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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That basin, settling is a basin used for the settling out of solids from suspension [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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What is Karstbase?



Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for depth (Keyword) returned 497 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 497
Subsidence and foundering of strata caused by the dissolution of Permian gypsum in the Ripon and Bedale areas, North Yorkshire, 1986,
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Cooper Ah,
Underground dissolution of thick gypsum beds in the Edlington Formation and Roxby Formation of the Zechstein sequence in North Yorkshire, England, has resulted in a 3 km-wide and 100 km-long belt of ground susceptible to foundering. Within this belt a large subsidence depression at Snape Mires, near Bedale, was largely filled with lacustrine deposits in the later part of the Late Devensian and during the Flandrian. South of Snape Mires the Nosterfield-Ripon-Bishop Monkton area has suffered about 40 episodes of subsidence in the past 150 years, and the presence of several hundred other subsidence hollows indicates considerable activity from the later part of the Devensian onwards. The linear and grid-like arrangement of these subsidence hollows indicates collapse at intersections in a joint-controlled cave system. Linear subsidence features at Snape Mires are also joint-controlled. The transition from anhydrite at depth to secondary gypsum near surface marks the down-dip limit of the subsidence-prone belt. Cavities are propagated upwards by roof collapse of caverns in the gypsum, leading to the formation of breccia pipes. Choking of the pipes can reduce the surface expression of the underground collapse, but the larger cavities are liable to produce pipes that reach the surface even at the eastern boundary of the 3 km-wide belt described. Further subsidence in the Ripon area is predicted and some suggestions for remedial measures are given

La mise en exploitation des aquifres karstiques : quelques exemples algriens, 1987,
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Collignon, B
EXPLOITATION OF KARSTIC AQUIFERS IN ALGERIA - Some difficulties are specific of the karstic aquifers (hardness of the rocks, depth of the water table, scattering of the clefts). The new drilling techniques (downhole hammer) solve some of these difficulties and many mediterranean countries prospect now such aquifers. They contain very fresh waters, even in arid areas. The deep tube wells are now cheap and easy to elaborate. Depending of geological structure, the hydrogeological behaviour will be different (with more or less permanent water stocks). Some Algerian examples show how the development plan must be adjusted to this structure.

Relationships between the internal and external evolution of the Monte Cucco Karst Complex. Umbria, Central Italy., 1987,
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Guzzetti Fausto
The relationships between the internal and external evolution of the Mt. Cucco karst complex are studied. A classic set of equations, involving the oxidation of hydrogen sulphide, originated at depth in an evaporitic formation, is used to explain the presence of massive gypsum deposits in the Mt. Cucco and the Faggeto Tondo caves. The distribution and the morphology of more than 30 caves in the system, the presence of gypsum, always located along faults, and the presence of broken stalactites and columns, suggest that the evolution of the karst system has been controlled by tectonic movements. Relationships between the development of the caves and the geomorphic evolution of the area are proposed.

Regional dolomitization of subtidal shelf carbonates: Burlington and Keokuk Formations (Mississippian), Iowa and Illinois, 1987,
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Harris David C. , Meyers William J. ,
Cathodoluminescent petrography of crinoidal limestones and dolomites from the Mississippian (Osagean) Burlington and Keokuk Formations in Iowa and Illinois has revealed a complex diagenetic history of calcite cementation, dolomitization, chertification and compaction. Dolomite occurs abundantly in subtidal, open-marine facies throughout the study area. Three luminescently and chemically distinct generations of dolomite can be recognized regionally. Dolomite I, the oldest generation, is luminescent, thinly zoned, and occurs mainly as a replacement of lime mud. Dolomite II has dull red unzoned luminescence, and occurs mainly as a replacement of dolomite I rhombs. Dolomite III is non-luminescent, and occurs as a syntaxial cement on, and replacement of, older dolomite I and II rhombs. Petrography of these dolomite generations, integrating calcite cement stratigraphy, chertification and compaction histories has established the diagenetic sequence. Dolomites I and II pre-date all calcite cements, most chert, intergranular compaction and styloites. Dolomite III precipitation occurred within the calcite cement sequence, after all chert, and after at least some stylolitization. The stratigraphic limit of these dolomites to rocks older than the St Louis Limestone (Meramecian) suggests that dolomitization took place before or during a regional mid-Meramecian subaerial unconformity. A single dolomitization model cannot reasonably explain all three generations of dolomite in the Burlington and Keokuk limestones. Petrographic and geochemical characteristics coupled with timing constraints suggest that dolomite I formed in a sea water-fresh water mixing zone associated with a meteoric groundwater system established beneath the pre-St Louis unconformity. Dolomite II and III may have formed from externally sourced warm brines that replaced precursor dolomite at shallow burial depths. These models therefore suggest that the required Mg for dolomite I was derived mainly from sea water, whereas that for dolomites II and III was derived mainly from precursor Burlington--Keokuk dolomites through replacement or pressure solution

Thermal aspects of the East Midlands aquifer system, 1987,
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Wilson N. P. , Luheshi M. N. ,
A case study of a heat flow anomaly in the E Midlands of England is reported. The anomaly has been suggested to be an effect of water movement at depth within the E Midlands basin, with recharge to the Lower Carboniferous limestones in their outcrop, eastward movement and ascent of water up a steep faulted anticline at Eakring where the heat flow measurements were made. Numerical modelling of heat and fluid flow has been undertaken for a section running from the Peak District through Eakring to the coast. The results indicate that, although an anomaly is expected for reasonable values of hydrological parameters, its magnitude is less than that observed. The geological structure at Eakring is such that three-dimensional flow is likely to be important, and this could easily account for the discrepancy between the modelling results and the observations. The regional water flow regime has other effects on heat flow, notably the depression of heat flow above the Sherwood Sandstone aquifer

The use of geophysical surveying methods in the detection of natural cavities and mineshafts, 1987,
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Mccann D. M. , Jackson P. D. , Culshaw M. G. ,
The use of geophysical methods for the location of cavities and mineshafts is reviewed in relation to engineering problems at the site investigation stage. Their success is limited by the resolution and penetration achieved by the particular method applied in a given situation. It is shown that no one single geophysical method will provide the answer to all the problems associated with cavity location but considerable improvement can be achieved by the application of several methods to a given problem. It is suggested that for most standard geophysical methods it is possible to detect a cavity whose depth of burial is less than twice its effective diameter. The concept of effective diameter is shown to be of considerable importance since the presence of the cavity or mineshaft does affect the physical properties of the surrounding rock mass and, hence, gives rise to a far larger anomalous zone than that produced by the cavity on its own

Les grands phnomnes karstiques franais par les chiffres, 1988,
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Chabert, C.
The Great CAVES OF FRANCE - Supported by six lists of great caves (depths, developments and volumes), this article attempts to tell some paradox of speleology. It establishes a link between space and time, saying that the underground space is only known by way of temporal investigations. One day, the karstic reality will be expressed by number. Today, the conceptual knowledge of a "great cave is possible if we multiply the lists of big caves, while waiting the moment where an accurate computation of cave volumes could be operated.

Le karst de Bourgogne, 1988,
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Delance, J. H.
THE KARST OF BURGONDY (France) - Karst of Burgundy is located between karst of Paris Basin, to which it is connected by its western and northern margins and karst of Jura. The burgundian karst forms an original entity in close relationship with the geological structure of the area, which had defined its distribution and density and the system's amplitudes. Karst of Burgundy develops in calcareous marine formations of Jurassic and Upper Cretaceous (chalk). The karstic landscapes are remarkable by their abundant dry valleys. Caves are characterised by their shallow depths (less than 100m) and the important spreading of the active systems. They can be graded into three types: mesokarstic, holokarstic and cutaneous caves. Deepest and greatest caves (up to 22km) are of holokarstic type. In Burgundy, the majority of caving range from Miocene to Pleistocene; cutaneous caves were only developed during cold phases of Quaternary. Fillings of caves are important, the most interesting fillings are Quaternary bone breccias, rich in paleontological and prehistoric data.

Limestone weathering: its engineering significance and a proposed classification scheme, 1988,
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Fookes Pg, Hawkins Ab,
As a foundation material, limestone differs from other rocks in that voids may be found at almost any depth within the rock mass. They may result directly from solution weathering near the surface and along discontinuities, or as specific cave systems at depths related to present or past ground water levels. The paper reviews the processes involved in the weathering by solution of the crystalline limestones, typically of Palaeozoic age. It offers a tentative, simple engineering classification of the solution features characteristic of limestones; and presents case histories to illustrate some of the problems which may be encountered during construction in areas of limestone bedrock

Caesium-137 and Caesium-134 levels in soil in a tea plantation in Turkey after the chernobyl accident, 1989,
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Yesin T. , Cakir N. ,
Gamma-ray scintillation spectrometry has been used to measure the 137Cs and 134Cs levels and depth distributions in soil of a tea plantation in the Eastern Black Sea region in Turkey. Soil samples were collected in November 1987. The depth distribution was found to be exponential with [alpha] = 0.16 cm-1 and the exposure rate arising therefrom is calculated as 17.46 [mu]R/h over the ground surface

Notectonique dans le karst du N-O du lac de Thoune (Suisse), 1990,
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Jeannin, P. Y.
Neotectonic in the karst north of Lake Thoune (Switzerland) - The karstic area north of Lake Thoune is part of the "Border Chain" of the Swiss Alps (Cretaceous, Helvetic). It comprises large caves coming from two catchments. The first one pours out at the Beatushhle; more than 15 km of galleries are known in this area. The second one contains the Sieben Hengste - Hohgant - Hohlaub - Schrattenfluh region, it pours out at the Btterich and Gelberbrunnen springs, by Lake Thoune. It includes the very large "Sieben Hengste - Hohgant cave System" (length: 115 km; depth: 1050 m); the Brenschacht (length: >10 km; depth: 950 m), as well as several other important caves more than 1 km length. Recent shifts along faults were mainly measured in the Sieben Hengste Cave System. Neotectonic indication were of the following types: gallery sections displaced by the fault shifts, displaced pillar structures or shifted, inclined or broken speleothems. The fault movements were placed on a time scale according to the genetic evolution of the region. It indicates that there were three phases of movement, which greatly affected the underground flows and karstification. The geometric and dynamic analysis of the measured shifts and slikken-slides also indicates three phases of movements. The strain direction, causing these movements, was determined. Thus, three plio-quaternary tectonic phases were found: an alpine compressive SSE-NNW phase, followed by an extensive SSE-NNW phase and then again by a compressive one.

Le karst de Vaucluse (Haute Provence), 1991,
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Mudry J. , Puig J. M.
The catchment area of the Fontaine de Vaucluse system is more than 1100km2 wide, with an average altitude of 870m. The thickness of the Lower Cretaceous limestone (1500m) gives the system a very thick (800m) unsaturated zone. Karstification is highly developed (four shafts are more than 500m deep) as well as on the valley (pit of 300m depth inside the spring). The bottom of the shafts of the Plateau does not reach the saturated zone of the karst, as their flows are the chemical content of the seepage water. The maximum hydraulic gradient from the Plateau to the spring is low, only 0.3%. Dye tracings permit the assignment of the Ventoux-Lure rang (including its calcareous northern slope with a southward dipping) and the Vaucluse Plateau in the catchment area. The water balance computed by altitude belts shows that the rainfall strongly increases with altitude: 120mm at 200m, 1380mm over 1800m. The dynamic of the system, studied by discharge and physical and chemical content, shows of a well karstified media, that reacts with slight inertia upon the rainy periods, and that is made up of important reserves, particularly within the unsaturated zone, that supply long decline and depletion episodes.

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Roux P. H. , Hall R. L. , Ross R. H. ,
A ground water monitoring study was conducted for the triazine herbicide simazine at 11 sites in the United States. The study used carefully selected, small-scale sites (average size: about 33 acres) with documented product use and sensitive hydrogeological settings. The sites selected were Tulare County, California (two sites); Fresno County, California; Sussex County, Delaware; Hardee and Palm Beach counties, Florida; Winnebago County, Illinois; Jackson County, Indiana; Van Buren and Berrien counties, Michigan; and Jefferson County, West Virginia. These sites satisfied the following criteria: a history of simazine use, including the year prior to the start of the study; permeable soil and vadose zone; shallow depth to water; no restrictive soil layers above the water table; and gentle slopes not exceeding 2 percent. A variety of crop types, climates, and irrigation practices were included. Monitoring well clusters (shallow and deep) were installed at each site except in California and West Virginia, where only shallow wells were installed. Simazine was monitored at these sites at quarterly intervals for a two-year period during 1986-1988. The results of the study showed that out of 153 samples analyzed, 45 samples showed simazine detections. A substantial majority of the detections (32 out of 45) occurred in Tulare, Fresno, and Jefferson counties. The detections in these areas were attributed to mechanisms other than leaching, such as drainage wells, karst areas, surface water recharge, or point source problems. An additional 11 detections in Van Buren County were apparently due to an unknown upgradient source. Only one detection (in Palm Beach County, Florida) near the screening level of 0.1 ppb was attributed to possible leaching. The results of this investigation support the hypothesis that simazine does not leach significantly under field use conditions

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Thrailkill J. , Sullivan S. B. , Gouzie D. R. ,
In the carbonate aquifers which underlie most karst terrains, groundwater flow is through a dendritic system of solution conduits. In such aquifers, termed shallow conduit-flow aquifers. the methods used to mode) granular and fracture aquifers are not generally applicable. Investigations were conducted in the Inner Bluegrass Karst Region of central Kentucky with the objective of developing methods of modeling shallow conduit-flow aquifers as well as obtaining quantitative information on a specific portion of the aquifer to assist in its management for water supply purposes. In the Inner Bluegrass Karst Region, groundwater basins are developed. in each of which there is an integrated system of solution conduits which conducts recharge to a major spring. One of the largest of these groundwater basins feeds Royal Spring, which serves as the principal water supply for the town of Georgetown. The basin extends over 15 km to the southeast and most of its flow is furnished by underground diversions of Cane Run, a surface stream with headwaters near the center of the City of Lexington. The principal objectives of the field investigation were to determine discharges at the spring and travel times to the spring from discrete recharge points within the basin, termed swallets. The spring is ungaged. and an attempt was made to obtain a continuous discharge record by the dilution of dye introduced at a swallet. Comparison of the dye-dilution discharge record with stage discharges at the spring revealed substantial discrepancies which are believed to be caused by as much as five-sixths of the low-flow discharge from the upper portion of the basin bypassing the spring. The dye-dilution method, therefore, provided significant insights into the geometry of the conduit system of the groundwater basin although it proved unsatisfactory as a method of determining discharges at the spring. Analysis of the travel times and stage discharges provided information on the conduit geometry by modeling the flow as open-channel flow in a rectangular channel. Flow in the system is rapid, ranging from 140 to 590 m h-1. Although the flow rate increases with discharge, the relationship is not simple owing to substantial increases in conduit cross-sectional area at higher discharges. Flow is turbulent and subcritical under all conditions. The most surprising result was the very low depth of flow calculated; less than 17 cm at even the highest discharge. Although this must be considered an 'equivalent' depth, it is believed to indicate that active flow in shallow conduit-flow aquifers is generally in a thin zone just beneath the water table

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Amthor Je, Friedman Gm,
Pervasive early- to late-stage dolomitization of Lower Ordovician Ellenburger Group carbonates in the deep Permian Basin of west Texas and southeastern New Mexico is recorded in core samples having present-day burial depths of 1.5-7.0 km. Seven dolomite-rock textures are recognized and classified according to crystal-size distribution and crystal-boundary shape. Unimodal and polymodal planar-s (subhedral) mosaic dolomite is the most widespread type, and it replaced allochems and matrix or occurs as void-filling cement. Planar-e (euhedral) dolomite crystals line pore spaces and/or fractures, or form mosaics of medium to coarse euhedral crystals. This kind of occurrence relates to significant intercrystalline porosity. Non-planar-a (anhedral) dolomite replaced a precursor limestone/dolostone only in zones that are characterized by original high porosity and permeability. Non-planar dolomite cement (saddle dolomite) is the latest generation and is responsible for occlusion of fractures and pore space. Dolomitization is closely associated with the development of secondary porosity; dolomitization pre-and post-dates dissolution and corrosion and no secondary porosity generation is present in the associated limestones. The most common porosity types are non-fabric selective moldic and vuggy porosity and intercrystalline porosity. Up to 12% effective porosity is recorded in the deep (6477 m) Delaware basin. These porous zones are characterized by late-diagenetic coarse-crystalline dolomite, whereas the non-porous intervals are composed of dense mosaics of early-diagenetic dolomites. The distribution of dolomite rock textures indicates that porous zones were preserved as limestone until late in the diagenetic history, and were then subjected to late-stage dolomitization in a deep burial environment, resulting in coarse-crystalline porous dolomites. In addition to karst horizons at the top of the Ellenburger Group, exploration for Ellenburger Group reservoirs should consider the presence of such porous zones within other Ellenburger Group dolomites

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