarkably similar: δD = -100±2 ‰ (n = 6). Despite the fact that the analyzed water was derived from hypogene, hydrothermal minerals these isotopic values bear a paleoclimatological significance. This is because according to the currently accepted model, the Au-Hg-fluorite deposits at Bare Mountain owe their existence to the circulation of meteoric water triggered by emplacement of the silicic magma chamber under the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera some 15 km to the north. The Late Miocene meteoric- hydrothermal water is isotopically similar to the modern-day precipitation (-106 to -92 ‰). Between ca. 1.5 and 2.5 Ma the δD values of meteoric water in the area were substantially less negative (-70 to -50 ‰) and then gradually decreased to modern values. Knowledge regarding hypogene karst associated with the epithermal ore deposits in Nevada is limited. In north-central Nevada, post-ore hypogene dissolution, brecciation and mineralization occurred at some of the Carlin Trend deposits at ca. 2 Ma. In contrast, hypogene karst was a preore process at Diamond Queen; it has played a role in creating the ore-bearing structure.


Determining gypsum growth temperatures using monophase fluid inclusions Application to the giant gypsum crystals of Naica, Mexico: COMMENT, 2013, Garofalo Paolo S. , Forti P. , Gnther D.

Determining gypsum growth temperatures using monophase fluid inclusions Application to the giant gypsum crystals of Naica, Mexico: COMMENT, 2013, Garofalo Paolo S. , Forti P. , Gnther D.

Determining gypsum growth temperatures using monophase fluid inclusions - Application to the giant gypsum crystals of Naica, Mexico: COMMENT, 2014, Garofalo P. S. , Forti P. , Günther D.

Evaluation of the US DOE’s conceptual model of hydrothermal activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 2014,

A unique conceptual model describing the conductive heating of rocks in the thick unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada by a silicic pluton emplaced several kilometers away is accepted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as an explanation of the elevated depositional temperatures measured in fluid inclusions in secondary fluorite and calcite. Acceptance of this model allowed the DOE to keep from considering hydrothermal activity in the performance assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste disposal facility. The evaluation presented in this paper shows that no computational modeling results have yet produced a satisfactory match with the empirical benchmark data, specifically with age and fluid inclusion data that indicate high temperatures (up to ca. 80 _C) in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain. Auxiliary sub-models complementing the DOE model, as well as observations at a natural analog site, have also been evaluated. Summarily, the model cannot be considered as validated. Due to the lack of validation, the reliance on this model must be discontinued and the appropriateness of decisions which rely on this model must be re-evaluated.A unique conceptual model describing the conductive heating of rocks in the thick unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada by a silicic pluton emplaced several kilometers away is accepted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as an explanation of the elevated depositional temperatures measured in fluid inclusions in secondary fluorite and calcite. Acceptance of this model allowed the DOE to keep from considering hydrothermal activity in the performance assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste disposal facility. The evaluation presented in this paper shows that no computational modeling results have yet produced a satisfactory match with the empirical benchmark data, specifically with age and fluid inclusion data that indicate high temperatures (up to ca. 80 _C) in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain. Auxiliary sub-models complementing the DOE model, as well as observations at a natural analog site, have also been evaluated. Summarily, the model cannot be considered as validated. Due to the lack of validation, the reliance on this model must be discontinued and the appropriateness of decisions which rely on this model must be re-evaluated.


Hydrothermal speleogenesis in carbonates and metasomatic silicites induced by subvolcanic intrusions: a case study from the Štiavnické vrchy Mountains, Slovakia, 2015,

Several caves of hydrothermal origin in crystalline limestones and metasomatic silicites were investigated in the central zone of the Štiavnica stratovolcano, Štiavnické vrchy Mountains, central Slovakia. Evidence of hydrothermal origin includes irregular spherical cave morphology sculptured by ascending thermal water, occurrence of large calcite crystals and hydrothermal alteration of host rocks, including hydrothermal clays. The early phases of speleogenesis in the crystalline limestone near Sklené Teplice Spa were caused by post-magmatic dissolution linked either to the emplacement of subvolcanic granodiorite intrusions during Late Badenian time or to the spatially associated Late Sarmatian epithermal system. Speleogenesis in metasomatic silicites in the Šobov area is related to hydrothermal processes associated with the pre-caldera stage of the Štiavnica stratovolcano in Late Badenian. Both localities are remarkable examples of hydrothermal speleogenesis associated with Miocene volcanic and magmatic activity in the Western Carpathians


Results 31 to 43 of 43
You probably didn't submit anything to search for