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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That phreatobite is an inhabitant of groundwater, often exhibiting troglomorphy, but not limited to karst systems. many examples of amphipods and other crustaceans abound [23].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for chemistry (Keyword) returned 492 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 492
The isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in precipitation, 1980,
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Gat J. R.

Amino acid geochronology: integrity of the carbonate matrix and potential of molluscan fossils, 1980,
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Miller G. H.

Isotope geochemistry of carbonates in the weathering zone, 1980,
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Salomons W. , Mook W. G.

Water Chemistry of the Atea Kananda and the Related Drainage Area, 1980,
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James, Julia M.

The Ca2+, Mg2+, alkalinity, pH and temperature have been measured in water from the Atea Kananda cave and related surface sites on the Muller Plateau (Papua New Guinea). A wide variation in the Ca2+ and Mg2+ values was found and this has been attributed to the lithology and nature (open or closed) of the water courses. From alkalinity measurements anions other than bicarbonate, probably sulphate are expected to be present in significant quantities in the cave waters. Most of the waters are aggressive. The Ca2+/Mg2+ x 10 ratio is shown to be a useful tool in predicting the origin of unknown waters in the cave. The variations of the measured and calculated parameters for groups of related surface and underground sites are presented and discussed. Tentative solution erosion rates for the Muller Plateau have been calculated and the conclusion reached that where the erosion can be placed as largely occuring on pure limestone these are high. Impure limestones and non-calcareous rocks in their catchments give anomalously low results for the main rivers. A scheme for cave development on the Muller Plateau by solution mechanisms is presented.


Small-scale spatial variations in the Chemistry of diffuse-flow seepages in Gua Anak Takun, West Malaysia, 1981,
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Crowther J.

Chemistry of a Tropical Tufa-Depositing Spring Near Mt. Etna, Queensland: A Preliminary Analysis, 1981,
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Dunkerley, D. L.

Water samples taken from a spring and six locations on the stream fed by it were analysed in order to determine the factors responsible for the deposition of tufa along the channel. The spring water, whilst carrying a large quantity of dissolved carbonates, proved to be almost at equilibrium with calcite. The considerable amount of dissolved carbon dioxide necessary for such a load to be carried underwent rapid degassing after emergence of the water. In consequence, about one quarter of the initial load of dissolved carbonate was deposited in the first 430m of subaerial flow. This deposition did not however keep pace with the degassing of CO2, and calcite supersaturation increased progressively downstream.


Karst-related phenomena at the Bertil Glacier, West Spitsbergen, 1982,
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Pulina, Marian

Ground Water Geochemistry of the Burnsville Cove Area, Virginia, 1982,
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Harmon Russell S. , Hess John W.

Hydrochemistry, hydrology and morphology of the Caves Branch karst, Belize. Mcmaster Univ. PhD thesis, 1982,
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Miller O. A.

Carte hydrogomorphologique, hydrogologie et hydrochimie du karst de Dorvan (Ain), 1983,
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Gibert J. , Laurent R. , Maire R.
PRESENTATION OF THE HYDROGEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAP AT 1/100,000 ON KARST OF DORVAN (SOUTHERN JURA, AIN, FRANCE. Main researches about hydrology and hydrochemistry on this karst - The Dorvan massif is a low mountain Jurassian karst with a wet temperate climate and a little nival influence. The surface relief is covered with important decalcification clay. The drainage of the karst is assumed by superimposed systems, according to the excavation of the Torcieu watergap. The flow of the main outlet (Pissoir) is a pluvial type, which presents an annual cycle with a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer. The specific discharge is 31.4 l/s/km2. The dissolution rate is high: 81 mm/ky. 50% of the corrosion interests the epikarst, 50% interests the endokarst. During the Pleistocene, the glaciations played a direct or indirect role on the evolution of the Dorvan karst: nivo-karst during the Wrm; fluvio-glacial up-building of the Torcieu watergap and correlated water logging of the lower karst during Wrm and Tardiglacial periods; probable direct action of glaciers during the Riss.

La recherche karstologique en Amrique du Nord, 1983,
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Palmer, A. N.
Karst research in North America - After several decades of isolation from the other goesciences, karst research in the USA is now merging with many other science fields. Advances have been particularly notable in the subjects of cave origin, mineralogy, geochemistry, geochronology and paleoclimatology. Recently there has been a tendency for karst principles to be applied to diverse fields such as carbonate petrology, environmental science, and hydrology

Hydrology and hydrochemistry of the Caves Branch karst, Belize, 1983,
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Miller T. ,
A large conduit spring issuing from Cretaceous limestones in Belize, Central America, displays a positive relation of discharge to solute concentration. Beneath a maturely-dissected cockpit karst, the hydrologic system combines allogenic surface water from an invasion polje with authigenic karst water. Dynamic mixing produces three climatically-induced discharge phases: baseflow, normal, and high-stage flow. Each has an associated hydrochemical regime, predominantly diffuse-flow karst water. An areal solute concentration of ~80 mg l-1 Ca2 is estimated, with a “denudation rate” of 100 mm per 1000 yr

Further Studies At The Blue Waterholes, Cooleman Plain, N.S.W., 1969-77, Part II, Water Chemistry And Discussion, 1983,
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Jennings, J. N.

The 1969-77 data confirm that groundwater temperature is significantly higher than air temperature at mean catchment altitude but provide only partial support for an explanation in terms of soil temperature and insulation of drainage from cold air ponding over the Plain. Higher pH of output than input streams is attributed mainly to percolation water chemistry. Water chemistry of two contrasted input streams suggests non-karst rock weathering has an important effect on allogenic input streams. An inverse relationship between carbonate hardness and output discharge is found again and attributed mainly to faster transit through the limestone at high flows. Summer has a steeper regression than winter due to precipitation and high flows depressing carbon dioxide and carbonate concentrations more in that season than in winter. Picknett graphs show how solutional capacity varies through the hydrologic system, with aggressive input streams, mainly saturated percolation water, and rarely saturated output springs because of the allogenic component in the last. The total carbonate load of Cave Creek is directly related to discharge, with little seasonal difference so the annual regression is chosen for later calculation. When the carbonate load duration curve and frequency classes for Cave Creek are compared with those for other karsts, it falls into an intermediate class in which neither very high nor low flows dominate the pattern. This is attributed to a combination of a large allogenic input with a complex routing pattern. Consideration of most input stream solute concentration on one occasion indicates such close dependence on catchment geology that doubt is cast on the smallness of the 1965-9 allocation of carbonate contribution from non-karst rock weathering to the allogenic input. This is explained by new CSIRO rainfall chemistry figures from the Yass R. catchment which are smaller than those used before and by elimination of a previous error in calculation. This time subtraction of atmospheric salts is done on a daily basis with a decaying hyperbolic function. Correction of Cave Creek output for allogenic stream input follows the method adopted in 1965-9 but on a firmer basis, with the assumption of approximately equal water yeild per unit area from the non-karst and karst parts of the catchment being more factually supported than before. It remains a substantial correction. The correction for subjacent karst input to Cave Creek is also improved by putting the calculation in part on a seasonal basis; it remains small. The exposed solute load output shows the same seasonal pattern as was determined earlier, with a winter/spring maximum, and it again evinced much variation from year to year. So did annual rates. The mean annual loss of 29 B was slightly greater than for 1965-9. If this difference is real and not an experimental error, the reduced allowance for atmospheric salts and greater annual rainfall in the second period could explain the increase. This erosion rate of 29 B from an annual runoff of about 400mm places this karst where it would be expected in the world pattern of similar determinations in terms of both runoff and its proximity to the soil covered/bare karst dichotomy of Atkinson and Smith (1976). Combined with the other work at Cooleman Plain on erosion at specific kinds of site, an estimate of the spatial distribution of the limestone solution is presented. It agrees well with the similar attempt for Mendip by Atkinson and Smith (1976), when allowance is made for certain differences in method and context. The main conclusions are the great role of solution in the superficial zone and the unimportance of the contribution from caves. Conflict between this process study and the geomorphic history of Cooleman Plain remains and once again an explanation is sought in long persistence of a Tertiary ironstone cover inhibiting surface solution.


Un exemple de karst haut-alpin : le Dsert de Plat (Haute-Savoie), 1984,
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Maire, R.
AN EXAMPLE OF HIGH ALPINE KARST: THE DSERT DE PLAT (HAUTE-SAVOIE) - Situated in the French Northern Alps between 1600m and 2800m elevation, the Dsert de Plat is characterised by a wet, cold and very snowy climate (P = 2400-2800 mm/year). We observe several morphoclimatic levels: the upper mountain karst (1500-1700m), the subalpine karst (1700-1950m), the alpine karst (1950 - 2600m) and the proglacial karst (well developed in the Haut-Giffre massif. Glacio-karstic landforms like cirque-dolines and pavements (Schichttreppenkarst) are inherited from the quaternary glaciations. The deep karst underlines the part of quaternary climatic sequence with complex drainage and fillings. Now, the karstic flow is a nival type (maximum during the spring and summer minimum) but the hydrochemical cycles are opposite (spring minimum). Nevertheless, because of a very abundant underground discharge during hot season (80%), the exported limestone reaches 75% of annual amount. The specific dissolution is strong (104 mm/ky), but it does not reach the optimum of forest mountain karst, like Vercors (120-170mm/ky).

Aperus sur l'hydrologie karstique des Alpes occidentales, 1984,
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Maire R. , Nicod J.
SURVEY ON KARSTIC HYDROLOGY OF WESTERN ALPS, KARSTIC SYSTEMS AND SPRINGS REGIMES - In this paper, we have tried to bring out a typology karstic hydrological systems, according to the degree of karst organisation and the feeding conditions. Afterward, the hydrological efficiency of these systems and the springs regime are specified, taking in account the available data. At last, it is interesting to compare hydrological and hydrochemical cycles in the different types of karsts.

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